Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "The English dialect dictionary, being the complete vocabulary of all dialect words still in use, or known to have been in use during the last two hundred years; founded on the publications of the English Dialect Society and on a large amount of material never before printed."

See other formats



(Ehe ^library 

of tip 

ttj of Toronto 











t t 








[All rights reserved] 



of Langdale House, Park Town, Oxford. 



IT. I. 1 Antrim and Down. A Glossary of Words in use 

in the Counties of Antrim and Down. By W. 

HUGH PATTERSON. E. D. S., 1880. 
Bnff. 1 = Banffshire. The Dialect of Banffshire. By Rev. 

W. GREGOR, 1866. 
Brhs. 1 = Berkshire. A Glossary of Berkshire Words and 

Phrases. By Major B. LOWSLEY. E. D. S., 1888. 
Cai. 1 = Caithness. MS. Collection of Caithness Words. 


Cmb. 1 = Cambridgeshire. MS. Collection of Cambridge- 
shire Words. By J. W. DARWOOD. 
Chs. 1 = Cheshire. Glossary of Words used in the County 

of Chester. By R. HOLLAND. E. D. S., 1884-6. 
Chs. 2 = Cheshire. An Attempt at a Glossary of some Words 

used in Cheshire. By ROGER WILBRAHAM, 1826. 
Chs. 3 = Cheshire. A Glossary of Words used in the Dialect 

of Cheshire. By E. LEIGH, 1877. 
.Chs. 1 = Cheshire. The Folk-Speech of South Cheshire. 

By TH. DARLINGTON. E. D. S., 1887. 
Cor. 1 = Cornwall. Glossary of Words in use in Cornwall. 

By Miss M. A. COURTNEY and T. Q. COUCH. 

E. D.S., 1880. 
Cor. 2 = Cornwall. The Ancient Language and the Dialect 

of Cornwall. By F. W. P. JAGO, 1882. 
Cor. 8 = Cornwall. MS. Collection of Cornish Words. By 

Cum. 1 = Cumberland. A Glossary of Words and Phrases 

pertaining to the Dialect of Cumberland. By 

W. DICKINSON. E. D. S., 1878-81. 
Cum. 2 = Cumberland. The Dialect of Cumberland. By 

R. FERGUSON, 1873. 
Cum. 3 Cumberland. The Folk-Speech of Cumberland 

and some Districts adjacent. By A. C. GIBSON, 1869. 
Cum. 4 = Cumberland. A Glossary of the Words and 

Phrases pertaining to the Dialect of Cumberland. 

By W. DICKINSON. Re-arranged, illustrated, and 

augmented by quotations, by E. W. PREVOST, 1899. 
Der. 1 = Derbyshire. Pegge's Derbicisms, edited by TH. 

HALLAM and W. W. SKEAT. E. D. S., 1894. 
Der. 2 = Derbyshire. An Attempt at a Derbyshire Glossary. 

By JOHN SLEIGH, 1865. 

nw.Der. 1 - Derbyshire. MS. Collection of North-West Derby- 
shire Words. By T. HALLAM. 
Dev. 1 = Devonshire. Glossary to 'A Dialogue in the 

Devonshire Dialect,' by a Lady. By J. F. 

PALMER, 1837. 
Dev. 2 = Devonshire. MS. Collection of North Devonshire 

Words. By W. H. DANIELS. 
Dev. 8 = Devonshire. MS. Collection of Devonshire Words. 

Dev.* = Devonshire. A Glossary of Devonshire Plant 

Names. By Rev. HILDERIC FRIEND. E.D.S.,i88a. 
uw.Dev. 1 = Devonshire. The Dialect of Hartland, Devon- 
shire. By R. PEARSE CHOPE. E. D. S., 1891. 

Dorsetshire. Poems of Rural Life, in th-Dorset 

Dialect; with a Dissertation and Glossary, 1848. 

Durham A Glossary of Provincial Words used 

in Teesdale in the County of Durham. 1849. 
Durham. A List of Words and Phrases in every- 
day use by the natives of Hetton-le-Hole. By 

Rev. F. M. T. PALGRAVE. E. D. S., 1896. 
Durham. Walks in Weardale. By W. H. SMITH 

(ed. 1885). 
East Anglia. The Vocabulary of East Anglia. = 

By R. FORBY, 1830. Second Edition, consider- 
ably enlarged, by W. RYE. E. D. S., 1895. 
East Anglia. The Vocabulary of East Anglia. By = 

Rev. W. T. SPURDENS. E. D. S., 1879. 
Essex. A Glossary of the Essex Dialect. By = 

R. S. CHARNOCK, 1880. 
Gloucestershire. A Glossary of Dialect and = 

Archaic Words used in the County of Gloucester. 

Gloucestershire. A Glossary of the Cotswold = 

(Gloucestershire) Dialect. By Rev. R. W. HUNT- 
LEY, 1868. 
Hampshire. A Glossary of Hampshire Words 

and Phrases. By Rev. Sir W. H. COPE, Bart. 

E. D. S., 1883. 
Hampshire. Isle of Wight Words. By Major = 

H. SMITH and C. ROACH SMITH. E. D. S., 1881. 
Hampshire. A Dictionary of the Isle of Wight 

Dialect, and of Provincialisms used in the Island. 

By W. H. LONG, 1886. 
Herefordshire. A Glossary of Provincial Words =* 

used in Herefordshire and some of the adjoining 

Counties. [By Sir G. C. LEWIS], 1839. 
Herefordshire. Herefordshire Glossary. By = 

Kent. A Dictionary of the Kentish Dialect and 

Provincialisms in use in the County of Kent. 

By W. D. PARISH and W. F. SHAW. E. D. S., 1887. 
Kent. An Alphabet of Kenticisihs. By SAMUEL = 

PEGGE. E. D. S., 1876. 
Lakeland. Lakeland and Iceland. ByT. ELLWOOD. = 

E.D. S., 1895. 

Lakeland. Lakeland Words. By B. KIRKBY, 1898. - 
Lancashire. A Glossary of the Lancashire Dialect. = 

By J. H. NODAL and G. MILNER. E. D. S., 1875-83. 
Lancashire. A Glossary of the Words and Phrases 

of Furness (North Lancashire). By J. P. MORRIS, 

Lancashire. A Glossary of the Dialect of the 

Hundred of Lonsdale. By R. B. PEACOCK. London 

Phil. Soc. Trans., 1869. 
Lancashire. A Glossary of Rochdale- with-Rossen- 

dale Words and Phrases. By H. CUNLIFFE, 1886. 

Dor. 1 

Dur. 1 
e.Dnr. 1 

w.Dnr. 1 
e.An. 1 

.An. 2 
Ess. 1 


Qlo. 2 

Hmp. 1 

I.W. 1 
I.W. 2 


Ken. 1 

Ken. 2 


Lakel. 2 

Lan. 1 

n.Lan. 1 

e.Lan, 1 



m.Lan. 1 = Lancashire. A Blegburn Dickshonary. By J. 
BARON, 1891. 

.Lan. 1 = Lancashire. The Folk-Speech of South Lan- 
cashire. By F. E. TAYLOR, 1901. 

Lei. 1 = Leicestershire. Leicestershire Words. Phrases, 
and Proverbs. By A. BENONI EVANS. E. D.S., 

Lin. 1 Lincolnshire. Provincial Words and Expressions 
current in Lincolnshire. By J. E. BROGDEN, 1866. 

n.Lin. 1 = Lincolnshire. A Glossary of Words used in the 
Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, Lincoln- 
shire. By EDWARD PEACOCK. E. D. S., First 
Edition, 1877 ; Second Edition, 1889. 

w.Lin. 1 Lincolnshire. Glossary of the Words in use in 
South- West Lincolnshire. By Rev. R. E. G. COLE. 
E. D. S., 1886. 

Hrf. 1 = Norfolk. Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. By 
J. G. NALL, 1866. 

jfhp. 1 = Northamptonshire. Glossary of Northamptonshire 
Words and Phrases. By A. E. BAKEK, 1854. 

Hhp. 2 = Northamptonshire. The Dialect and Folk- Lore of 
Northamptonshire. By THOMAS STERNBERG, 1851. 

H.Cy. 1 = North Country. A Glossary of North Country 
Words. By J. T. BROCKETT, 1846. 

N.Cy. 2 = North Country. A Collection of English Words, 
1691. By JOHN RAY. E.D. S., 1874. 

Hhb. 1 Northumberland. Northumberland Words. A 
Glossary of Words used in the County of North- 
umberland. By R. O. HESLOP. E. D. S., 1892-4. 

Hot. 1 Nottinghamshire. MS. Collection of Nottingham- 
shire Words. By THOMAS A. HILL. 

Hot. 2 = Nottinghamshire. MS. Collection of Nottingham- 
shire Words. By HORACE WALKER. 

Hot. 3 = Nottinghamshire. MS. Collection of Nottingham- 
shire Words. By R. L. ABBOTT. 

Oxf. 1 Oxfordshire. Oxfordshire Words. ByMrs. PARKER. 
E. D. S., 1876, 1881. 

But. 1 = Rutlandshire. Rutland Words. By Rev. CHRISTO- 

S.kOrk. 1 ** Shetland and Orkneys. An Etymological Glos- 
sary of the Shetland and Orkney Dialect. By 

Shr. 1 Shropshire. Shropshire Word-Book, a Glossary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words, &c., used in the 
County. By G. F. JACKSON, 1879. 

Shr. 2 - Shropshire. Salopia Antiqua. By C. H. HARTS- 
HORNE. London, 1841. 

w.Som. 1 = Somersetshire. The West Somerset Word-Book. 
A Glossary of Dialectal and Archaic Words and 
Phrases used in the West of Somerset and East 
of Devon. By F. T. ELWORTHY. E. D. S., 1886. 

Btf. 1 - Staffordshire. An Attempt towards a Glossary of 

the Archaic and Provincial Words of the County 
of Stafford. By CHARLES H. POOLE, 1880. 

Btf. 2 Staffordshire. MS. Collection of Staffordshire 
Words. By T. C. WARRINGTON and A. POPE. 

Buf. 1 = Suffolk. Suffolk Words and Phrases. By E. MOOR, 

Bur. 1 * Surrey. Surrey Provincialisms. By GRANVILLE 
LEVESON-GOWER. E. D. S., 1876, 1893. 

Bus. 1 >= Sussex. A Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect. By 

W. D. PARISH, 1875. 

8n. 2 = Sussex. A Glossary of the Provincialisms in use in 
the County of Sussex. By W. D. COOPER, 

Warwickshire. Warwickshire Glossary. By T. = War. 1 

SHARP. Ed. J. O. HALLIWELL, 1865. 
Warwickshire. A Warwickshire Word-Book. By War. 2 

G. F. NORTHALL. E. D. S., 1896. 
Warwickshire. MS. Collection of Warwickshire = War. 8 

Words. By E. SMITH. 
Warwickshire. Glossary ofWarwickshire Dialect. = War. 4 

By G. MILLER, 1898. 
Warwickshire. South Warwickshire Words. By = s.War. 1 

Mrs. FRANCIS. E. D. S., 1876. 
Westmoreland. MS. Collection of Westmoreland = Wm. 1 

Words. By W. H. HILLS and Dr. JUST. 
Westmoreland and Cumberland. Dialogues, = Wm. ft 

Poems, Songs, and Ballads, by various writers, Cum.' 

in the Westmoreland and Cumberland Dialects. 

Published by J. R. SMITH, 1839. 
Wexford. A Glossary, with some Pieces of Verse, = Wxf. 1 

&c. By JACOB POOLS, 1867. 
Wiltshire. A Glossary of Words used in the = Wil. 1 

County of Wiltshire. By G. E. DARTNELL and 

E. H. GODDARD. E. D. S., 1893. 
Wiltshire. A Glossary of Provincial Words and = Wil. 2 

Phrases in use in Wiltshire. By J. Y. AKERMAN, 

Worcestershire. A Glossary of West Worcester- = w.Wor. 1 

shire Words. By Mrs. CHAMBERLAIN. E.D.S.,i88a. 
Worcestershire. South - East Worcestershire = M.Wor. 1 

Words. A Glossary of Words and Phrases used 

in South-East Worcestershire. By JESSE SALIS- 
BURY. E. D. S , 1894. 
Worcestershire. Upton-on-Severn Words and = s.Wor. 1 

Phrases. By ROBERT LAWSON. E. D. S., 1884. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect. - n.Yki. 1 

By Rev. J. C. ATKINSON, 1868. Additions to the 

above. E. D. S., 1876. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of Words used in the = n.Yks.- 

neighbourhood of Whitby. By F. K. ROBINSON. 

E.D. S., 1876. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of Words used in Swale- =- n.Yks. 3 

dale, Yorkshire. By Captain JOHN HARLAND. 

E. D. S., 1873. 
Yorkshire. Wit, Character, Folklore, and Customs = n.Tk.* 

of the North Riding of Yorkshire. By R. BLAKE- 
BOROUGH, 1898. 
Yorkshire. Yorkshire Folk-Talk. By M. C. F. - ne.Tki. 1 

MORRIS, 1892. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of Words used in Holder- = e.Yks. 1 

ness in the East Riding of Yorkshire. By F. Ross, 

R. STEAD, and TH. HOLDERNESS. E.D. S., 1877. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of Words pertaining to = in.Yks. 1 

the Dialect of Mid-Yorkshire. By C. CLOUGH 

ROBINSON. E. D. S., 1876. 
Yorkshire. The Dialect of Craven, in the West = w.Yka. 1 

Riding of the County of York. By W. CARR, 1828. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of Words used in the = w.Yks. 2 

neighbourhood of Sheffield. By S. O. ADDY. 

E. D. S., 1888-90. 
Yorkshire. A Glossary of the Dialect of Almond- = w.Yk. s 

bury and Huddersfield. By ALFRED EASTHER. 

E. D. S., 1883. 
Yorkshire. The Hallamshire Glossary. By J. = w.Yk. 4 

HUNTER, 1829. 
Yorkshire. The Dialect of Leeds, and its Neigh- = w.Yk. 5 

bourhood to which is added a copious 

Glossary. By C. C. ROBINSON, 1861. 

Where HO authority is given for plant-names, the information has been obtained from A Dictionary of English 
Plant Names, by J. Bnittn and R. Holland. E. D. S., 1878-86. 



JAAKE, v. or sb. (?). Meaning unknown 


JAGE, sb. A violent motion (w.Yks.). 
JAGGERS, sb. In phr. by jaggers, an ex- 
pletive (Ess.). 
JAKE-EASY, adj. Meaning unknown 

JANNOCK, sb. A buttress or support 

against a wall (Nhp.). 
JARGE, sb. A jug (Yks.). 
(?) JAUK or AUK, v. Of shoes : to be too 

large for the foot, not to fit closely (Abd.). 
JELLING, adj. Jovial (w.Yks.). 
JIB, v. To move restlessly (Dev.). 
JIG, sb. A measure of yarn (?) (Frf.). 
JILLY-WOW, sb. A witch (Stf.). 
JIMRIE-COSIE, sb. Meaning unknown 


JINGLER, sb. Meaning unknown (w.Yks.). 
JISSICK, sb. A tickling cough (Suf.). 
JIZE, sb. In phr.jize be here, an expletive 

JOE, sb. An agricultural instrument (?) 


JOKIM, sb. Meaning unknown (Rnf.). 
JOOPIE, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
JOT, sb. Meaning unknown (WiU. 
JOWEY, adj. Meaning unknown (Lan. or 


JUGLER, sb. Meaning unknown (Lei.). 
JUMCTURER, sb. A great-coat (Rxb.). 
JUNKIT, adj. Meaning unknown (Ayr.). 
JU-UM, adj. Empty (n.Cy.). 

KAAN, v. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
KAKER, sb. Meaning unknown (Per.). 
KALTS, sb. pi. The game of quoits ^Shr.). 
KANN, sb. Fluor-spar (Cor.). 
KARKEN, v. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 
KATE, sb. A public-house (e.Yks.). 
KATLET, sb. Meaning unknown (Sc.). 
KAVEL, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
KECK, sb. Success, luck (w.Yks.). 
KECKER, sb. An overseer at a coal-mine 


KEEL, sb. Meaning unknown (Dur.). 
KEEL, v. Meaning unknown (Dmb.). 
KEEPS, sb. pi. Meaning unknown (Frf.). 
KELD, v. To thump (Nhb.). 
KELSHIE, adj. Meaning unknown (Frf.). 
KEMBING, sb. A utensil used in brewing 


KENNEN, v. To know (Ir.). 
KEOSTREL, sb. A karl (sic) (Cum., Wm.). 
KESTERN, adj. Cross, contentious (n.Cy.). 
KETT, v. Meaning unknown (Lth , Hdg.). 
KETTLE, sb. Meaning unknown (Ir.). 
KIAAR, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
KIFT, sb. Meaning unknown (Ayr.). 
KILHAB, v. Meaning unknown (Slk.). 
KILLEMS-OUT, sb. pi. Marbles (Nrf.). 
KILLSIMMER, sb. Meaning unknown 


KINCH, sb. 1 Meaning unknown (Frf.). 
KINCH, si. 2 Meaning unknown (Edb.). 
KINDER-MAKER, sb. Meaning unknown 

KING'S TAW, phr. Meaning unknown 


KINSH, sb. Meaning unknown (Sc.). 
KIPES, sb. pi. Meaning unknown (Frf.). 
KISHY, adj. Thick, stiff, pasty (w.Yks.). 
KJAEKSIE,a^'. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
KJIMPIN', ppl. adj. Meaning unknown 


KJODEE, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

KLEEPIE STONES, phr. Meaning un- 
known (Sh.I.). 

KNAKS, sb. pi. In phr. to take the'knaks, 
meaning unknown (Edb.). 

KNALTER, v. To know (Lan.). 

KNAUM, v. Meaning unknown (Lnk.). 

KNAVE, v> To gnaw or bite (Lan.). 

KNAVE, v. 2 Meaning unknown (Nhp.). 

KNEE, sb. Meaning unknown (Nrf.). 

KNERRY, v. To nay [sic] (Stf.). 

KNETTER, v. Meaning unknown (n.Yks.). 

KNITTAL, sb. Meaning unknown (Abd.). 

KNOCKIE, adj. Meaning unknown (Sc.). 

KNOCK-SO, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

KORSIS,s6. pi. Meaning unknown (Sh.I ). 

KRACHT, sb. Wickedness, craft (Sc.). 

KRAEK, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

KRIKKETY,s6. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 

KROGIK EE'D, phr. Meaning unknown 

KULLIE FOR BULLIE, phr. Meaning un- 
known (Sh.I.). 

KYRST, sb. A wood (Oxf.). 

LAANGER, sb. A disease of cows (?) (Sh.I.). 
LAAVER, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
LAEGA, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
LAFT, v. To look for (Cum.). 
LAG, sb. Meaning unknown (Slg.). 
LAIGGENS,s6./>/. Meaning unknown (Slk.). 
LAIR, adj. Meaning unknown (Gall.). 
LALE, adj. Meaning unknown (Wm.). 
LANCROCK, (?). A word occurring in a 

Shrovetide rhyme ; meaning unknown 


LANT, sb. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 
LAP, v. To cry (Yks.). 
LAP-MESSIN, sb. A term applied to a dog 


LAPPERTAGE, sb. Obs. Meaning un- 
known (Won). 

LARCH, v. Meaning unknown (Dev.). 
LARE, adj. In phr. as lare do so and so, as 

lief do so and so (?) (Dor.). 
LASAVRAN,s6. Meaning unknown (Pern.). 
LASHIGILLAVERY, sb. A superfluity, 

esp. of food (n.Cy.). 
LASSY, adj. Last (n.Yks.). 
LAUG, sb. or adj. (?). Meaning unknown 


LAUGHER, sb. Meaning unknown (Yks.). 
LAUK URROW, phr. Meaning unknown 

LAUMINGK, prp. Meaning unknown 

LA VEER, v. To linger, procrastinate 


LAVER, sb. The remainder (n.Cy.). 
LAX, sb. A part (Som.). 
LAY ACROSS, phr. Meaning unknown 

LAY IN LEAD, phr. Meaning unknown 

LEACHT, sb. A large-sized kistvaen (Dev., 

LEAD-RECORDER, sb. Meaning unknown 


LEAR, v. To lean (n.Cy.). 
LEAREN-TUB, sb. The vessel in which 

meal and water are mingled before being 

baked into oatcake (w.Yks.). 
LECTURE, sb. A speech, cry, warning 

(Hnt. ?). 
LEE, adj. Meaning unknown (ScA 

LEEVE, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LEG, sb. In phr. a leg of raan, meaning 
unknown (Sh.I.). 

LEGIM, adv. In phr. to ride legim or on 
legim, to ride astride (Rxb.). 

LENNOCKMORE, adj. Meaning unknown 

LENTEN, pp. Allowed, let (Per.). 

LENTOR, sb. Meaning unknown (Ir.). 

LETCH, sb. Meaning unknown (Ayr.). 

LICKFALADITY, adv. With full force 

LICKY-HOW, int. An exclamation (Cor.). 

LIDDALES, adj. Out of anything, esp. out 
of provisions (Sh.I.). 

LIE, v. In phr. to lie out; meaning un- 
known (Sh.I.). 

LIFT-HAUSE, sb. The left hand (Rxb.). 

LIFTING,///, adj. Applied to cattle; mean- 
ing unknown (Sh.I.). 

LIGH, adj. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 

LIGHT, sb. (?). Meaning unknown (In). 

LIGS, sb. pi. ' Ley ' (Yks.). 

LIN, v. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LING, sb. In phr. the ling of one's life ; 
meaning unknown (Wxf.). 

LING, v. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 

LINGER, sb. Meaning unknown (Wxf.). 

LINITY, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LINKS, sb. pi. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LIP, sb. or adj. (?). In phr. to be lip, to begin 
lip \ meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LITTER, adj. Meaning unknown (Dev.). 

LO, adj. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LOAK-HEN, sb. Meaning unknown (Nrf.). 

LOBBYSTHROWL, sb. Goitre (Der.). 

LOCK, sb. Meaning unknown (Lth.). 

LOCKER STRAE, />//>-. Meaning unknown 

LODGE, adj. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LOKKER, v. To curl (Sc.). 

LONE, adj. Long (Nhb.). 

LOOG, v. (?). Meanirg unknown (Sh.I.). 

LOOMENT, sb. pbscurity (Dev.). 

LOON, sb. Meaning unknown (Ayr.). 

LORNE, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LOSEN, v. To look (Won). 

LOSES, sb. pi. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 

LOTHER, sb. Meaning unknown (Ken.). 

LOUNDSING, prp. Lingering (Cmb.). 

LOVE-SPOKEN, ppl. adj. Meaning un- 
known (Bnff.). 

LOYST, v. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 

LUCKER, adj. Loose, flabby (Ken.). 

LUCKING-MILL, sb. A fulling-mill (Ken.). 

LUCKS, Meaning unknown (w.Yks.). 

LUCKY -PROACH, sb. The father-lasher, 
Coitus bubalis (Fif.). 

LUELY, sb. A fray (Sc.). 

LUFES, sb. pi. The ears of a toad (n.Cy.). 

LUMSTHROWL, adj. Goitre (Den). 

LUNDGATE, sb. Meaning unknown 

LURDER, sb. An awkward, lazy, worth- 
less person (Sc.). 

LURE,s6. The palm ofthe hand (n.Cy., Nhb.). 

LUSCH, 5*. A wish, desire (Som.). 

LUSKEE, sb. Meaning unknown (Rxb.). 

LYERON, sb. Meaning unknown (Som.). 

LYINS, sb. pi. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

LYLSIE-WULSIE, sb. Linsey-woolsey 

LYMPHAD, sb. A galley (Sc.). 

LYTHING, vbl. sb. Softening, soothing 


HAAS, v. Meaning unknown (Suf.). 

HAASLIG, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

HACK-A-THRAW,#. Meaning unknown 

HACKEN-CROOK, sb. Meaning unknown 

HACKING, vbl. sb. In phr. hacking and 
heeling. Meaning unknown (Som.). 

HADYEDS, adj. or sb. (?). Meaning un- 
known (Ayr.). 

HAIL, v. In phr. to hail a hundred, a 
weaving term (Edb.). 

(?) HAINI or HAIM, sb. A hand (Lin.). 

HAIVINGS,s. pi. Shallows in a river (Not.). 

HALE, sb. A land measure (Sus.). 

HALF-BAG-MAUND, sb. Meaning un- 
known (Som.). 

HALLAN-SHACKER, sb. A hare (Dev.). 

HALPER-POT, sb. Meaning unknown 

HALT-WO, int. A wagoner's call to his 
team to go to the off-side of the road (Sus.). 

HAL VANS, sb. Inferior ore (n.Cy.). 

HAMCH, sb. The hip-joint (Nhb.). 

HAMIL, sb. A handle (Som.). 

HAND, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

HANNA-PAGE.56. Meaningunknown (Nrf.). 

HANNIE, sb. Meaning unknown (Cum.). 

HAN-SPAN, adv. Obs. Very heartily (?) 

HATEN, adj. Meaning unknown (Wm.). 

HAUM, sb. Meaning unknown (Wil.). 

HAUTECKING, adj. Meaning unknown 

HAVER, v. To toast before the fire (Bwk.). 

HAWK -TREE, sb. An oak-tree (?) (Wm.). 

HAY, v. Meaning unknown (Dev.). 

HEADSET, 56. Meaning unknown (Abd.). 

HEAL-HA'DIN or -MAKIN', sb. Salvation 

HEARF, sb. Health (Som.). 

HEAUVELESS, adj. Meaning unknown 

HEELIN', vbl. sb. Meaning unknown (Dev.). 

HEEL-SCAT, sb. Meaning unknown (Slg.). 

HEFF, sb. Meaning unknown (Dev.). 

HEFTERT, adv. After (n.Cy.). 

HEINT, pret. Saw, observed (In). 

HELM, v. To turn, govern, guide (Edb.). 

HEN, adj. Old (Chs.). 

HEPPER, sb. A young salmon (Wai.). 

HERBRY, sb. Meaning unknown (Inv.). 

HERONIOUS,arf/. Meaningunknown (Ayr.). 

HERTA, adj. Female (Sh.I.). 

HETHOR-DRAYKIN, sb. Meaning un- 
known (Nhb.). 

HEUCH, sb. Meaning unknown (Sc.). 

HEVER, sb. The hemlock (Hrf.). 

HEVICAIRIES, int. An exclamation of 

surprise, &c. (Sc.) 
HICE, int. ' Keep still ! ' (Hrf.) 

formula used by mummers (Chs.). 
HIE, v. (?) Meaning unknown (Der.). 
HIERTIEING, vbl. sb. Meaning unknown 

(Sc ) 

HILDING, sb. Meaning unknown (Bdf.). 
HILLY HO ! phr. A hunting or trumpet 

cry (?) (Sc.). 

HIM, v. To believe (Som.). 
HINN, v. Meaning unknown (Dev.). 
HIP-HOUSE, sb. A lone house (Dor.). 
HIPSY DIXY,/r. Of evidence: trumped 

up, faked (Dur.). 
HISHER or ISHER, adj. and adv. Higher 

(n.Yks., w.Yks.). 

HITCH, sb. Monthly Agents [sic] (Wil.). 
HIVE, v. Meaning unknown (Sur.). 
HJUD, v. (?). Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 
HO, sb. (?). Cover (Sc.). 
VLO,pron. Her (Cum.). 
HOBLINS, adv. Meaning unknown (Cum.). 
HOCKEDOCK, sb. An aqueduct (Cmb.). 
HOCKER, v. To seek (w.Yks.). 
HOCKLER-OCKLER, sb. A hawking 

greengrocer (w.Yks.). 
HOCKY-VOCKSY, sb. A head constables 

staff (Dev.). 

HODLE-MAKENSTER, sb. Meaning un- 
known (Sc.). 

sb. Meaning unknown (Ir.). 
HOGANSTORE, sb. Meaning unknown 

HOG-PIPES, sb. pi. Meaning unknown 


HOLLEN, sb. Meaning unknown (Per.). 

Eau-de-Cologne (Nrf.). 
HOMI-OMRIE, sb. A hotch-potch, mis- 
cellany (Sc.). 

HOOF, sb. An acre (Lin.). 
HOO-FLOO, adj. Meaning unknown (w.Cy.). 
HOOT, sb. or adj. (?). Meaning unknown 


HOPE, sb. A short street (Dev.). 
HORNSHOTTLE, adj. Meaning unknown 

HORNSTRING, v. Meaning unknown 


HORRORSCUP, sb. A horoscope (Lan.). 
HORSE-CRIPPLE, sb. Meaning unknown 


HORSE-HOOD, adv. In kind [sic] (Dev.). 

Hottentot (w.Ir., I.W.). 

HOUG, sb. A hold upon, grasp of (Rnf.). 

HOUNDINGS, sb. pi. The housings of 
harness, covering the collar (e.An.). 

HOWF, sb. Meaning unknown (s.Sc.). 

HOWSTER, sb. The knot, Tringa canuhis 
(dial, unknown). 

HOX, int. In phr. hoxan'frog, an exclama- 
tion (Stf.). 


HULBIRT, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

HULET, sb. Meaning unknown (Hmp.). 

HULL, sb. Meaning unknown (Sus.). 

HULLET, sb. Meaning unknown (w.Yks.). 

HUMBLE, v. To humble oneself, demean 
oneself (dial, unknown). 

HUMLY-BUSH, sb. Meaning unknown 

HUMP, sb. The thigh (w.Yks.). 

HUNDEN, sb. The ' hooding' of a flail (Nhb.). 

HUNDER-STONE, sb. A thunderbolt (WiL). 

HUNKEY, adj. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

HUNKIN, sb. Meaning unknown (Cor.). 

HURD, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

HURMS, sb. pi. Meaning unknown (Lan.). 

HURST- RIGG, sb. Meaningunknown (Sc.). 

HUSSING, prp. Meaning unknown (Abd.). 

HUTS, sb. pi. The loppings of trees (?) 
(dial, unknown). 

HWOAZIN, sb. Rosin (Cum.). 

HYHUMPUS,s*. Meaningunknown (Lan.). 

HYPLOCK, adj. Meaning unknown (Gall.). 

ICEE-WILLEE, sb. A sandling (Cor.). 

ICKET, sb. Meaning unknown (w.Yks.). 

IDDLINS, Meaning unknown (Der.). 

ILILUK, sb. Meaning unknown (Ir.). 

ILL-SANTAFIED, ppl. adj. Meaning un- 
known (Sh.I.). 

ILOAN, sb. An island (Wxf.). 

IMPISITIN, sb. Meaning unknown (Sur.). 

INAIRT, adj. Meaning unknown (Fif.). 

INCOMING GROUND, phr. The downhill 
part of a journey (Hmp. ?). 

INDE, (?). Meaning unknown (Frf.). 

INGLE-SAVE,s6. Meaningunknown (Edb.). 

INGLIFIED, ppl. adj. Learned (Ant.). 

INISITIJITTY, sb. A little, ridiculous 
person (War.). 

INNERS, sb. pi. In phr. to be in one's inner s, 
meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

INPLAY, sb. Meaning unknown (Sh.I.). 

INSKIN, adj. Close, intimate (Mid.). 

INTAKE, sb. Meaning unknown (Yks.). 

INTHREATHMENT.sA. Meaningunknown 

INVENTION ARY, sb. An inventory (Sus.). 

INYARY, sb. Diarrhoea (Sh.I.). 

ITHE-SAY, sb. Telridge hay [sic] (Der.). 


HA, adj. Sc. Also in form hi. [Not known to our 
correspondents.] In phr. ha year olds, cattle eighteen 
months old. s.Sc. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). 

HA, int. Dev. An exclamation of indignation and 
contempt. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) 

HA, HAA, see Hay, sb. 1 , Haw, sb. 1 , int. 1 , How, sb. 1 , 
adv., int. 

HAABER, HAABUCK, HAACK, see Habber, Haw- 
buck, Hawk, v. 1 

HAAF, sb. 1 and v. Sc. Lakel. Also in forms haave 
Sc. QAM.) ; haf(f Sh.I. ; halve, hauve Sc. (JAM.) [haf, 
hav.] 1. sb. The open sea, the deep-sea fishing-ground. 

Sh.I. Mony a day he made for da haaf whin aulder men shook 
dir heids, an' widna lave da beach, CLARK Gleams (1898) 33 ; They 
had had a hard week at the 'haf,' BURGESS Tang( 1898) 8; (W.A.G.); 
(Coll. L.L.B.); S. StOrk. 1 

Hence Haafing, vbl. sb. deep-sea fishing; also usedySg-. 

Sh.I. Da days o' haafin i' da saxern is by, I faer, Sh. News 
(Sept. 10, 1898). 

2. Comp. (i) Haaf-boat, a boat suitable for deep-sea 
fishing ; (2) -eel, the conger-eel, Conger vulgaris ; (3) -fish, 
the great seal, Phoca barbata ; (4) -fishing, deep-sea 
fishing ; (5) -lines, the lines used in deep-sea fishing ; (6) 
man, a fisherman engaged in the deep-sea fishing ; (7) 
seat, a deep-sea fishing-ground. 

(i) Sh.I. The old haf boat measured from 18 to 20 feet of keel, 
the stems bending outwards in a graceful curve, so as to give a 
length of some 26 feet over all. The breadth of beam was 6 to 7 
feet, and the depth of the hold 27 inches. The boat was divided into 
six compartments, viz. fore-head, fore-room, mid-room, cost-room, 
shott, hurrik or kannie, SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) 127. S. & Ork. 1 
(2) Nai. Haaf-eel, a name given to the common conger in the 
Moray Firth, DAY Brit. Fishes (1880-4) II. 251. (3) Sh.I. Our 
boat was visited by one of the large seals of the country (Phoca 
barbata), named by the natives a Haaf-fish, because it usually 
appears at that remote distance from the main coast, HIBBERT 
Desc. Sh. I. (1822) 166, ed. 1891 ; (Coll. L.L.B.) ; S. & Ork. 1 (4) 
Sh.I. As good ... as ever rowed ... to the haaf-fishing, SCOTT 
Pirate (1821) ii. S. & Ork. 1 (5) Sh.I. The haf lines were also set 
during aevaliss [unsettled] weather, SPENCE ib. 131. (6) Sh.I. 
Doo canna tak' hit a' rightly in, no bein' a haaf man dysel, 
Sh. News (July 3, 1897) ; The signs in heaven above were the 
special study of the hafman, SPENCE ib. 115. (7) Sh.I. One of 
these ancient sinker stones was lifted on a fish hook at a haf seat 
off the north part of Unst, SPENCE ib. 129. 

3. Phr. to go to haaf or haaves, to go out to the deep-sea 
fishing. S. & Ork. 1 , Or.I. (JAM.) 

4. A large pock-net used in fishing. Also in comp. 

Abd. Lady Kigie who had a lodging in the Chanonry, and a 
hannet [half-net] upon Don, TURREFF Antiq. Gleanings (1859) 64. 
Dmf. Agric. Surv. 603 (JAM.) ; A few nights after his marriage he 
was standing with a halve-net, CROMEK Remains (1810) 305. Gall. 
A standing net placed within water-mark to prevent the fishes 
from returning with the tide (JAM.). Wgt. These [fish] are taken 
betwixt Wigton and the Ferrieton ; some in the halfe-net ; some 
in cups fixt on the sands, FRASER Wigtown (1877) 88. Lakel. 1 
Cum. Two [sturgeons] were taken last week with the haaf net. . . 

Mr. was lucky enough to secure another [sturgeon] in his 

haaf, Carlisle Pat. (June 28, 1889) 5 ; Cum. 2 It consists of a 
pock-net fixed to a kind of frame, which, whenever a fish strikes 
against it, is hauled out of the water ; Cum. 4 A net used on the 
Solway, which consists of a pock-net fixed on a frame of wood, 

being kept open by a cross-bar fixed at right angles to the pole 
held by the fisherman standing in the water. 

Hence (i) Haaf-bawk, sb. the pole attached to a ' haaf- 
net ' whereby it is raised out of the water ; (2) Ha'netsman, 
sb. a fisherman who shares in a ' haaf-net.' 

(i) Cum. 4 (2) Sc. We swam owre the Dee . . . the ha'netsman, 
Main, Wad charge us across to the Brick Kilns again, ANDERSON 
Rhymes (1867) 78. 

5. v. To fish with a ' haaf or pock-net. 

s.Sc. (JAM.) Dmf. A second mode of fishing, called ' haaving' 
or ' hauling,' is standing in the stream, either at the flowing or 
ebbing of the tide, with a pock net fixed to a kind of frame, con- 
sisting of a beam, 12 or 14 feet long, having three small sticks or 
rungs fixed into it. Whenever a fish strikes against the net, 
they, by means of the middle rung, instantly haul up the mouth of 
the net above water, Statist. Ace. II. 16 (ib.\ Lakel. 1 So used by 
fishermen of the Solway, both on Scottishand Cumbrian side. Cum. 4 

[Sw. haf, the sea ; Dan. and Norw. dial, hav (AASEN) ; 
ON. haf.} 

HAAF, sb. 2 n.Yks. 2 A haven, port. 

HAAF, HAAFURE, see Heaf, sb.\ Haugh, Haaver. 

HAAG,s&. and v. Sh.I. [hag.] 1. sb. Thrift, economy. 

Du's nae hag i' dy haand JAKOBSEN Norsk in Sh. (1897) 36; 
S. & Ork. 1 
2. v. To use sparingly. 

Skeek signifies to use sparingly, and is similar in meaning to 
the words hain and haag, SPENCE Flk-Lore ',1899) 207. 

[Norw. dial, hag, order, management (AASEN) ; ON. 
hagr, state, condition.] 

HAAG, see Hag, sb. 2 

HAAGLESS, adj. Sh.I. Limitless, boundless. See 

What's twenty year ta dee or me ? Hit's no a knuckle o wir 
towes Set oot upon a haagless sea Ta fiot, or sink for want o bowes, 
JUNDA Klingrahool (1898) 51. 

HAAGLET, sb. Sh.I. In phr. it's come back to its auld 
haaglet, said of an animal that has strayed, and returned 
to its old pasture. S. & Ork. 1 

[Cp. ON. hagi, a pasture, hag-lendi, pasture land (Vio- 

HAAK, see Hake, v., Hawk, sb. 2 , v. 1 

HAAL, sb. Cai. 1 [hal.] A hold, support, used esp. 
in connexion with children learning to walk. 

' To stan' at 'e haal.' To stand at a chair or such like. ' To gang 
at 'e haal, or by the haal.' To move from chair to chair, or from 
one support to another, but not to venture to cross an open space. 

[Cp. Norw. dial, and ON. halla, to lean with the body, 
to swerve (AASEN).] 

HAALLIGET, adj. Cai. 1 Disreputable, violent, light- 

[Cp. Norw. dial, haalig, bad, also haadleg, shameful, 
disgraceful (AASEN) ; ON. haduligr, disgraceful, contemp- 
tible (VlGFUSSON).] 

HAALYAN, HAAM, see Hallion, Haulm. 

HAANYAL, HAAP(E, see Hanniel, Hap, v. 8 

HAAP, v. Nhp. 1 Of cattle : to eat, to bite close to 
the ground. 

HAAR, sb? Sc. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Lan. Lin. Also in 
forms aar n.Lin. ; bar N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. e.Yks. n.Lin. 1 ; 
harr Frf. Fif. N.Cy. 1 Dur. n.Yks. 124 m.Yks. 1 Lin. ; haur 
Ayr. Lth. ; hear, here Lan. [h)ar, h)ar.] 1. A cold sea- 
fog or mist ; a drizzling rain or fog. Cf. harl(e, sb. 2 





Sc. On the face of the water, where the haar lay, STEVENSON 
Catriona (1893) xxi. Cai. 1 Abd. A frosty haar filled Noran valley, 
M'KENZIE Sketches (1894) iii; Not common (G.W.). Frf. Nor 
harr nor cluds Forebodit rain, SANDS Poems (1833) 70. Per. The 
morn brings sleet And haar and hail together, S PENCE Poems (1898) 
18. Fif. That's a nasty haar come on, ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 
67. Ayr. When the haur hings on the hill, AINSLIE Land of Burns 
(ed. 1892) 13. Lth. A strange a new hian Strode beside them 
in the haur, LUMSDEN Sheep-head (1892) 316. Gall. It came upon 
the land suddenly as the ' haar ' that in the autumn drives up the 
eastern valleys from the sea, CROCKETT Moss-Hags (1895) xxii. 
N.Cy. 1 A Northern har Brings drought from far, Prov. Nhb. 1 , 
Dur. (K.) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Mist with small rain. So good in 
a morning for vegetation. ' A northern harr Brings fine weather 
from far ' ; n.Yks. 4 e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). m.Yks. 1 
Lan. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Lin. SKINNER (1671) ; RAY 
(1691); MILLER & SKERTCHLY Fenland (1878) iv. n.Lin. SUTTON 
Wds. (1881); Still current, but rare. It seems always to include 
the idea of cold (E.P. N , ; n.Lin.> se.Lin. The harr was very heavy 
in the marshes this mornin' (T.H.R.). 

2. A cold easterly wind ; also in comb. Easterly haar. 
Slg. In the months of April and May, easterly winds, commonly 

called Haars, usually blow with great violence, NIMMO Stirlingshire 
(1777) 438 (JAM.). Cld. The cold damp called Easterly-hars, so 
prevalent on the east coast, seldom arrive here, Agric. Sum. 4 (ib. ). 
Fif. Their topsails strutting with the vernal harr, TENNANT Anster 
(1812) 23, ed. 1871 ; This parish [St. Andrews] is well acquainted 
with the cold, damp easterly winds, or haar of April and May, 
Statist. Ace. XIII. 197. 

Hence Haary or Haury, adj. of wind : cold, keen, biting. 

Sc. Tho' Envy's haury blastin' breath, WILSON Poems (1822) 56. 
Sh.1. A haary wind blaws keen an cauld Across da voc, JUNDA 
Klingrahool (1898) 22. 

3. Hoar-frost, rime. 

Per., Cld. (JAM.) Lan. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; TIM BOBBIN 
View Dial. (ed. 1806) Gl. 

[1. Cp. Du. dial. (Zaansche) hang, ' dampig, mistig, met 
scherpen damp of nevel vervuld ' (BOEKENOOGEN). 2. 
MDu. hare, a keen cold wind (VERDAM) ; Du. haere, a 
keen wind (KILIAN) ; WFlem. liarie, a cold wind which 
frequently blows in March and April (DE Bo) ; cp. Fr. 
un temps haireux, cold and damp weather. 3. Du. haere, 
night frost ( KILIAN).] 

HAAR, sb? and v. Sc. Lin. Also in forms har n.Lin. 1 ; 
haur Sc. (JAM.) 1. sb. A cough. n.Lin. 1 

2. An impediment in speech ; a huskiness in the throat. 
Lnk. (JAM.) e.Lth., Rxb. This is gen. applied to some impedi- 
ment in the throat, which makes [it] necessary for a person as it 
were to cough up his words, before he can get them rightly 
articulated (ib.}. 

3. v. To speak thickly and hoarsely. Lnk. GAM.) 
HAAS, see Halse, sb. 1 

HAAVE, adj. Obs. Sc. Pale, wan. 

Abd.The third was an auld, wizen'd, haave coloured carlen , FORBES 
y7.(i742)i4; The titherwasahaavecolour'dsmeerlesstapie,'6. 17. 

[OFr. have, 'pale' (HATZFELD).] 

HAAVE, see Haaf, sb. 1 , Hauve, v. 1 , Haw, sb. 1 

HAAVER, sb. n.Cy. Yks. Written haafure n.Cy. 
(HALL.) ; haavre n.Yks. 2 A fisherman's line, used in the 
deep-sea fishing, to which the ' snoods,' each terminating 
in a hook, are appended. Cf. haaf, sb. 1 4. 

n.Cy. (HALL.) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 The fisherman's lines stretched 
horizontally, and furnished with suspended rows of baited hooks, 
for catching the larger sea-fish in deep water. 

HAAVER, HAAZE, see Halver, Haw, sb. 1 

HAB, sb. 1 Obs. Nhb. A halbert. 

The Scottish habs were stout and true, Bishoprick Garl. (1834)34. 

HAB, sb.' Glo. 1 [aeb.] The woof, yarn woven across 
the warp. See Abb. 

When the weavers in their glory stood, The chain and hab was 
very good ; But when the chain was very bad, They cursed the 
chain, and damned the hab. 

HAB, adv. and sb* Nhb. Yks. Lin. Also Som. Dev. 
Also written ab n.Yks. sw.Lin. 1 [h)ab, aeb.] 1. adv. 
In comb. Hab-nab, anyhow, in random fashion. 

Nhb. His wardrobe, got up quite habnab, Was second-hand, 
WILSON Tippling Dominit; Nhb. 1 
2. sb. Phr. (i) hab or nab, (a) get or lose, hit or miss ; 

(b) by hook or by crook ; (a) habs and nabs, little by little, 
piecemeal ; in one way and another. 

(i, a) w.Som. 1 In a market, a buyer pretending to walk off, 
says : ' Then you 'ont take no less?' (Seller) ' No, I 'ont, not one 
varden.' (Buyer) ' Then I'll ab-m hab or nab !' nw.Dev. 1 (b) 
w.Yks. He'll hev it awther bihab or nab. Prov. in Brighotise News 
(Sept. 14, 1889). (2) n.Yks. He did by abs an' nabs (I.W.). 
e.Yks. 1 Anything done in odd moments or at intervals of leisure, 
not continuously, is said to be done by habs-an nabs. n.Lin. 1 'I've 
scratted it together by habs an' nabs.' Said of rent. sw.Lin. 1 
We've gotten our hay by abs and nabs a load nows and thens. 
They had to finish the church by abs and nabs. 

[1. Cyphers, astral characters ... set down hab-nab. at 
random, BUTLER Hud. (1664) n. iii. 990.] 

HAB-, see Hob, sb. 2 

HA-BA, sb. Yks. Also written aah-ba, a-ba, a-bay. 
[e'-be, ea'-bea.] A roar of laughter ; a shout, blatant cry ; 
a hullabaloo. 

w.Yks. But if ide a been thear, ah sud set up a a-ba, TOM 
TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. (Mar. 1854) ; Tha's making a girt 
a-bay about nowt (F.K.) ; What ar ta makkin that gert aah-ba 
for ? BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865) ; w.Yks. 5 Sehr up a gurt haa-baa. 

HABAKER, HABBAD, see Half, Aye but. 

HABBER, sb. and v. Sc. Irel. Also in form haaber 
Ant. [ha'bar.] 1. sb. A person who stammers in 
speaking or speaks thickly ; a clumsy clown. 

Bnff. 1 Commonly used with the notion of stupidity. Ant. GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (C.) 

Hence (i) Habbergaw, sb. (a) hesitation, suspense ; (b) 
an objection ; (2) Habberjock, sb. (a] a turkey-cock ; (b) 
a big, stupid person who speaks thickly. 

(i) n.Sc. (JAM.) (2, a Bnff. 1 (6) ib. He's a stoopid habber-jock 
o" a cheel. 

2. The act of snarling or growling like a dog. 

n.Sc. (JAM.) Abd. Fell death had came to see them An' gi'en 
a habber, Wi' solemn air, TARRAS Poems (1804) 12 (ib.). 

3. v. To stutter, stammer. Sc. (JAM.) 4. To snarl, 
growl. n.Sc. (ib.) 

HABBERDYN-FISH, sb. Obs. Sc. n.Cy. That kind 
of cod which is usually salted ; barrelled cod. 

Sc. Dried cod fish, at that period known by the nameofHabberdyn 
fish, PENNANT Tour Sc. (ed. 1790) 138. n.Cy. GROSE ^1790) MS. 
add. (M.) 

[Habberdine fish, Asellus salitus, BARET (1580) s.v. Fish. 
M E. haburdenne, Accts. (1370), see ROGERS Agric. and Prices 
1. 616. Fr. habordean and labordean, an haberdine (CorcR.). 
MDu. habourdaen, also laberdaen (VERDAM). Prob. fr. the 
Basque district le Labourd, Lapurdum (the old name for 
Bayonne), see FRANCK (s.v. Labberdaan).] 

HABBERNAB, see Hobnob. 

HABBIE, adj. Lth. (JAM.) [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] Stiff in motion. 

HABBIE-GABBIE, v. Sh.I. To throw money, &c., 
among a crowd to be scrambled for. S. & Ork. 1 

HABBLE, sb. and v. Sc. [ha'bl.] 1. sb. A difficulty, 
perplexity, quandary, ' fix.' See Hobble, sb. 1 Q. 

Sc. An' syne got into a fair babble, HUNTER J. Armiger's 
Revenge (1897) xi. Slg. You've put [him] in a babble, TAYLOR 
Poems (1862) 17. Ayr. When whiles in a habble Be manly and 
clean, WHITE Jottings (1879) 290. Lnk. I hae gotten mysel' into 
a bonny habble ! GORDON Pyotshaw (1885) 74. e.Lth. Man, yon 
was an awfu' habble to be in, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895; 28. 

2. Confusion, tumult, hubbub ; a squabble, quarrel. 
Abd. Cripples ne'er were made for babbles, SmRRtrsSale Caial. 

(1795) 21. Cld. (JAM.) Rnf. We'll aft be plung d into a habble, 
TANNAHILL Poems ^1807) 44, ed. 1817. Ayr. J.M.), Ayr., Lth. 
(JAM.) Lth. Morosely by a glowing fire, 1 retrospect the habble, 
LUMSDEN Sheep-head (1892; 50. Feb. He has got into a habble 
with a neighbour (A.C.). Rxb. (JAM.) 

Hence Habblesheuf, sb. an uproar, tumult, confusion. 
Ayr. (J.M.) 

3. v. To confuse, reduce to a state of perplexity ; to 
stammer, speak or act confusedly ; to gabble, talk fast ; to 
wrangle, quarrel. 

Sc. To habble a lesson, to say it confusedly GAM.% Slk. Are 
we to be habbled out o' house and hadding? HOGG Tales (1838) 
323, ed. 1866. Rxb. Some trump the fauts o' ither fouk, Some 
habblin on religion, A. SCOTT Poems (ed. 1808) 145. 




Hence (i) Habbler, sb. one who causes or delights in a 
squabble : (2) Babbling, (a) sb. confusion, hubbub ; wrang- 
ling, confused speaking; (b) ppl. adj. given to petty 

(r) Cld. (JAM.) (2, a) Fif. Sic habblin' an' gabblin, Ye never 

heard nor saw, DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 121. Edb. They're here 

Wi' habblin, a' wi' ane anither, An' a' asteer, LIDDLE Poems 

(1821) 43. (A) Bnff.i 

4. To snap at anything as a dog does. 

Sc. Also used to denote the growling noise made by a dog when 
eating voraciously (JAM.). 

Hence Habble, sb. the act of snapping. Sc. (ib.) 

HABBLE, see Hobble, v. 1 

HABBLIE, adj. Sc. (JAM.) Of cattle : having big 
bones, ill-set. 

HABBOCRAWS, int. Sc. A shout used to frighten 
the crows from the corn-fields. 

s.Sc. HISLOP Anecdote (1874) 343. Gall. He believed himself 
among the rooks, and started up, roaring, with outspread arms, 
habbocraws, to the astonishment of the holy congregation, MAC- 
TAGGART Encyd. (1824) 249, ed. 1876. 

HABEEK-A-HA, int. Sc. A cry given as a signal 
that a marble, bool, &c., is to be scrambled for. 

Per. When a bool dried oot o' oor pooch to the flure, It was put 
in a roond penny spunk-box secure, Till it got rovin' fu, then I 
min' o't sae weel 'Twas ' habeek-a-ha ' at auld Jenny's Schule, 
EDWARDS Strathearn Lyrics (1889) 35. [In Abd. this used to be 
called a 'logan.' The master pitched in succession each forfeited 
' bool ' among the scholars out of doors (A.W.).l 

HABER-, see Haver, sb. 2 

HABERDASH, sb. Sc. Small wares, miscellaneous 

Abd. There will be sold ... a quantity of haberdash. an' gin 
ony body wants to ken what that is, its piggery, PAUL Aberdeen- 
shire (1881) 46. 

[Ther haberdashe, Ther pylde pedlarye, Papist. Exhort. 
(c. 1550) (NARES).] 

HABERDASHER, sb. Obs. n.Cy. Yks. Fig. A 

n.Cy. (HALL.) w.Yks. 1 A haberdasher of nouns and pronouns. 

HABERSCHON, sb. Obs. Sc. A jacket of mail or 
scale armour, an habergeon. 

Ayr. All armed for battle, full of zeal, In haberschons and caps 
of steel, BOSWELL Poet. Wks. (1811) 82, ed. 1871. 

[Helmys and hawbyrschownys, BARBOUR Bruce (1375) 
xi. 130.] 

HABILIMENTS, sb. pi. Sc. Outfit. 

n.Sc. The form 'bulyments' is still used in parts of the north to 
meananykind of ragged unshapely clothing, particularly a beggar's; 
and 'habiliments,' outfit. Both words, however, are employed with 
a somewhat ludicrous meaning, FRANCISQUE-MICHEL Sc. Lang. 
(1882) 70. 

HABIT, v. Yks. Lin. [a'bit.] To accustom. 

n.Yks.2, w.Yks. (C.C.R.) Lin. He's habited his sen to tekkin' 
doctor's stuff while he's clean wore oot his i'side. Lin. N.&Q. (Oct 
1891) 251. 

[O y'are a shrewd one ; and so habited In taking heed, 

CHAPMAN Odysseys (1615) v.] 
HABIT,/*?/. Stf. 1 fNotk 
In the place of. 

HABIT, prep. Stf. 1 [Not known to our correspondents.] 

HABIT AND REPUTE, phr. Sc. Held and reputed 
to be so and so, repr. legal Lat. habitus et reputatus. 

Bnff. Most of them depone that the pannels [prisoners] were 
habit and repute Egyptians, GORDON Chron. Keith (1880) 39. Per. 
A general allegation of her being habite and repute a witch, SPOT- 
TISWOODE Miscell. (1844) H- 61. [If the person ... be habit and 
repute a thief i.e. one who notoriously makes or helps his liveli- 
hood by thieving, BELL Diet. Law Scot!. (1861).] 

HABIT-SARK, sb. Sc. A woman's riding-shirt. 

Per. A habit-sark . . . O'erspread a breast, perhaps o' virtue 
proof, DUFF Poems, 81 (JAM.). 

HABLIMENTS, sb. pi. Yks. [a'bliments.] Habili- 
ments, vestments. 

n.Yks. 1 ' Noo ye've getten yer habliments on, Ah'll awa' an' 
knoll t'bell;' the clerk to the clergyman about to officiate at a 
funeral, of the surplice, scarf, &c. 

HACKEE, adj. Obs. Irel. Cross, ill-tempered. 

Wxf. 1 Fartoo zo hachee? [Why so ill-tempered?], 84. 

HACHEL, sb. Sc. [ha' X L] A sloven, slut. 

Ayr. A gipsy's character, a hachel's slovenliness, and a waster's 
want are three things [&c.], GALT S<> A. Wylie (1822) xlix. 

HACK, 56.' and v. 1 Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also in forms ack Stf. 2 se.Wor. 1 ; haike Cum. ; hake 
Fif. ; hauk Lth. (JAM.) n.Cy. (K.) ; hawk Sc. QAM.) Nhb. 1 ; 
heck w.Yks. 5 ; hick Nhb. 1 Cor. 1 ; hjuk Sh.I. ; hock Nrf. 
Hmp. 1 [h)ak, aek.] 1. sb. A kind of pickaxe or mattock 
used in agricultural employments ; see below. 

n.Cy. BAILEY (1721) ; GROSE (1790) ; (K.) ; N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy.zAmat- 
tock made only with one and that a broad end. Nhb. Shovels, hacks, 
spades, &c., RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk. (1846) V. 277 ; Nhb. 1 
Dur. 1 An implement of two kinds : one is called a pick, having one 
end pointed, and the other rather broader. The other kind is 
called a mattock, one end of which is axe-shaped, and the other 
end like the broad end of the pick. Lakel. 1 Cum. 1 A pickaxe 
having points about an inch in width ; Cum. 4 s.Wm. (J.A.B.) 
n.Yks. They [turnips] are pulled up by a peculiar drag, or ' hack ' 
as it is provincially called, Jm. R. Agric. Soc. (1848) IX. ii ; 
n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Half a mattock ; a pickaxe with one arm ; 
n.Yks. 3 * e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). m.Yks. 1 A kind 
of pickaxe, or mattock, without the blade end. w.Yks. WILLAN 
List Wds. (1811) ; (J.T.) ; w.Yks.^, Lan. 1 n.Lan. (W.S.) ; n.Lan. 1 
April wi' his hack an' bill, Sets a flow'r on iv'ry hill, Local Rhyme. 
e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 A gorse hack. s.Chs. 1 A kind of mattock 
used to stock or pull up gorse. nw.Der. 1 s. Not. The turnip hack 
is a kind of mattock with either one or two blades (J.P.K.). w.Dev. 
A one ended mattock, MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796). Cor. A 
digging instrument, the same as the biddix or beat-axe (q.v.), and 
used in Zennor for cutting turves (J.W.). 

2. A heavy tool or pickaxe used by miners ; see below. 
Nhb., Dur. GREENWELL Coal Tr. Gl. (1849). e.Dur. 1 A heavy 

pick, weighing about 7 Ibs., with head about 18 in. in length. 
There are var. kinds, e. g. Tommy hack (round head and chisel 
point), Jack hack (round head and sharp point), Pick hack (sharp 
head and chisel point). Der. MANLOVE Lead Mines (1653) Gl. 
Shr. 1 A small pick used in getting coal. 

Hence Hack-ave, sb. the handle of a ' hack.' Shr. 1 

3. A large hoe. 

vr.Yks.Hlfx. Courier (May 8, 1897); (J.T.) ; w.Yks. 2 ; w.Yks. 3 
A kind of hoe with a long blade. 

4. A pronged instrument or mattock used for dragging 
dung from a cart ; see below. Gen. in comb. Muck-hack. 

Cai. 1 Ags., Rnf. They loosen all the ground completely with a 
hack, an instrument with a handle of about 4 or 5 feet long, and 
two iron prongs like a fork but turned inwards, Statist. Ace. XIX. 
534 (JAM.). Lth. (JAM.) Nhb. 1 A muck fork, having 3 or 4 tines 
or teeth, which are bent at a right angle to the handle. It is used 
for drawing litter out of cattle lairs and similar places, and is some- 
times called a drag. The above is called a 'teeming hack, 'as it is 
used in emptying [teeming]. There is also a ' filling hack,' which 
is like a four or five pronged fork bent at the neck to an angle of 
45 degrees with the shank. Both teeming and filling hacks are 
used when working among manure. 

5. An axe for dressing stone. 

Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 334. n.Lin. 1 

6. A mark, notch ; a deep cut, a fissure. Also used fig. 
Sc. Yc may pit a hack i' the post the day [To-day has been a 

red-letter day with you], Prov. (G.W.) Elg. Ca' in the crook a 
hack again, TESTER Poems (1865) 160. Abd. I sud set up my 
bonnet a hack fan I gaed owre to Clinkstyle this time, ALEXANDER 
Johnny Gibb (1871) xliii. Lnk. Stamp'd in fire upon the broo, 
Were figures three, in unco hacks, DeiCs Hallowe'en (1856) 42. 

7. A cut, wound, gash. Also used fig. 

Edb. Aft the hack o' honour shines In bruiser's face wi' broken 
lines, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 206, ed. 1785; Geordy's men 
cou'd not withstand The hacks o' their claymores, LIDDLE Poems 
(1821) 238. n.Cy. (K.) Cum. Wi' nowther haike nor quarrel, 
GILPIN Sngs. (1866) 282. 

8. A chap or crack in the skin of the hands or feet caused 
by exposure to cold and wet. 

Sc. (JAM.), Cai. 1 Fif. Skelbs and hacks needed tender handling, 
COLVILLE Vernacular (1899) 18. Ayr. Mittens on her hands after 
she has creeshed them weel with saim for the hacks, SERVICE Dr. 
Duguid (ed. 1887) 161. Nhb. 1 A surface fissure or chap in the 
skin produced by cold or work. A deeper fissure than a hack is 
called a ' keen." 

9. An indentation or hollow made in ice to keep the feet 
steady in ' curling.' 

B 2 




Sc. A longitudinal hollow is made to support the foot, close by 
the tee, and at right angles with a line drawn from one end of the 
rink to the other. This is called a hack or hatch, Acct. of Curling, 
6 (JAM.). Ayr. Tees, hogscores, and hacks, or triggers [were] 
made, while busy sweepers cleared the rinks of anything that 
might impede the progress of the stones, JOHNSTON Kilmallie 
(1891) II. 109. Feb. He strains its wished-for road to trace The 
hack and tee between, Linloun Green (1685) 38, ed. 1817. 

10. A ridge of earth thrown up by ploughing or hoeing. 
Hrt. The ground which was fallowed in April is stirred (in May) 

into hacks, ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) III. i. 

11. A row of half-made hay. 

Bdf. When the grass was hagled it is disposed in hacks (J.W.B.) ; 
Both clover and grass is powerfully acted upon by the sun and 
wind when in the state of hacks, BATCHELOR Agric. (1813) 443. 
Sur. 1 A thin row in which hay is laid to dry after being shaken out, 
and before it is got into wider rows, which are called ' windrows.' 

12. The heart, liver, and lights of a pig. Cf. hackamuggie. 
Chs. 13 s.Chs. 1 Goa- tu Longg-liz fin aas'k am fur u pig'z aak 

[Go to Longley's an' ask 'em for a pig's hack]. Shr. 1 Obsol. 

Hence (i) Hacelet-pie, sb. a dish composed of the heart, 
liver, and lights of a pig baked in a pie. War. 3 ; (2) Hack- 
fat, sb. the fat obtained from cleaning the intestines of a 
pig. nw.Der. 1 13. A hard, dry cough. Cum. 4 , Stf. 2 

14. Fig. Phr. hack and sweep, a complete upturn ; a scene, 

Abd. Gin the French officers begin to blab on ane anither, then 
we'll get hack an' sweep (G.W.). 

15. v. To chop, cut up ; to cut roughly or unevenly. 

Sc. If I was gaen to be an elder, we couldna get a bit stick 
hackit on Sabbath, Jokes, ist S. (1889) 38. Sh.I. Shu hjukid a sleesh 
or twa aff a roond lof, Sh. News (Oct. 29, 1898). Abd. Maidens 
and widows . . . Made mony an errand wi' bog fir to hack, ANDER- 
SON Rhymes (1867) 20. Frf. Instead of . . . hacking his face, for he 
was shaving at the time, BARRIE Thrums (1889) xvi. Cld. UAM.), 
n.Cy. (J. W.) Shr. 1 Now, "ack them garrits, an' get the bif an' bacon 
up fur the men's dinner ; Shr. 2 Of.!. 1 MS. add. Hmp. 1 w.Som. 1 
To hack a joint. A good gate hacked all abroad. 

Hence (i) Hack-clog, sb. a chopping-block ; (2) Hacket, 
ppl. adj., fig. cutting, biting, severe, caustic ; (3) Hacket 
kail, phr. chopped kail orcabbage; (4) flesh, phr. a carrion 
charm for doing injury to a neighbour's beasts ; see below; 
(5) Hacking, sb. a pudding or sausage made of the chopped 
interiors of sheep or pigs ; (6) Hacking-block, sb. a block 
of wood used for cutting meat upon; (7) -iron, sb. an inverted 
chisel put into an anvil when the blacksmith wishes to 
cut anything off; (8) -knife, sb. a chopper, cleaver; (9) 
stock, (10) -trough, see (6) ; (n) Hack-meat, sb. mince- 
meat ; (12) -pudding, sb., see (5); (13) -saw, sb. a saw 
used by smiths and others for cutting iron ; (14) -spyel, 
sb. a useless joiner or cartwright ; (15) Hackster, sb., fig. 
a butcher, cut-throat ; (16) Hack-stock, see (6) ; (17) 
Hackum kail, phr., see (3). 

(i) n.Yks. 2 (a) Dmb. Out on you, bawdron ! wi' your hacket 
tongue, SALMON Gowodean (1868) 71. (3) Sc. To feast me wi' 
caddels And guid hackit kail, CHAMBERS Sags. (1829) I. a ; 
Noganes full of hacket kaile, MAIDMENT Ballads (1844) 13, ed. 1868. 
(4) ne.Sc. One mode of an enemy's working evil among a neigh- 
bour's cattle was to take a piece of carrion, cut the surface of it 
into small pieces, and bury it in the dunghill, or put it over the 
lintel of the door. Such carrion was called ' hackit-flesh,' GREGOR 
Flk-Lore (1881) 184. (s)N.Cy. 1 Nhb. A pudding made in the maw 
of a sheep or hog (K.). Com. 1 A mincemeat and fruit pudding, 
used till lately for the family breakfast on Christmas day. Wm. 
& Cum. 1 Wi' sweet minch'd-pyes and hackins feyne, 171. Lan. 
HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 216. (6) e.Yks. NICHOL- 
SON Flk-Sp. (1889) 65 ; e.Yks. 1 (7) w.Yks. 2 (8) e.Yks. NICHOL- 
SON Flk-Sp. (1889) 65. Chs.i (9) Cat 1 (10) e.Yks. The trough 
or block on which the work is performed is a hacking-trough, or 
hacking-block, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 65. (n) e.Yks. ib.\ 
e.Yks. 1 (12) Cum. On the morn of Christmas-day the people 
breakfast early on hack-pudding, a mess made of sheep's heart, 
chopped with suet and sweet fruits, HUTCHINSON Hist. Cum. 
(1794) I. 555. (13) n.Wil. An old scythe-blade, or a piece of one, 
with the edge jagged into teeth, set in a handle, and used for sawing 
through iron bars or rods, &c. (G.E.D.) w.Som. 1 There idn nort 
better vor a hack-zaw-n a old zive [scythe]. (14) Nhb. 1 (15)80. 
A crew of bloody Irish rebels, anddesperat [sic] hacksters, CRAU- 

TVRD Hist. Edb. (1808) 155 (JAM.). n.Yks. 2 (16) Sc. (JAM.) (17) 
Dmb. Good hackum kail twice laid, SALMON Gowodean (1868) 108. 

16. Of the skin : to chap, become cracked through cold. 
Sc. To plout her hands through Hawkey's caff-cog, is a hateful 

hardship for Mammy's Pet, and will hack a' her hands, GRAHAM 
Coll. Writings (1883) II. 148. Cai.', Cld. (JAM.) Ayr. There's 
nae frost to hack them [the hands] in the simmer time, SERVICE 
Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 161. 

Hence (i) Hacked or Hackit, ppl. adj. cracked, chapped 
through cold ; (2) Hacking, vbl. so. the chapping of hands 
or feet through cold. 

(i) Sc. His wee, hackit heelies are hard as the airn, THOM 
Rhymes (1844) 140. Frf. His hackit hands to heat, JAMIE Emigrants 
Family (1853) 106. Per. For festerin' finger or sair hackit heel, 
EDWARDS Strathearn Lyrics (1889) 34. Fif. A day's durg brings 
nae regret, nor sair backs, nor hackit feet, ROBERTSON Provost 
(1894) 188. Rnf. The lass wi' hakit hands and feet, MGILVRAY 
Poems (ed. 1863) 48. Ayr. Who tied up my wee hackit taes in the 
winter time ? SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 16. Lnk. The wee 
stumpy legs ance hacket an' blae, NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) 70. 
N.I. 1 , N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Lassis, wi' hackt heels an' hans, Keelman's 
Ann. (1869) 25. Dur. 1 Applied to the hands when frostbitten, or 
to the heels or instep when very rough. Cum. 14 (a) Ayr. A 
hushion . . . worn on the legs of women and boys at country work 
to keep their legs frae hacking what refinement calls chapping 
or gelling, HUNTER Studies (1870) 29. 

17. To work with a pickaxe. 

Com. RICHARDSON Talk (1876) 2nd S. 43 ; Cum. 4 , s.Wm. 
(J.A.B.), w.Yks. (R.H.H.) 

18. To dig with a mattock, so as to break the clods. 
Glo. 1 w.Som. 1 The term rather implies digging ground which 

has already been turned up with a spade. ' Spit it [the ground] 
up rough, and after 't have a lied a bit, take and hack it back.' 
De v. To break clods with a mattock, after seed has been sown, to avoid 
harrowing, Horae Subsecivae (1777) 197; MORTON Cyclo. Agric. 
(1863). nw.Dev. 1 , Cor. 12 

Hence (i) hack and hail, phr. digging and thatching; 
hard work ; (2) Hackynex, sb. a tool for digging. 

(i) n.Dev. A beat'th mun all vor hack an" hail, ROCK Jim an' 
Nell (1867) st. 42. (2) Cor." 

19. To hoe or loosen the earth round potatoes, prepara- 
tory to earthing them up ; to hoe. 

se. Wor. 1 Wil. 1 This is done with a ' tater-hacker,' an old three- 
grained garden-fork, which by bending down the tines or ' grains ' 
at right angles to the handle has been converted into something 
resembling a rake, but used as a hoe. Dor. DARTNELL & GODDARD 
Wds. (1893). Dev. 2 I've been hackin' tittie voors all day. Cor. 1 
To hack tetties. 

20. To cut peas, beans, vetches, &c., with a hook ; to 
dress a hedge-breast or a gutter with a sickle. 

Cum. 4 , Ox' Brks. I be gwaln pea-'acking next week (W.H.E.) ; 
Brks. 1 w.Mid. The haulm is raised with a stick or old hook held 
in the left hand, and severed with the hook that is wielded in the 
right hand. ' You can go and hack that pea-haulm when you have 
done this hoeing' (W.P.M.). Hmp. To harvest beans, the reapers 
using two hooks, one wherewith to cut, and the other, an old one, 
wherewith to pull up the halm, WISE New Forest (1883) 288; 
(W.H.E.) ; Hmp. 1 , Wil. (W.H.E.) 

Hence (i) Hacked, ppl. adj. of a path or track : cleared, 
made passable ; (2) Hack-hook, sb. a curved hook with a 
long handle, used for cutting tares or peas, or for trimming 

(i) Nhp. A keeper pointed out to me a recently cleared path 
which he described as the 'hacked way,' TV. & Q. (1878) 5th S. 
ix. 575. (2) Sus. 1 Hmp. HOLLOW AY. 

21. To uproot turnips, &c., with a turnip-hack. 

s.Not. It is done after the upper part of the root has been gnawed 
off by the sheep, in order to make the remainder available. ' He's 
bruck 'is 'ack, 'ackin them tunnips' (J.P.K.). Dor. The swede-field 
in which she and her companion were set hacking, HARDY Tess 
(1891) xliii. 

22. To throw up earth in ridges by ploughing or hoeing. 
Hrt. Combing is also called hacking and are synonymous names 

for one and the same operation, ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) VIII. 36. 

23. To rake up hay into rows. 

Not. Is the hay hacked in ! (J.H.B.) Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 The grass, as 
it falls from the mower's scythe, is called a swathe, which is 
tedded or spread over the whole surface of the meadow ; it is next 
hacked, or separated into small rows. War. LEWIS 67. (1839). 




s.Wor. 1 Bdf. (J.W.B.); Spread the swarths about the ground, 
and afterwards hack it into small rows, BATCHELOR Agric. (1813) 
429. w.Mid. When you have done shaking out these windrows, 
you may go and hack in over yonder (W.P.M.). Sus. 1 

Hence Hack-rake, v. to rake the hay together after it 
has been spread out to dry. se.Wor. 1 

24. To win everything at games of marbles, &c. 

Cum. When we'd hacked the lads aw roun us, ANDERSON Ballads 
(1805) in, ed. 1808; Gl. (1851). 

25. With at: to imitate. Yks. (HALL.), w.Yks. 1 

26. To hesitate ; to hesitate in speech ; to stammer, 
stutter. Cf. hacker, v. 2. 

Nhb. 1 He hicked at forst, but they gat him to gan on. n.Yks. 2 , 
Shr. 2 , e.An. 1 Nrf. How that man did hack (W.R.E.) ; (E.M.) 

Hence (i) Hacka, sb. a nervous hesitation in speaking. 
Wil. 1 ; (2) Hocker, sb. one who stammers. Nrf. (E.M.) 

27. Phr. (i) to hack and har, (2) and haw or hew, (3) 
and hammer or hammer, to hum and haw ; to hesitate 
or stammer in speech. 

(i) Oxf.i (2) War. 2 3 se.Wor.i Why doesn't spell the words, 
an" nat stond 'ackin' an' haowin' athattens ? Glo. Horae Subsecivae 
( J 777)- (3) Shr. 2 Hacks and hammers at his words. Oxf.iDwunt 
stan u ak-in un onvuurin dhaa'r [Dwun't Stan' a 'ackin' an' 'om- 
merin' thar]. I.W. (J.D.R.) 

28. Of the teeth : to chatter. Cf. hacker, v. 4. 

Lan. Meh teeth hackut imeh yed agen, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. 
(1740) 23 ; Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 nw.Der. 1 Thy teeth hacks i' th? yead. 
Dev. (HALL.) 

29. To snap at with the mouth. 

s.Chs. 1 Dh)uwd saay)z got'n pigz, bur ah doo daayt 60 i)nu 
gbo'in taak' t(5o urn reytli, fur 60 aak's aat 1 tim wenevur dhi 
kiimn kloos up t6o ur [Th 1 owd sai's gotten pigs, bur ah do dai't 
hoo inna gooin' tak to 'em reightly, fur hoo hacks at 'em whenever 
they com'n cloose up to her]. 

30. To cough frequently and distressingly ; to cough in 
a hard, dry manner. Cf. hacker, v. 5. 

Stf. 2 Used almost entirely in the phr. ' to cough and ack.' 
sw.Lin. 1 He has been hacking like that all night. War. Leamington 
Courier (Mar. 6, 1897) ; War. 3 He hacks so at night ; War. 4 , 
s.War. 1 , e.An. 1 , Sus. 1 

Hence Hacking or Hicking, ppl. adj. of a cough : 
hard, dry. 

n.Yks. 2 sw.Lin. 1 He has such a hacking cough. s.Lln. (T.H.R.), 
Nhp.^Brks-^Hnt^T.P.F.), e.An. 1 Nrf. I fare to have sich a hacking 
cough (W.R.E.). Cor.' 

HACK, sb. 2 Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also in forms ack- Chs. 1 ; eck w.Yks. ; haek Sh.I. ; haik 
Bnff. 1 Frf. Ayr.Lth.; hake Abd. Lth.; heck Or.I. Cai. 1 Per. 
Rnf. Ant. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Lakel. 1 Cum. 14 Wm. n.Yks. 12 
ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 234S Lan. 1 n.Lan. 1 ne.Lan. 1 
Der. 1 Not. 2 3 n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 Nhp. 1 Hrf. e.An. [h)ak, aek, 
h)ek.] 1. A rack or manger to hold fodder for horses 
or cattle in a stable. 

Sc. (G.W.), Or.I. (S.A.S.), Bnff. 1 Ayr. [He] mounted into the 
hack, and hid himself among the hay, GALT Gilhaize (1823) iv. 
n.Cy. BAILEY (1721) ; GROSE (1790) ; (K.) ; N.Cy. 12 Nhb. MORTON 
Cyclo. Agric. (1863); Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 , Cum. 24 ,n.Yks.(T.S.), n.Yks. 124 , 
ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788) ; e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 
T'stable lad went in wi a pale ov waiter ta put ontut eck, reddy 
fer use, Yksman. Comic Ann. (1878) 21 ; Horses owt ta be weel 
fettald dahn and fodderd wi oats and beans and t'heck filled wi 
good sweet hay, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. (1873) 45; 
w.Yks. 1234 *, ne.Lan. 1 , Not. 23 , s.Not. (J.P.K.), Der. 2 Lin. GROSE 
(1790). n.Lin. 1 We mun hev them hecks mended e' th' coo staables, 
th' beas" waaste the'r fother theare shaameful. sw.Lin. 1 , s.Lin. 
(T.H.R.) Hrf. The young horses and brood mares [are fed] in 
hecks under a shade, Reports Agric. (1793-1813) 25. Nrf. (HALL.) 

Hence Heckstower, 56. a rack-staff. Yks. (HALL.) 
2. Phr. (i) hack and harbour, food and shelter; (2) 
and manger, free quarters, plenty, abundance, esp. in phr. 
to live athack and manger. 

(i) iLYks. 1 ' To eat one out of heck and harbour,' ot a poor 
man's family with good appetites ; n.Yks. 2 ' Cleared out of heck 
and harbour,' destitute both of food and shelter. (2) Sc. Maintained 
puir Davie at heck and manger maist feck o' his life, SCOTT 
IVaverley (1814) Ixiv. Cai. 1 Bnff. The marauding Bully, who 
had been living at haik and manger, GORDON Chron. Keith (1880) 
143. Abd. At hake and manger, Jane and ye sail live, Ross 

Helenore (1768) 124, ed. 1812. w.Sc. The members of Presbytery 
had often lived at heck and manger in their houses, MACDONALD 
Settlement (1869) 17, ed. 1877. Per. She'll hae her run o' heck 
an' manger sae lang as she lives, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 
296. Rnf. They that live at heck an' manger Sigh vainly for ' the 
little stranger,' YOUNG Pictures (1865) 166. Ayr. Ne'er-do-well 
dyvours and licht limmers who leeved at hack and manger, SERVICE 
Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 74 ; Wasting baith at heck and manger wi' 
bardie leddies, GALT Sir A. Wylie (1822) xvii. Slk. Her ladyship 
. . . was bred at the same heck an' manger as oursels, HOGG Tales 
(1838) 80, ed. 1866. Nhb. (R.O.H.), w.Yks. 1 sw.Lin. 1 ' He lives 
at heck and manger,' said of one who has free quarters, the run 
of his teeth. 

3. A crib for fodder from which animals are fed in the 
open air. Also in comb. Stand-hack. 

Lth. Sparred boxes for holding fodder for sheep, MORTON Cyclo. 
Agric. (1863). Dur. 1 A four-sided rack (raised some height from 
the ground) of wood bars for holding straw in a fold-yard. e.Yks. 
(Miss A.), e.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 A moveable rack, sometimes placed 
on a trestle ; at other times, having fixed supports. w.Yks. He 
pickt five or six [recruits] aght at renks at wor az knock-kneed az 
a stan d heck, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. ( 1 853) 43 ; w.Yks. 5 , 
s.Not. (J.P.K.) Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 337. 

4. A wooden frame on which fish are hung to dry. 

Sc. An' hing ye up like herrin' on a hake, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 
71 ; (JAM.) Sh.I. Ye sail get dem [herrings] asl get dem, uncle, an' 
a haek ta Sibbie, Sh. News (Aug. 13, 1898). Bnff. 1 Three pieces of 
wood nailed together in the shape of a triangle and filled with 
small spikes on which to hang fish. 

5. That part of a spinning-wheel armed with teeth, by 
which the spun thread is conducted to the ' pirn.' 

Frf. I wish you would take your arm off the haik, BARRIE Tommy 
(1896) 128. Lth. (JAM.); Fringe-hake, a small loom on which 
females work their fringes (it.). Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 
259, ed. 1876. Ant. An elliptical bow of wood, the arms of which 
extend in the direction of the bobbin-spindle, and have their edges 
set with crooked teeth, made of iron wire, to direct the thread 
equally over the spool or bobbin of the common spinning wheel, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 

6. A wooden frame or rack on which cheeses are hung 
to dry. 

Sc. A wooden frame, suspended from the roof, containing dif- 
ferent shelves, for drying cheeses (JAM.). Cai. 1 Abd. A hake 
was frae the rigging hanging fu' O' quarter kebbocks, Ross 
Helenore (1768) 83, ed. 1812. 

7. An open kind of cupboard suspended from the wall. 
Bnff. 1 

8. A slightly raised bank or wall on which bricks are 
set up to dry before going into the kiln. 

Glo. 1 Mid. Rye straw is used by brickmakers, to cover their 
hacks, MIDDLETON View Agric. (1798) 418. w.Mid. Newly made 
bricks, before being baked, are placed to dry in rows, called 
'hacks' (W.P.M.). Sus. (F.E.S.), Wil. 1 Som. JENNINGS Obs. 
Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 The rain come 
avore we'd agot time vor to cover em, and spwoiled the wole hack 
o' bricks. 

Hence Hackstead, sb. the place where bricks are laid 
out to dry in a brick-garth. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Obs. Chs. 1 Acksted, a foundation of sods for the 
drying wall in a brickfield. 

9. pi. The bottom or hard bricks of an undried brick 
walL n.Yks. (I.W.) 

10. A hatch ; a half-door or hatch-door ; a small gate or 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790); Trans. Phil. Soc. (1858) 160 ; (K.) ; N.Cy. 2 
Lakel. 2 Cum. 2 ; Cum. 4 An iron heck with bars about five inches 
apart was fixed to the bridge, Carlisle Pat. (Aug. 31, 1894) 3. 
Cum., Wm. The hatch or gate between a barn and cowhouse, 
NICOLSON (1677) Trans. R. Lit. Soc. (1868) IX. n-Yks. 1 When 
a door is made to open in two parts, the upper half which fastens 
with a latch, is the Heck. The lower part fastens with a bolt 
or bolts, and is sometimes called Half-heck; n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 
THORESBY Lett. (1703) ; HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781); WILLAN 
List Wds. (1811); w.Yks. 3 *, Lan. 1 , n.Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 , Der. 1 Lin. 
BAILEY (1721). Nhp. 1 , e.An. 1 Nrf. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1787). 

11. Comb, (i) Heck-door, the door between the kitchen 
of a farm-house and the stable or farm-yard ; (2) -stake, 
the door-stake or night-bar ; (3) -stead, the doorway ; (4) 
stead fat, a facetious name for water ; see below ; (5) 




-slower or -staver, the portable beam across the middle 
of the hatchway ; (6) -way, see (3). 

(i) B.Sc. (JAM.) Ayr. The cattle . . . gen. entered by the same 
door with the family, . . turning the contrary way by the heck- 
door to the byre or stable, Agric. Surv. 114 QAM.). w.Yks. 2 
(2, 3) n.Yks. 2 (4) ib. ' Hecksteead fat,' a facetious term in the 
country for water ; it being usual in farm-houses to keep a supply 
in ' pankins ' in the passage, or recessed behind the door. ' If 
you'll stay tea, you shall have a cake knodden wi' hecksteead fat,' 
which implies a cake made of flour and water only ; but in the 
good nature of hospitality, the cakes turn out to be as rich as 
butter and currants can make them. (5) ib. e.Yks. Trees . . . 
will serve for . . . heckstowers, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) tai. nXin. 1 
s.Lin. Two o' the heck-stawers 's brok (T.H.R.). (6) n.Yks. 2 

12. Phr. to bark at the heck, to be kept waiting at the door. 
Cum. (M.P.), Cum. 14 

13. The inner door between the entry and the ' house- 
place ' or kitchen. 

n.Cy. (J.L.) (1783). Nhb. 1 Cum. A door, half of rails, or what is 
called in the south a ' hatch,' in old farm-houses opened from the 
entry, between the mill-doors, to the hallan ^M.P.). n.Yks. 1 ' Steck 
t'heck, bairn," latch or fasten the inner door. ne.Yks. 1 It blaws 
cau'd ; steck t'heck. e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). 

14. Contp. (i) Heck-door, the inner door of a house only 
partly panelled and the rest latticed ; (2) -stead, the site 
or place of the inner door between the entry and the 
' house-place ' or kitchen. 

(I) N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Cnni. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 305. (a', 
n-Yks. 1 We'll noo gan thruff [through] t'heck-stead inti' t'kitchen. 

15. A weather-board at a barn door to keep out the rain. 
Lan. You pull your faces as long as a barn door 'eck, ELLIS 

Pronunc. ( 1889) V. 356. 

16. A latch. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Wm. The girl unsneck'd the raddle heck, 
HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 1. 372 ; When gust bi gust blew up 
the heck, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 13. m-Yks. 1 Steck t'heck [drop 
the latch]. Steck t'door, and don't let t'heck go down. w.Yks. 2 

17. A kind of screen forming a passage ; see below. 
s.Dur. Still found in some old farm-house kitchens when the 

door and fireplace both occur on one side of the room. ' She 
threshed me a-back o' t'heck.' ' He placed the besom-shank where 
it always stood, namely, a'-back-ed-heck ' (J.E.D.). Wm. The mell- 
door opened into the Heck, a narrow passage six feet long, and 
leading into the house, Lonsdale Mag. (1822) III. 249; The 
passage [heck] was separated from the house by a partition of old 
oak, and only seldom of stone. This partition was frequently 
carved and bore the date, and the builder's name ; and was 
denominated the heck. In houses of the most ancient date, this 
heck reached to the first beam of the upper story, where a huge 
octagonal post formed its termination, ib. 251 ; Drest in a shroud 
wi noiseless step Up t'heck comgliden in, WHITEHEAD Leg. ^1859) 
14, ed. 1896 ; As dark as a heck L the unlighted passage found in 
many of the older class of farm-houses] (B.K.). 

18. The tail-board or movable board at the back of 
a cart. Also in comp. Heck-board. Cf. hawk, sb.* 

N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Cnm., Dnr. 1 , sJ>ur. (J.E.D.) Wm.(J.M. ; (E.C.) 
s.Wm. (J.A.B.), ne.Liin. 1 . Not. 2 , Nhp. 1 

19. A wooden grating or fence set across a stream to 
catch fish or to obstruct their passage ; a swinging fence 
where a wall crosses a stream. 

Sc. To require the said proprietors and tenants ... to put 
proper hecks on the tail-races of their canals, to prevent salmon 
or grilse from entering them, Abd. Jrn. (Aug. 2, 1820) (JAM.). 
s.Sc. Speaks o' hecks (a new invention) 'Cross dam an' ditch, 
WATSON Bards (1859) 53. Wgt. The Scavengers are ... to keep 
the syvors sunk, runners and iron hecks thereon always clear and 
clean, FRASER Wigtown (1877) 81. s.Dur. (J.E.D.), Lakel. 1 
Com. Sat and screecht on t'watter heck, DICKINSON Cumin: (1876) 
256. e.Yks. The best and readyest way of keepinge up the water 
is to set downe broade and close doore or coupelynings against 
some heck or bridge, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 18. w.Yks. Leeds 
Merc. Supf>l. (July 1 1, 1896) ; LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882- Gl. 

20. A shuttle in a drain. n.Lin. 1 

21. A hedge. 

Lin. KENNETT Par. Antiq. (1695); (K.) n.Lin. 1 Rare. 'It 
ewsed to stan' up by yon heck yonder agean th' beach tree.' 

EThe forms in all their meanings may be referred to 
. hec(c, also hcec(c (SWEET). 1O. Of paradys he opened 
be hekke, Minor Poems (Vernon MS.) (c. 1350) xxiv. 331.] 

HACK, sb? and z/. 2 Suf. Wil. Som. Also in form hock 
Wil. 1 1. sb. In comp. Hack-horse, a hackney, roadster. 

w-Som. 1 Tis a useful sort of a hack-horse [aak-au's] like, but I 
'ont zay he've a-got timber 'nough vor to car you. 

2. A hardworking man ; a drudge. Suf. (HALL.), e.Suf. 

3. v. To ride on horseback along the road. 

w.Som. 1 I've a-knowed th'old man hack all the way to Horner, 
to meet, . . and hack home again arterwards. 

4. Phr. to hack about, (i) to scamper, ride hard ; to give 
a horse no breathing time or rest ; (2) to treat a thing 
carelessly, drag it through the mud. 

(i) w.Som. 1 Ter'ble fuller to ride ; I wid'n let-n hack about no 
'oss o' mine vor no money. (2) Wil. 1 ' Now dwoan't 'ee gwo 
a-hocken on your new vrock about.' The usual form in s.Wil. is 

5. To work hard. 

e.Suf. He hacks that poor fellow dreadfully. Mind yow don't 
hack yowrself to dead (F.H.). 

HACK, sb* Yks. e.An. [ak, aek.] Havoc, injury, 
damage. Also in comp. Hackwark, and used advb. 

n.Yks. 2 ' They made mair hack than mends," there was more 
injury done than good effected. w.Yks. (J.W.) e.An. 1 A flock of 
sheep playing hack. Birds play hack with fruit trees. e.Snf. To 
play hack, to frolic. To play hack with, to spoil, injure (F.H.). 

HACK, sb? e.Dur. 1 Filth, dirt. 

Aa canna get the hack off tha. 

HACK, v? > Obs. Sc. To hawk, sell by peddling. 

Edb. It's hack'd frae town to town abuse't, An' house to house, 
LIDDLE Poems (1821) 80. 

HACK, see Hag(g, sb. 2 , Hake, sb. a , Heck, v. 2 , Howk. 

HACKAMUGGIE, sb. Sh.I. The stomach of a fish 
stuffed with a hash of meat, ' sounds,' and liver. S. & Ork. 1 
Cf. hack, sb. 1 12. 

HACKASING, prp. Chs. Lin. Hrf. Also in forms 
accussin Chs. 1 ; hakussing n.Lin. 1 [a'k-, se'kasin. J 
Disputing, wrangling ; moving about violently as people 
do when in anger ; doing work in a violent or angry 
way. Also used as sb. Cf. yackaz. 

Chs. 1 Nah then ! no accussin. n.Lin. 1 I could see sum'ats was 
wrong as soon as I went in ; she was puttin' dinner things by, an' 
hakussin' aboot all th' time. Hrf. 2 What are yer hackasing at ? 

HACK-BERRY, see Hag-berry. 

HACKBOLT, sb. Cor. The greater shearwater, 
Puffinus major. 

Cor. ROOD Birds (1880) 314. Sc.I. In the Scilly islands, where 
they are called Hackbolts, they are said to be yet more frequent, 
JOHNS Birds (1862) 601 ; SWAINSON Birds (1885) 212. 

HACK-CLAY, sb. Nhb. 1 A whitish sort of clay, found 
in Northumberland moors. 

It is tough, unctuous, of a whitish (colour), and like rotten clay 
(or) like that of the decomposed granite kind found in Cornwall. 

HACKEN, sb. Lakel. 2 A term of disgust. 

T'gurt brossen hacken wad eat tell he dud hissel a mischief. 

HACKER, sb. Lin. War. Wor. Shr. Rdn. Glo. Wil. 
Dor. [a'ka(r), ae'ka(r).] 1. A chopper or hedging-hook 
used by hedgers, &c. ; a bill-hook. 

War. (E.A.P.), War. 2 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 A short, strong, slightly 
curved implement of a peculiar kind, for chopping off the branches 
of fallen trees, &c. ' Axe, hacker, mittins, and other small tools,' 
Auctioneer's Catal, (1870) ; Shr. 2 An axe usually taken to cut up 
cordwood ; it is from 2 to 2j pounds weight, almost straight, and 
set in a wooden handle. Rdn. 1 , Glo. 1 
2. An instrument used in ' hacking ' potatoes ; a hoe. 

Wil. 1 Also known as a Tomahawk. n.Wil. An instrument made 
out of an old three-grained fork, used for ' hacking ' potatoes. Not 
much used nowadays (E.H.G. ). Dor. To grub up the lower or 
earthy half of the root with a hooked fork called a ' hacker,' HARDY 
Tess (1891) xliii ; BARNES Gl. (1863). 
8. A person who dresses stone. n.Lin. 1 

HACKER, v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. Also 
written hakker Cum. 1 Wil. 1 ; and in forms accer e.Yks. ; 
acker Lan. 1 ; akker Nhp. 2 ; ecker Ken.' ; bicker w.Som. 1 ; 
ocker Lan. [ h la-k.T i , ae'k3(r).] 1. To hack in cutting ; 
to cut or chop small. 

s.Sc. (JAM. ; Slk. An his throat was a' hackered an' ghastly was 
he, HOGG Poems (ed. 1865) 65. 




2. Fig. To hesitate in speech ; to stammer, stutter. Cf. 
hack, v. 1 26. 

Cum. He drank and he hakkert and sang, DICKINSON Cumbr. 
(1875) 232 ; Cum. 1 He hakkers an' gits nin on wid his talk ; Cum. 4 
n.Yks. 2 He began to hacker on. ne.Yks. 1 He hackered an' 
stammered. e.Yks. What's thah accering at ? (R.M.) ; e.Yks. 1 
What is tha hackerin an stammerin aboot ? Lan. He ockers, an' 
stutters, an' tries to tell th' tale, STANDING Echoes (1885) II ; Lan. 1 
He ackers and haffles : he's lyin'. s.Chs. 1 A weaker term than 
' stammer." Soa" un Soa')z u gild spee'kur, oa-ni ey aak-urz u bit, 
naat- tu kau' it staanvurin [So and So's a good speaker, on'y he 
hackers a bit, natto caw it stammerin']. Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. 
and Danes (1884) 334. n.Lin. An' soa Aamos scrats his head, an' 
hackers a time or two, PEACOCK Tales (1890) 2nd S. n ; n.Lin." 
s.Lin. He hackers that bad when he speaks it's grievous to hear 
him (T.H. R.). Brks. 1 One is said to 'hacker and stammer' when 
answering disjointedly on account of having no excuse or explana- 
tion forthcoming. s.Cy. GROSE (1790). Ken. (G.B. ), Ken. 1 Sus. 
Hackerin a bit she says, ' I've a mort o' pettigues, Mus Ladds,' 
JACKSON Southward Ho (1894^ I. 200; Sus. 1 , Hrap. (J.R.W. >, 
Hmp. 1 , I.W. 12 Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

Hence (i) Hackering, (a) vbl. sb., (b) ppl.adj. stuttering, 
stammering ; (2) Hackery, adv. in a stammering, stutter- 
ing manner. 

(i, a) n.Yks. 2 s.Lin. What wi' Ted's hackering and Jim's 
grimaaces I ommoast split mi sides wi' laughin' (T.H.R.). e.An. 1 
Nrf. COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 88. (b) Cum. 4 Sad hakkeran 
wark they maade o' ther neamen, W. C. T. (July 9, 1898) 8, col. 5. 
(2) n.Yks. 2 He talks quite hackery. 

3. To shuffle, hesitate. 

n.Lin. 1 He'll be hackerin' aboot wi' foaks till he gets his sen 
atween th' foher walls o' Ketton prison. 

4. To shake or tremble with anger, fear, cold, &c. ; to 
chatter with cold. Cf. hack, v. 1 28. 

Nhp. 2 , Glo. 1 Wil. Our maester's got the ager ! How a hackers 
and bivers, AKERMAN Tales (1853) 55; SLOW Gl. (1892); Wil. 12 
Dor. BARNES Gl. (1863). Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; SWEETMAN 
Wincanton Gl. (1885). w.Som. 1 Why's 'n yeat thy zul, and neet 
bide there hickerin ? This here wind '11 make anybody hickery 
wi' the cold. 

5. To COUgh. Cf. hack, V. 1 30. Lan. 1 He ackers and spits. 
HACKER-BERRY, see Hag-berry. 

HACKET, v. 1 and sb. Oxf. Brks. Sus. Wil. Also in 
forms heccat- Brks. 1 ; heckut- Oxf. 1 ; hicket- Wil. 1 
[ae'kat, e'kat.] 1. v. To cough in a hard, dry manner ; 
to hack. 

Sus. He hackets so with his cough (G.A.W.). 

Hence Hacketing or Heckuting, ppl. adj. of a cough : 
dry, hard, ' hacking.' 

Oxfc 1 Uur a got u naa-sti ek'utin kau-f, un uuy shuodnt uon'duur 

if uur went in u dikluuyn wun u dhaiz yuur daiz ['Er a got a 

naasty'eckutin cough, an' I shouldn't 66nder if 'er went inadecline 

one of thase yer days]. Sus. A hacketing cough (G.A.W.). 

2. sb. A short, dry, wearing cough. In pi. form. Brks. 1 

Hence Heccatty or Hicketty, adj. of a cough : short, 
dry, ' hacking.' Brks. 1 , Wil. 1 

HACKET, v. 2 Som. Also in form hecket-. [arkat.] 
To hop on one leg ; to play ' hop-scotch.' Cf. heck, v?, 

Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 I've a-squat my voot, eens 
I be a-foc'd, otherways to bide still, or else to hackety'pon tother. 

Hence (i) Hackety, (2) Hackety-oyster, (3) Heckity- 
bed, sb. the game of hop-scotch.' 

(i) w.Som. 1 Sometimes called ' ik'utee-aak'utee.' 'Come on, 
Bill ! lets play to hackety ! ' (2) Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). (3) 
Som. SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

HACKIT, see Hawkit. 

HACKLE, sb. 1 and v. 1 Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Nhp. War. 
Won Shr. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Hrt. Ess. Sur. Sus. Hmp. 
I.W. Wil. Dor. Also in forms ackle w. Yks. Hmp. ; aikle 
s.Chs. 1 ; heckle n.Yks. 1 [a-kl, ae'kl.] 1. sb. The 
natural covering of an animal, wool, feathers, &c. ; cloth- 
ing, covering, clothes. Also used Jig. 

n.Yks. 1 ' He has a good hackle on his back ; he does not shame 
his keeper;' of one who is stout and well-looking ; n.Yks. 2 Sub- 
stance about the person, as flesh, clothing. Property in general ; 
n.Yks. 4 ne.Yks. 1 ' A good hackle ' implies good-looking, well- 
cared-for. ' He's got a good hackle ov his back.' e.Yks. 1 He's 

getten a rare hackle on his back [he is very fat]. Hrt. The slug 
slipped his outer skin, or what we call his hackle, ELLIS Mod. 
Hush. (1750) III. ii. 116; The serpent sheds his skin or hackle 
every year, ib. 112. Ess. Trans. Arch. Soc.(i%63) 11.185; (W.W.S.) 

2. A cone-shaped covering of straw placed over bee- 
hives to protect them from cold and wet 

e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 War. Leamington 
Courier (Mar. 6, 1897); War. 24 , s.War. 1 , s.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 , Hrf. 12 
Glo. The covering of a beehive made of reed or halm, Horae Sub- 
secivae(I^^^) 197 ; Glo. 1 , Brks. 1 , Sus. 1 , Hmp. (W.M.E.F.), Hmp. 1 , 
I.W. 1 Wil. BRITTON Beauties ( 1825) ; Wil. 1 Hackle, and sometimes 
Shackle, are used at Deverill, while elsewhere in s.Wil. Bee-hackle 
is the word employed. Dor. 1 

3. The straw covering of the apex of a rick. 
Hrf. 1 , Hmp. 1 Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; Wil. 1 

4. A covering of inverted sheaves spread over the tops 
of others to protect them from the wet. 

Hrf. 12 Sur. 1 Sometimes in harvesting, esp. in wet weather, 
they make a covering which they place over the sheaves, and this 
they call a hackle. 

5. A stook of beans, gen. consisting of three sheaves, set 
up together in a field. 

s.Wor. 1 Glo. (A.B.; ; Beans are usually 'set up in what are 
termed hackles singlets of unusual size,' MARSHALL Rur. Ecori. 
(1789) I. 151 ; Glo. 1 , n.Wil. (G.E.D.) 

6. Hay gathered into a small row. 

War. A smaller row than a swath ; windrow is seven or eight 
hackles put into one for carting, Leamington Courier (Jan. 30, 
1897) ; War. 3 To rake newly made hay into rows or hackles. 

7. v. To dress, put on one's best clothes ; to equip, get 
ready, put in order ; to do anything tidily and well. 

n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 4 Sha's hackled hersel wiv all t'gewgaws 'at 
sha's gitten. w.Yks. Come, hackle tha, Prov. in Brighouse News 
(Aug. 10, 1889) ; Hackle thi frock waist up, Yks. Wkly. Post (May 
9,1896); w.Yks. 1 Come, lass, git thysel hackled; w.Yks. 2 He's gone 
to hackle the horse ; w.Yks. 3 A witness at a trial said, ' Deceased 
hardly knew how to hackle a child.' ne.Lan. 1 s.Chs. 1 ' Ye mun 
begin an' aikle nai',' was the signal given by an old dame who kept 
a school near Wrenbury that lessons were over for the day. 

8. To fit well, be well adapted to. 

m.Yks. 1 A garment hackles well to a person's back ; and a new 
servant to the duties of an old one. ' She hackles well to her work, 
however.' w.Yks. A new servant doing unaccustomed work well 
is said to ackle well to his work, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Apr. 1 1 . 1891) ; 
That coat hackles well (C.C.R."). 
Q. To turn the soil lightly ; to dress or harrow the ground. 

n.Yks. 1 2 ; n.Yks. 4 Thoo mun just hackle aboot t'reeats. m.Yks. > 

10. Fig. To correct, chastise. 

n.Yks. 2 I'll hackle thy back for thee. w.Yks. 5 Au nivver knew 
a man so hackled i' mi' lauf. 

11. To cover bee-hives with ' hackles ' or straw coverings. 
War. 3 Shr. 1 It's gettin' time to 'ackle an' clicket the bees 

theer'll be a snow afore long. 

12. To cover outstanding corn by placing inverted 
sheaves over the ' mow,' so as to protect it from the wet. 

War. 3 , s.Wor. 1 Shr. [ I 'spect the glass is gwei'n down, fur they'n 
begun to 'ackle the corn i' the lung leasow. 

Hence Hackling-sheaves, sb. pi. inverted sheaves 
placed over outstanding corn. Shr. 1 

13. To gather hay into small rows. 

War. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863); War. 23 ; War. 4 Feyther, 
baint us to hackle the hay this arternoon ? s.War. 1 Oxf, 1 To rake 
hay into rows after it has been ' tedded ' : usually called to hackle 
in, or up. 

Hence Hackling, sb. hay gathered into small rows ; 
see below. 

Nhp. 1 Three hatchels or hacklings thrown together into one 
broad row or swathe, are termed a win-roworwindrow (s.v. Hack). 

14. To bind beans and set them up in stocks. Wor. 

[1. OE. hacele, a cloak (^ELFRIC) ; Goth, hakuls, OHG. 
hachul, ' cuculla ' (GRAFF).] 

HACKLE, sb. 2 and v." Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. 
Also written hacele Chs. 1 ; and in forms eckle w.Yks. 
Nhp. 1 ; ekkle w.Yks.; heckle Sc. (JAM.) Lnk. N.Cy. 1 
Nhb. 1 Dur. (K.) Cum. 1 n.Yks. w.Yks. 235 Chs. 1 Der. 2 
nw.Der. 1 Not. [h)a'kl, h)e'kl, as-kl.] 1. sb. The crest or 
neck feathers of a cock or bird. 

Nhb. 1 Dur. The heckle of a fighting cock (K.). Cum. 1 Cum., 




Wm. The word heckle in a cock's feathers is probably used when 
the plumage falls in points of varied colour (M.P.). w.Yks. 123 , 
Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 8 , I.W. 1 Dev. Reports Provinc. 
(1885) 96. 

2. Fig. Temper, dander, esp. in phr. to get or set up one's 

n.Yks. Dunnot thee be so ready to set up the heckle agin, Why 
John (Coll. L.L.B.) w.Yks. He's a short-tempered thing, he gets 
his eckle up with nout (M.N.) ; Settin' up his ekkle an' hinderin' 
boath father and son, Ykstnan. Comic Ann. (1880) 43 ; w.Yks. 2 
Don't set up your heckle at me ; w.Yks. 3 ; w.Yks. 5 He's nowt to 
be sticking up his heckle abart, soa let him hod his noise ! Nhp. 1 
'To set up your eckles,' is to give yourself airs, to rouse your 
spirit. Mid. They have such a knack of setting one another's 
hackles up, BLACKMORE Kit (1890) II. x. Dev. The girl's got her 
hackle up, poor plucky little minx! STOOKE Not Exactly, xii. 
n,Dev. Zo ott's this hackle vor? ROCK Jim an' Nell 11867) st. 7. 
nw.Dev. 1 I rack'n he'd a-got his hackle up, had'n a, think ? 

Hence (i) Hackled, adj. peevish, cross-grained, 
angry ; (2) Heckle-tempered, adj. short-tempered, hasty, 

(i) n.Cy. (HALL.) Chs. A hackled cow has short horns (K.). 
n.Dev. Till wan day, tachy, hackled, forth, ROCK Jim an' Nell 
(1867) st. 81. (a) Chs. 18 

3. An angler's artificial fly, usually made from the neck 
feather of a cock ; the long piece of gut at the end of a 
line, together with the artificial fly attached. Also in comp. 

Lnk. I'll do my best, I think I'll try the heckle, STEWART Twa 
Elders (1886) 143. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. The fishers they try Wi' hackle 
an' fly, RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk. (1846) VIII. 184; Nhb. 1 
' The bonny reed heckle,' usually made from the red feathers of a 
cock. Another artificial fly is the black heckle or BJaewing. 
w.Som. 1 The flies themselves severally are never so called, but the 
name is used for the whole apparatus, gut and flies together. A 
feather from a fowl's neck, suitable for making an artificial fly. 
' Our Jim can dress a hackle way anybody.' 

4. The hair or bristles on a dog's back. 

Nhb. Up came the other hounds quickly with raised hackles, 
ARMSTRONG Otter Hunting (1879) ; Nhb. 1 Not He set his heckles 
up, as if he'd fly at me. They were running to kill their fox, 
with all their heckles up (L.C.M.). [MAYER Sptsmn's Direct. 
(1845) 142.] 

5. The mane of a hog. WU.BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; wil. 12 

6. pi. The ears of barley and oats. Also in phr. in 
hackle, in ear. 

War. The oats are in hackle, Leamington Courier (Jan. 30, 
1897) ; War. 3 ; War. 4 Cut your oats when they hackles is green, 
if yur 'd save the King and Queen. 

Hence Hackle, v.of oats, &c. : to form large heads orears. 

War. 3 When oats form large heads of corn they are said to 
hackle well. 

7. The stickleback, Gasterosteus trachurus. Dev. (HALL.) 
[SATCHELL (1879).] 

8. v. To look angry or indignant ; to grumble, dispute. 
Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 305. Chs. Sheaf (1878) I. 60; 

Chs. 1 Der. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) ; Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 

[1. Take the hackel of a cock or capons neck, WALTON 
Angler (1653) no; The wynges of the drake & of the 
redde capons hakyll, Treatise of Fysshynge (c. 1425), ed. 
Satchell, 34.] 

HACKLE, sb? Nhp. See below. 

O'er the flood the hackle swarms, CLARE Remains (1873) 160 ; 
The coarse bits of twitch left after raking hay, which would 
readily float if the field were flooded. When the floods are 
severe, they bring down on their surface a sort of scum of bits of 
grass stalks and light bits of grass (W.D.S.). 

HACKLE, v." and sb* Brks. Hmp. Wil. [as-kl.l 

1. v. To conspire, agree together. WiL' 1 , Brks. 1 , Hmp. 1 

2. sb. A conspiracy, cabal. 

Brks. 1 Labourers are said to be 'all of a hackle' when making 
agreement together to get higher wages or shorter time for work. 

[2. If a majority of the old hackle come in again, Norris 
Papers (c. 1700), Chetham Soc. (1846) 74.] 

HACKLE, v* Wil. [arkl.] To rattle, re-echo. 

Wil. 1 n. Wil. How them gunsdo hackle to-night, don 'em? (E.H.G.) 

[Cp. Norw. dial, hakla, to give a crackling sound (AASEN).] 

HACKLE, v? Som. Amer. To haggle, chaffer. 
w.Som. 1 They'd bide and hackly [haa'klee] for an hour about 
twopence. [Amer. Dial. Notes (1896) I. 379.] 

HACKLE, v. Midi. Lin. Fa-Id.] To draw from the 
earth by the roots ; to dig. Cf. hack, v. 1 18. 

Midi. To 'hackle turneps,' to pull them up with a little two- 
pronged hack, MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796) II. Lin. 1 

HACKLE, v. 7 Lan. Glo. e.An. [a'kl, as-kl.] L To 
shackle or tether animals to prevent their running away. 

e.An. 1 Snf. The fastening is usually made of hair, with an eye 
at one end and a toggle round the other, round the fetlocks of a 
cow to prevent her kicking when milked, RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 
394, ed. 1849; Snf. 1 , e.Snf. (F.H.) 

Hence Hackled, pp., fig. hampered or inconvenienced 
from scarcity of money. e.Lan. 1 

2. A gamekeeper's term : to interlace the hind-legs of 
game for convenience of carriage by houghing the one and 
slitting the sinew of the other. Glo. 12 

HACKLE, v.* and sb. s Mid. Som. 1. v. To apply 
oneself to anything ; to undertake with energy. Also 
with to. Cf. hackle, v. 1 8. 

w Mid. ' He's got a lot of sons, but they're no good for the 
business they won't hackle.' ' There's plenty of work about ; 
but the drunken rascals won't hackle to it' (W.P.M.). 

2. sb. A good job. Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

3. Phr. just one's hackle, exactly suitable, just what one 
likes. Cf. hackle, v. 1 8. 

w.Mid. ' That bit o' fat pork's jest his 'ackle.' ' That there job 
seems to be jest his hackle ' (W.P.M.). 

HACKLE, see Heckle, sb. 1 

HACKLE-BERRY, sb. N.I. 1 A growth on a horse's 
leg. Also called Angle-berry (q.v.). 

HACKLED, ppl. adj. Cum. See below. Cf. hackle, v. 7 

Cum. 4 The exact meaning of hackled has passed out of recollec- 
tion ; I suggest that ' plaited ' was intended. ' Halters of hemp 
both heads and shanks ; But some were made of hackled seives,' 
Carlisle Pat. (May 13, 1870). 

HACKLEY, sb. Irel. The perch, Perca fluvialilis. 

s.Don. So called from the sharp points on the dorsal fin, 
SIMMONS Gl. (1890). 

HACKLING, ppl. adj. Chs. Lin. Glo. Som. [a'k-, 
ae'klin.] Of a cough : dry, hard, ' hacking.' 

Chs. 1 Go's getten sitch a hacklin cough ; Chs. 3 sw.Lin. 1 He 
has that nasty hackling cough and raising. Glo. 'J.S. F.S.), Som. 

HACKMAL, sb. Som. Dev. Cor. Also in forms ack- 
mal n.Dev. ; ackymal Dev. Cor. ; ekky-mal Cor. 3 ; ekky- 
mowl Cor. 128 ; hack-mull n.Dev.; hacky-maH w.Som. 1 
nw.Dev. 1 Cor. ; hakkimal Cor. ; heckamall Dev. ; hecke- 
mal Dev. 1 ; heck-mall Dev. ; heckymal Dev. Cor. 8 ; 
hekkymal Cor. 1 ; hick-mall Cor. 12 ; hickymal s.Dev.; 
uckmaul Dev. [ae'kmael.] 1. The common tomtit or 
blue titmouse, Parus caeruleus. See Hag-maid. 

w.Som. 1 We 'ant a got no gooseberries de year, the hacky-mals 
eat all the bud. Dev. There's a hackmal's nest out in a hole in 
the awpel tree, HEWETT Peas. Sf>. (1893) ; The heck-mall, a busy 
bird, and fond of making himself comfortable, BRAY Desc. Tamat 
and Tavy (1836) I. 319 ; A hok, ur kit's, no mor tel granny, Than 
enny heckymal, ur ranny, Es to a gooze vur zize like, DANIEL 
Bride of Scio (1842) 187; He'll go snuggle into the straw like a 
heckamall in a rick, BARING-GOULD J. Herring (1888) 23; Dev. 1 
n.Dev. Tie a bullbagger to tha tree, I zeed tha ackmals thare, 
ROCK /('man' AW/ (1867) st 5; Fox Kingsbridge (1874) ; (E.H.G.) 
nw.Dev. 1 , s.Dev. (F.W.C.) Dev., Cor. From the strong pecks 
which it deals with its bill are derived the names hickmall, 
hackmall, &c., SWAINSON Birds (1885) 34. s.Dev., e.Cor. (Miss D.) 
Cor. (J.W.) ; ROOD Birds (1880) 314 ; Cor. 128 
2. The great titmouse, Parus major. Dev. SWAINSON ib. 34. 

HACKNEY, sb. and v. Sc. Lan. Der. Lei. Shr. Hrf. 
Som. Dev. Also in forms agney e.Lan. 1 ; hocknie S. & 
Ork. 1 [hja'kni, ae-kni.] 1. sb. A saddle-horse; an 
easy-paced, lady's horse. 

Sc. His hackney will be set up with the day's work, and now 
he has no fresh horse, SCOTT Bride of Lam. (18191 vi. Sh.1. (Coll. 
L.L.B.) ; S. ft Ork. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 Shr. 1 ' Whad ! han'ee got 
two 'ackneys?' 'Aye, that's a spon new un fur the Missis.' 
Shr., Hrf. BOUND Provinc. (18761. Som. The servan' chap was 
going for to let out the 'ackney, ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 153. 



2. Comp. Hackney-saddle, a riding-saddle ; the ordinary 
saddle on which a man (not a woman) rides. 

Lan. I got my two mares and set the saddle on the little one 
for a load and the hackney saddle on the great one to ride on, 
WALKDEN Diary (ed. 1866) 66. nw.Der. 1 w.Som. 1 This is a relic 
of the time when the pack-saddle was commonest, and hence the 
riding-saddle had to be distinguished. If spoken of as an equipment 
for a saddle horse, we always say a [bruydl-n-zad'l] bridle and 
saddle, but if the saddle only were spoken of, we say : Kaar een 
dh-aa'kn'ee-zad'1-n ae'un u due'd [carry in the hackney-saddle 
and have it mended], to distinguish it from the cart or the gig 
saddle. nw.Dev. 1 

3. v . Of horses : to ride quietly, to use as a saddle-horse. 
Lei. 1 A'll dew very well to droive, but a een't seafe to 'ackney 

no loonger. 

HACKSEY-LOOKED, adj. Sh. & Or.I. AJso in form 
hackrey- (JAM.). Having a coarse visage, gruff; pitted 
with small-pox. QAM.), S. & Ork. 1 

HACK-SLAVER, v. and sb. n.Cy. Cum. Yks. Lan. 
Der. Lin. e.An. Also written hack-slavver n.Yks. ; and 
in form keck- w.Yks. 1 1. v. To cut roughly. 

n.Yks. What's t'use ov hack-slavverin on i' that way ? (I. W.) 

2. To stammer and splutter like a dunce at his lesson. 
Used in prp. e.An. 1 

3. sb. A sloven ; an idle, dissolute, good-for-nothing man. 
n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 304. n.Yks. 2 

e.Yks. 1 What can lass meean bl takkin up wi sike a hack-slawer 
as that ? w.Yks. A hasty slovenly fellow, both in habit and deed ; 
but it has a peculiar respect to speaking ill, naturally or morally, 
THORESBY Lett. (1703); He's a great idle hackslavver (L.M.S.) ; 
w.Yks. 14 , Lan. 1 , e Lan. 1 . nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. 1 He's a love-begot an' 
a real hackslaver. 

HACKUM-PLACKUM, adv. Sc. Nhb. In equal shares ; 
in exchange or barter. 

Tev. Each paying an equal share, as of a tavern-bill (JAM.). 
Nhb. (HALL.) 

HACK-WOOD, sb. Nhb. Cum. Wm. The bird-cherry, 
Primus Padus. See Hag-berry. 

Nhb. 1 Hack-wood is a name for the shrub itself, and hacker, 
hack, and hagberry are names for the fruit. Cum., Wm. (B. & H.) 
HACKY, si. Nhb. Also in form whacky (q. v.). [ha'ki.] 
A prostitute ; a term of great contempt. 

In a brawl in the streets of Newcastle (1888) one woman was 
heard to call after another, ' Hacky, hacky, hacky ! ' ' Whacky' 
was formerly the contemptuous term applied by natives of New- 
castle to their neighbours on the south side of the Tyne. ' He's 
nowt but a Durham whacky" (R.O.H.). 
HACKY -MAL(L, see Hackmal. 

HADABAND, sb. Sh.I. Also in form hadiband. A 
wooden band fastening securely the ribs of a boat. 

The main division between the rooms [compartments of a sixern] 
was the fastabaands, or haddabaands, Sh. News (Oct. 21, 1899); 
Da boat wis filled ta da hadabaands, SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) 250; 
S. & Ork. 1 

HADDABAT, sb. Lin. [a'dabat.] The common bat. 
MILLER & SKERTCHLY Finland ( 1878) xii. 
HADDAG, HADDEN, see Haddie, Have, Hold. 
HADDER,^. 1 Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. e.An. Also in 
form hedder Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. 1 Cum. 14 Wm. e.An. [h)a'da(r, 
h)e'da(r.] 1. Van kinds of heather or ling, esp. Calluna 
vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and E. cinerea. 

Sh.I. IV tak dy haand in mine, An wale for da saftest hedder, 
JUNDA Klingrahool (1898) 26. n.Cy. GROSE (1790); (K.) ; N.Cy. 2 
Nhb. Reports Agric. (1793-1813', 20 ; Nhb. 1 A house thatched with 
' hedder and straw to gedders, or meadww thake and hadder to 
gedders,' Dec. 14, 1505, WELFORD Hist. Newcastle, 22. Cum. 
Skiddaw stack its hedder up, RICHARDSON Talk (1876) 2nd S. 14. 
Cum., Wm. N. & Q. (1873) 4th S. xi. 40. w.Yks. You mun mind 
your dresses w'en you get to the hadder (F.P.T.). e.Cy., e.An. 
(B. & H.) 

Hence (i) Hedder-faced, adj. rough-faced, unshaven ; 
(2) Heddery or Hedry, adj. heathery ; fig. rough, shaggy. 
(i) Cum. He's nobbet a hedder-feac'd mazlin, ANDERSON Ballads 
(ed. 1840) 24; Whea's the hether-feac'd chap? ib. in; Cum. 1 
(2) Abd. Afore he us'd to bare his hedry pow, Where'er we met, 
SHIRREFS Poems (1790) 87. 

2. Comp. (i) Hedder-grey, (2) -linty, the twite or rock 
Untie, Linotaflavirostris. Cum. 4 


[They lay upon the ground, as the redshanks do on 
hadder, BURTON Anat. Mel. (1621), ed. 1896, III. 220; With 
peittis, with turuis, and mony turse of hedder, Sat. Poems 
(c. 1570), ed. Cranstoun, I. 222 ; Full feill fagaldys in to the 
dyk thai cast, Hadyr and hay bond, Wallace (1488) xi.SgS.] 

HADDER, sb? and v. Dur. Lakel. Cum. Yks. Also in 
forms hater Wm. 1 ; hather, heather Lakel. 2 [h)a'dar.] 

1. sb. A fine rain or drizzle; a heavy mist or bank of fog. 
s.Dur. (J.E.D.) Lakel. 2 T'party at assd knew neea mair ner a 

fiul what hadder meant, an' they set off withoot top cooats, an' 
come back wet throo, an" gaan on aboot this hadder. Cum. 1 
Cum., n.Yks. -AT & Q. (1882) 6th S. v.55- Wm. 1 It's a sign o' bad 
weather when them hater things cum up Sand. 

Hence Haddery, adj. drizzling. 

Cum. Auld Skiddaw, lap't i' heddery duds, RICHARDSON Talk 
(1876) 2nd S. 13; It's a haddery day, SULLIVAN Cum. and Wm. 
(1857) 81. 

2. A state of perspiration ; sweat. 

Lakel. 2 Fouk at sweets a lot '11 say, ' Ah's o' in a hather.' Cum. 4 

3. v. To drizzle, rain finely. 

s.Dur. It hadders and rains (J.E.D.). Lakel. 2 Nay, it'll rain 
nin, nut it marry ; it may hadder a bit. Cum. It keeps haddering 
and raining, SULLIVAN Cum. and Wm. (1857) 81 ; Cum. 1 It hadders 
and rains on ; Cum. 4 n.Yks. It hadders and roaks, N. & Q. 
(1882) 6th S. v. 55. 

Hence Heatheran, sb. a heavy mist. Lakel. 2 
HADDIE, sb. Sc. Also in forms haadie Ayr.; haddag 
Cai. 1 ; haddo. [ha'di.] 1. The haddock, Morrhua 
aeglefinus; also used a/Mb. 

Sc. A gill of brandy ower bread after the baddies, SCOTT 
Antiquary (1816) v ; Can ye tell me, minister, how mony hooks it 
taks to bait a fifteen score haddie line? DICKSON Auld Min. 
(1892) 132. ne.Sc. We're nae deein' muckle at the baddies eynoo 
ony gate, Gordonhaven (1887) 76. Cai. 1 Per. The ale-wife's 
fairin Ait cakes, saut haddies, and red herrin', SPENCE Poems 
(1898) 169. w.Sc. They catch speldings an' finnan haddies there, 
MACDONALD Settlement (1869) 99, ed. 1877. Ayr. Haadies and 
whiteys ! SERVICE Dr. Dtiguid ied. 1887) 88. Lnk. Mr. Sawdust 
then came up to them, smiling like a ' boilt haddy,' GORDON 
Pyolshaw (1885) 133. Lth. Mussels pickled nice wi' broo ; And 
haddies caller at last carting, MACNEILL Poet. Wks. (1801) 171, ed. 
1856. Edb. After a rizzard haddo, we had a jug of toddy, MOIR 
Mansie Wauch (1828) xi. Slk. ' I, for one, eat no fish for a 
twelvemonth.' 'Oh! the puir harmless haddies!' CHR. NORTH 
Nodes (ed. 1856) III. 219. [SATCHELL ,1879).] 

2. Comp. Haddo-breeks, the roe of the haddock. Rxb. 


HADDIGAUD, see Harry-gaud. 

HADDIN, sb. N.I. 1 [ha'din.] A ' hallan ' or partition 
wall in a cottage facing the door. 

In [it] is the triangular or other shaped 'spy-hole.' 

HADDISH, sb. Obsol. Sc. Also in form haddies- 
Ags. QAM.) A measure of any dry grain ; also in comp. 

Abd. The haddish is one-third of a peck. By Decree Arbitral 
one peck of meal to the miller, and one haddish to the under- 
miller, Proof regarding the Mill of Inveramsay (c. 1814) (JAM.) ; 
According to others a fourth of a peck (JAM.V Ags. Formerly 
used for meting out the meal appropriated for supper to the 
servants. It contained the fourth part of a peck (ib.*). 

HADDLE, v. Glo. To throw out shoots from the root. 
Cf. addle, v? 4. 

In March they are again grited, and sometimes tumped, or 
moulded close round, to make them haddie out, or throw forth 
side shoots, MARSHALL Review (1818) II. 457. 

HADDLE, HADDLIN, HADDO, see Addle, v.\ Head- 
land, Haddie. 

HADDOCK, s*. 1 Sc. Also Som. Dev. Cor. Also in 
form haddick Sh.I. n.Dev. Cor.; haddik Sh.I. 1. In comp. 
Haddock-sand, grounds much frequented by haddocks. 

Sh.I. If da Government hed been mair stricter . . . dey'd been 
less raikin' o' wir haandlin' grand an haddick saands, Sh. News 
(Apr. 2, 1898") ; A galleon belonging to the famous Spanish 
Armada, which sank on a haddock-sand near Reawick Head, 
HIBBERT Desc. Sh. I. (1822) 196, ed. 1891 ; The moonbeams 
sparkled on the waters of the ' Haddik Saand,' BURGESS Lowra 
Biglan (1896) 23. 




2. Phr. as deaf as a haddock, very deaf. Cf. addick. 
w.Som. 1 We seldom hear ' deaf as a post ' or any other than ' so 

deef's a 'addick.' n.Dcv. Tha'rt so deeve as a haddick, Exnt. 
Scold. (1746) 1. 123. Dev., Cor. Common, ELWORTHY Wd-bk. 
(1888 . Cor. I was as deef as a haddick, TREGELLAS 7a/(i868)8. 

3. A term of contempt for any one. 

Dmf. The most insignificant haddock in nature a dirty, greasy, 
cockney apprentice, CARLYLE Lett. (1831). 

HADDOCK, si. 2 Irel. Yks. Also written haddok 
Wxf. 1 1. A shock of corn consisting of a varying 
number of sheaves, a ' hattock.' 

Yks. Ten or twelve sheaves set upright in a double row, MORTON 
Cyclo. Agric. (1863) (s.v. Stock) ; Of six sheaves (G.R.). ne.Yks. 1 
Of eight sheaves. Sometimes distinguished from a stock by not 
having two additional sheaves on the top as a precaution against 
rain. m.Yks.' Commonly twelve. 

2. pi. Imperfectly threshed heads of corn left after win- 
nowing. Wxf. 1 

HADDY-DADDY, see Hoddydoddy. 

HADE, sb. 1 Rut. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor. Oxf. Also in 
forms aid Wor. ; haid Lei. 1 [ed.] A ' headland ' or strip 
of land at the side of an arable field upon which the 
plough turns. 

Rut. 1 A term in field mensuration. ' 6 rodes with hades at both 
ends, a Landes 4 ro. with hades,' Terrier (1635). Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 
A small piece of greensward or grass at the head or end of arable 
land. A word that has gradually fallen into disuse, since the 
inclosure of open fields. War. The word occurs in the Holbech 
Estate Book (1770). It is still in common use (A.L.M.). Wor. 
(E.S.) Oxf. Obs. The description of certeine arable landcs some 
of them havinge hades of meadow and grasse grounde lieinge in the 
Southefielde of Einsham, Map (in Corpus Christ! Coll. Oxon,i6i5). 

Hence Hade-ley, a ' headland.' 

War. Item one other section of land called a hade ley, Terrier 
of Fenny Campion Glebe (1587) ; (A.L.M.) Lei. 1 The upper 'land' 
in a grass field, the lower one being called the 'foot-ley.' Both 
as a rule run at right angles to the rest of the ' lands' in a field. 
In the New Close a hadley and footeleay butting north and south, 
the Town Hill furlong west, the Constable's piece east, Terrier of 
Claybrook Glebe (1638). 

[Horses may be teddered vpon leys, balkes, or hades, 
FITZHERBERT Husb. (1534) 15. Norw. dial, hadd (pi. 
haddir), a slope, an incline, rising ground, esp. on the 
side of a hayfield ( AASEN, s.v. Hall) ; ON. hallr, a slope, 
hill, cp. halla, to slope (ViGFtissoN) ; OHG. halden, ' m- 
clinare' (GRAFF).] 

HADE, sb. 2 and v. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Stf. Der. Also 

written haid Nhb. ; and in form aid w.Yks. 1 Stf. 1 [h)ed.] 

L sb. Mining term : the slope or inclination of a dike 

with the seam in a coal-pit ; the inclination of a vein of 

lead or ore, a sloping vein. 

N.Cy. 1 By it the character of a trouble is determined. Nhb. The 
haids of the several Slip Dykes . . . were ascertained, BUDDLE 
Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Nhb. and Dur. (1831) I. 236; Nhb. 1 Nhb., 
Dur. The slope or inclination of the leader of a dyke, GREEN WELL 
Coal Tr. Gl. (1849). w.Yks. BAINES Yks. Past (1870) 20; w.Yks. 1 
A lodge or vein going downwards, N. or S. out of the perpendicular 
line. Stf. 1 Der. MANLOVE Lead Mines (1653) Gl - ! g- Gl - 
Mining Terms (1830). 
2. v. Of a vein of ore : to incline, dip. 

w.Yks. BAINES Yks. Past (1870) 22 ; (T.T.) Der. MAWE 
Mineralogy (1802) Gl. ; Veins upon an east and west point generally 
hade or slope towards the south and north ; and south veins 
towards the west, MANDER Miners Gl. (1834) ; Where any shaft 
or turn descends like the side of a house or like the descent of a 
steep hill it is said to hade, TAPPING Gl. to Manlove (1851). 

Hence Hading, sb. a sloping vein. 

Der. MANDER Miners Gl. 1824). nw.Der. 1 

[1. The same word as Hade, sb. 1 ] 

HADE, see Heed, Hide, v. 2 

HADEN, adj. Obs. Yks. w.Cy. Also in forms headen, 
heiden w.Yks. Obstinate, headstrong ; ugly. Cf. heady. 

w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781). w.Cy. (HALL.) [GROSE 

HADES, sb. e.Lan. 1 A place between or behind hills 
and out of sight. Cf. hade, sb. 1 
HADGE-, see Hedge-. 
HADICK, sb. Shi A hat. (Coll. L.L.B.) 

HAE, HAED, HAEF, see Have, How, adv., Haet, Half. 

HAEG, HAEL, see Hag, s*. 2 , Hale, adj. 

HAELTY, adv. Sh.I. In phr. ill haelty eetim, nothing 
whatever, ' deil a thing.' 

Da men is aye best aff, haelty ill eetim dey hae ta dU bit tak aft 
der kjaep [cap], an' set dem til, Sfi. News (Sept. 3, 1898) ; Common 

HAEM, HAEMILT, see Hame, sb. 1 , Hamald. 

HAEMONY, sb. Glo. The lemon-scented agrimony, 
Agritnonia Eupatoria. 

It is, I believe, sold to this day in Bristol market under the 
name of Haemony, Monthly Pckt. (1863) V. 467 in (B. & H.). 

HAEN, see Hain, v. 1 

HAENKS, v. Sh.I. [henks-1 With up : to hitch or 

pull up. 

I haenksd up me breeks dis laskit strops is a curse, whin a body 
is carryin' a burdeen, Sh. News (June 4, 1898 . 

HAERST, HAESTIS, see Harvest, Hastis. 

HAET, vbl. phr. and sb. Sc. Irel. n.Cy. Amer. Also 
written hait Sc. N.I. 1 ; hate Sc. s.Don. ; and in forms 
haed Sc. ; haeit Sh.I. ; haid Sc. (JAM.) ; head e.Fif. 

1. vbl. phr. : Deil haet, the Devil have it ! Fiend had, the 
Fiend have it ! used as a strong negative, equivalent to 
' Devil a bit.' 

Sc. Diel haet o' me kens, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xvi. Sh.I. 
Da deil haeit ye got for a second cup but da sam' as wal wattir, 
Sh. News (Feb. 12, 1898). Frf. [He] swore the ficnt haed mair 
He'd draw that day, MORISON Poems (1790! 18. Per. Wi' deil 
haet but a tongue an' slavers To start anew on, HALIBURTON 
Ochil Idylls (1891) 89. Fif. For de'il haet mair hae I to say, 
TENNANT Papistry (1827) 103. e.Fif. Stanes. statics! and scraps 
o' auld eiron ! feint head else, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (,1864) v. Ayr. 
It was sae blunt, Fient haet o't wad hae pierc'd the heart, BURNS 
Doctor Horttboot (.1785) st. 17. Lnk. Fint hate ye gie them but 
wee pickles o' pease-meal, GRAHAM Writings ,'883) II. 227. 
Edb. Deil hait we do will e'er content them ! MACNEILL Bygone 
Times (1811) 17. Feb. On holidays ye did me ride For deil hate 
else but shew, AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (18361 60. Rxb. De'il haet 
was left but runts an' stibble, RUICKBIE Wayside Cottager (1807) 
108. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.") 

2. sb. Phr. Deil a haet. Fient a haet, Deuce a haet, Devil 
a bit. 

Abd. Some thousan' pounds, for fint a hait, Is nae bad notion, 
COCK Strains (1810) II. 90. Rnf. The deuce a haet they could be 
call'd But words and rhyme, M'GILVRAY Poems ^ed. 18621 160. 
Lnk. The deil a hate o' wark she's done the day, BLACK Falls of 
Clyde (1806) 173. Lth. Fient the haet o' them was soun', SMITH 
Merry Bridal (1866) 12. Slk. Feint a haet he minds, HOGG Talcs 
(1838) 363, ed. 1866. N.I. 1 

3. A whit, atom, anything, the smallest thing that can be 
conceived, gen. in negative sentences. 

Inv. ' That s a haet,' it is of no consequence. Used csp. in a 
contemptuous sense (H.E.F V . Kcb. What haet cared they for 
fortune's gifts ? ELDER Borgtit (1897) Io ' Uls. I haven't a haet. 
I didn't do a haet i^M.B.-S. . s.Don. Half-penny worth; a small 
quantity, SIMMONS Gl. (1890). [Amer. Didn't get a hate, Dial. 
Notes ( 1896) I. 389. ] 

4. Phr. (i) haid nor maid, nothing at all ; (2) neither ocht 
nor hale, neither one thing nor another. 

(i) Ags. Used to denote extreme poverty. 'There is neither 
haid nor maid in the house ' (JAM.), (a) Sc. (ib.} 

HAEV, sb. Cai. 1 A small hand-basket used by fisher- 
men to carry bait. 

[Norw. dial, haav, a fisherman's basket (AASEN).] 

HAEVER, see Eaver, sb.' 

HAFER, v. Suf. 1 To act or speak in an unsettled, un- 
steady manner from love or idleness, not necessarily from 
immorality. Gen. in prp. ' A go haferen about.' 

HAFER, HAF(F, see Halver, Haaf, sb. 1 

HAFFANT, sb. Sh.I. Also in form haffin. A para- 
mour. S. & Ork. 1 

HAFFER, v. 1 e.Yks. 1 To speak stammeringly or 
hesitatingly. Cf. baffle, haver, v. 1 

HAFFER, v." Som. Also written halfer. [a'fa(r).] 
To make a noise like the bursting of a pod. 

She told me that [formerly] the youth of both sexes used 
to assemble under the tree [Glastonbury Thorn] at midnight on 
Christmas Eve, in order to hear the bursting of the buds, . . and 



she added, 'As they corned out, you could hear 'um naffer,' 
N. ff Q. (1866) 3rd S. ix. 34. n.Som. As they [buds] corned out 
you could hear'um halfer, TIMES Thoughts for Times and Seasons, 9. 

HAFFER, see Halver. 

HAFFET, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Also written 
haffat Abd. ; haffit Sc. S. & Ork. 1 Nhb. [ha'fat, -it.] 

1. The temple ; side of the face ; gen. in pi. also used attrib. 
Sc. The grey locks that straggled . . . down his weather-beaten 

' haffets,' SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xlii. Sh.I. Da first ane o' da 
tribe o" dem 'at male's for dark'nin' wir door, sail geng oot wi' 
haet haffits, Sh. News (Mar. 5, 1898). S. & Ork. 1 Elg. Guldroch's 
cleuks Your haffits weel will claw, COUPER Poetry (1804) II. 70. 
Abd. Her hand she had upon her haffat laid, Ross Helenore (1768) 
27, cd. 1812. Per. Men bow'd wi' toil an' age wi' haffets auld 
an' thin, NICOLL Poems (ed. 1843) 226. Dmb. Your haffits dressing 
clout for clout, SALMON Gowodean (i868~) 78. Kcd. Wi' haffet locks 
as white 's a daisy, BURNESS Garron Ha' (c. 1826) 1. 10. Rnf. 
And screed till the sweat fa' in beads frae his haffet, TANNAHILL 
Poems (1807) 257, ed. 1817. Lnk. Her haffet locks hang waving 
on her cheek, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (1725) 23, ed. 1783. Lth. 
Dark wave her haffet locks owre her white brow, MACNEILL 
Poet. Wks. (1801) 212, ed. 1856. Edb. A runkled brow, sunburnt 
haffits, and two sharp piercing eyes, MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) 
xx. Bwk. Set the stoor about your haffets, HENDERSON Pop. 
Rhymes (1856) 79. Dmf. O haffet locks look weel whan 
they're bleach'd like the snaw, CROMEK Remains (1810) 116. 
Gall. Mess Hairry . . . had keeled ower Black Coskery wi' ae 
stroke o' his oak clickie on the haffets, CROCKETT Standard Bearer 
(1893) 124. Kcb. Whase haffet a Kilmarnock hood Kept warm 
an" snug, DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 64. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. 
L.L.B.) ; N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Cum.* Wm.& Cum. 1 Seylin sweats their 
haffets bathe, 172. 

Hence Haffet-clawing, vbl. sb. face-scratching. 

Lnk. The fierce haffet-clawin o' an enraged woman, MURDOCH 
Readings (ed. 1895) I. 121. 

2. pi. Locks of hair, gen. growing on the temples. 

Abd. Haffets whiter than the snaw Down ower yer happy 
temples thinly fa', STILL Cottar's Sunday (1845) 159. Frf. The 
carle . . . Wi' his haffets as white as the snaw. WATT Poet. 
Sketches (1880) 115. Fif. Your haffets white an' a' that, DOUGLAS 
Poems (1806) 169. Ayr. His lyart haffets wearing thin an' bare, 
BURNS Cotter's Sat. Night (1785) st. 12. Slk. Time had now 
grizzled his haffets wi' snaw, HOGG Poems (ed. 1865) 67. Rxb. 
Till the arm waxes weak and the haffet grows grey, RIDDELL Poet. 
Wks. (1871) I. 118. N.I. 1 

3. pi. The jaws ; the under-sides of the jaw. 

Nhb. The lugs o' hippocrissy hingin owor thor haffits, CHATER 
Tyneside Aim. (1869) 46; Nhb. 1 

4. Phr. (i) I'll gie you a haffit, and P II scum your chafts to 
you, I will give you a blow on the cheek; (2) I'll take my hand 
from your haffet, I will give you a blow on the cheek ; (3) 
to kaim down one's haffits, to give one a complete drubbing. 

(i) Lth. (JAM.) (2) Sc. KELLY Prov. (1721) 396. (3) Abd. Then 
they may Gallia's braggers trim, An' down their haffits kaim, 
TARRAS Poems (1804) 139 (JAM.). 

[1. Wnfreindlie eild had thus besprent My heid and 
halfettis baith with camus hair, DOUGLAS Eneados (1513), 
ed. 1874, ii. 248. OE. healfluafod, the front part of the 
head (^LLFRIC).] 

HAFFICK, sb. Sus. Tangle, confusion, rubbish, litter. 

Bricklayers use the word in connection with the rubbish or 
litter lying about. ' What a haffick you are making." ' We must 
clear away the haffick' (F.W.L.) ; (E.E.S.) ; Not often heard now. 
An old gardener looking at a flower-border said, ' Here's fire an' 
all ofahaffic' (G.A.W.). 

HAFFIGRAPH, sb. Obs. n.Yks. 2 Also written 
halfigraph. Half the breadth of an engraved line. 

' It came to an haffigraph,' within a hair of the quantity required. 

HAFFINS, see Halflins. 

HAFFLE, sb. Nhb. [ha-fl.] A rag tied round an injured 
finger ; a finger-poke. Cf. hovel, so. 2 

A finger-glove used to protect a quarryman's skin. Also used 
by stone-wallers (G.M.) ; Nhb. 1 

HAFFLE, v. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Der. Not. Nrf. Also in forms hawfle n.Yks. 2 ; heffle 
Dur. Cum. 14 Wm. ; hiffle Cum. 14 [h)a'fl, he'fl.] 1. To 
hesitate, speak confusedly, falter, stammer; to prevaricate, 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 1 Nhb. He vvis hafflin (R.O.H.). 

s.Dur. He heffied an' talked an' could git nowt out (J.E.D.). 
Cum. I's tryin to hiffle oot o' nowt, GWORDIE GREENUP Anudder 
Batch (1873) 7 ; Cum. 14 Wm. It's nea use hafflin en leein aboot it, 
TAYLOR Sketches (1882) 13 ; 'What are you heflin about? ' when 
a person does not get on with their work (A.T.). n.Yks. 12 ; 
n.Yks. 4 Deean't haffle leyke that, bud speeak plain. He awlus 
haffles on that mich, whahl neeabody ho'ds ti owthesez. m.Yks. 1 
w. Yks. Thow'lt haffle and jest while fowk pine to death. SNOWDEN 
Web of Weaver (1896; 46. Lan. He haffled at that, WALKDEN 
Diary (ed. 1866) 113. n.Lan. 1 , ne.Lan.' Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 Haffle, and 
yore dun for. Der.', Not. (J.H.B.) 

Hence (i) Haffle, sb. hesitation ; (2) Raffling, sb. con- 
fused talk; (3) Haffling,/)//. adj., (4) Haffly, adj. hesitating, 
indecisive ; prevaricating. 

(i) Lan. Becose thou's no 'casion t'mak any haffle about it, 
BRIERLEY Waverlow (1863) 85, ed. 1884. (2) N.Cy. 1 Cum.Asteed 
a payan om meh, adoot enny mair hifflin, SARGISSON Joe Scoap 
(1881) no. Wm. After a full four hoors wer spent I' hifflin, hafflin 
shifflin shafflin ... I nailt him at last, Spec. Dial. (1872) pt. i. 43. 
(3) n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. He's a haffling speyker (J.B.). Lan. 1 We'll 
ha' noan o' thi hafflin' wark here. (4) n.Yks. He's nobbut a haffly 
talker (I.W.). 

2. Comb, (i) Haffle-caffle, to falter, vacillate, act with in- 
decision. w.Yks. 2 ; (2) -maffle, to speak unintelligibly, 
stammer. w.Yks. 1 

3. Phr. (i) haffle and caffle, to shilly-shally ; (2) haffling 
and jaffling, chattering, gossiping; (3) shqffling, con- 
fused, prevaricating. 

1.1) nw.Der. 1 Not. The doctor, he haffled and caffled, he didn't 
rightly know what war wrong wi' her himself (L.C.M.) ; Not. 1 (2) 
Nrf. The goodwife may be 'haffling and jaffling' with a neigh- 
bour, RYE Hist. Nrf. (1885) xv. (3) w.Yks. I make nought of haffling 
and snaffling tales that keep part back, SNOWDEN Web of Weaver 
(1896) i ; What are to afflin' an' shafflin' abaht ; get forrad wi' 
thi teol (J.R.). Chs. 1 

4. Of a horse : when pawing the ground. 
Der. 1 Ee aaf'lz uliing(g' [he haffles along], 

[1. Du. haffclen, to fumble, to dawdle ; to mumble ; also 
used of old people whoeat their food with difficulty (BEETS).] 

HAFFLIN, sb. Sc. Also in form halflin Abd. QAM.) 
A plane used by carpenters. 

Sc. Still in use. It is in size between the hand-plane and the 
large finishing plane (G.W. ; (JAM.) Abd. The plane that is used 
after the ' Scrub ' or ' Foreplane ' and before the ' Jointer ' (6.). 

HAFFLING, see Halfling. 

HAFT, sb. 1 and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also in forms hart Hmp. w.Som. 1 nw.Dev. 1 ; heft Sc. 
QAM.) S. & Ork. 1 Cai. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Cum. 14 Wm. n.Yks. 14 
n.Lan. 1 Not. 1 Lin. 1 n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 Nhp. 1 Bdf. e.An. 1 Suf. 1 
Hmp. 1 [h)aft, aeft, h)eft] 1. sb. A handle, esp. of a 
knife or small tool. 

Sc. Cripple Archy . . . strak like a Turk wi' the heft o' a hammer, 
MS. Poem (JAM.). Sh.I. Turnin' a pancake wi' da heft o' a iron 
spune, Sh. News (Apr. 2, 1898;. S. & Ork. 1 , Cai. 1 Ayr. As 
muckle ... as wou'd made a heft to a kail gully, AINSLIE 
Land of Burns (ed. 1892) 78. Ant. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. ' Frae the sword, the heuk heft, and the gallace may 
the Lord deliver us ! ' viz. from war, shearing, and the gallows, 
DIXON WfeY/j'wgVmw We (1895) 277. Dur. 1 , Cum. 14 Wm. Theear's 
a heft ta put te bleead in, CLARKE Jonny Shippards Journa (ed. 
1870 15 ; As t'shapless form a gully waved Wi' bleudy bleayde 
an heft, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 14, ed. 1896. n.Yks.^; n.Yks. 4 
T'knife's gitten a grand heft tul 't. ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp. (1889) 65 ; e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks.= 4 , n.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Chs. men 
neversay ' handle,' but always 'haft.' Not. 1 , s.Not.(J.P.K. ; , n.Lin. 1 , 
sw.Lin. 1 , s.Lin. (T.H.R.) Nhp. 1 When all is gone, and none left, 
Turn the blade into the heft. s.Wor. (H.K.), Rdn. 1 , Brks. 1 , Bdf. 
(J.W.B.),e.An.>, Saf. 1 , Hmp. 1 Som. I went up to cut a straight . . . 
stick for a good haft, RAYMOND Men o' Mendip (1898) vii. w.Som. 1 
Thick wid'n be a bad knive, neef's had [if thou hadst] a new hart 
an'anewblade toun. Haft notso common as hart. Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 

Hence (i) Hafted,///. adj. fitted with a handle; (2) Heft, 
sb.,fig. a portion, part ; (3) Heft-end, sb.,fig. the beginning, 

(i) Per. Bra' knives, hafted wi' bane, NICOL Poems (1766) 48. 
n.Cy. (J.W.) Dor. All the broken-hafted speades, BARNES Poems 
(1869-70) 67. (2) n.Yks. 4 Thoo's nobbut gitten a heft on 't, sha's 
kept t'main on t'back. (3) Sc. Once more he tackled the subject by 
the 'heft end,' FORD Thistledown (1891) in. 

c a 




2. Cotnp. Heft-pipe, a temporary handle used in grinding 
razors and forks. 

w.Yks. Bil Heftpoip [a Sheffield grinder], BYWATER Sheffield 
Dial. (1839) 4. 

3. The right-hand side of a band of reapers. Also in 
phr. haft and point, the outermost party on each side in 
a field of reapers. 

Sc. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). Dmt (JAM.) 

4. Phr. (i) by the haft, a common oath ; (2) down i" fheft, 
weakly, despondent, ' down in the mouth ' ; (3) dunna 
waste afresh haft on an ould blade, don't throw good money 
after bad ; (4) every knife of his'n has a golden haft, every- 
thing he undertakes turns out well ; (5) fulfilled to the heft, 
fulfilled thoroughly ; (6) heft or blade, any part ; (7) like 
heft and blade, close companions ; (8) loose f fneft, dissolute, 
dishonest, untrustworthy ; (9) to be done to fheft, to be worn 
out by toil ; (10) to have both heft and blade to hadd, to have 
things entirely under one's own control ; (n) to have nee 
heft fane's hand, to be unthrifty, extravagant ; (12) to hold 
one in the heft, to be a match for one ; (13) to stick to the 
haft, not to desert. 

11) nw.Der. 1 [The cross of the sword-heft or handle was 
frequently sworn by, N. V Q. (1899) 9th S. iv. 355.] (a) m.Yks. 1 
(3, 4) Chs. 3 (5) Ayr. The Scriptural text was fulfilled to the heft, 
LAING Poems (1894) in. (6) Ayr. He'll not get either heft or 
blade o' my vote for sic a trifle, GALT Lairds (1826) xxxiv. (7) 
Kcd. They had been like heft an' blade The feck o' baith their 
lives, GRANT Lays (1884) 56. (8) w.Yks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Feb. 
a, 1895). w.Yks. 2 He's a bit loose i' t'heft ! (9) w.Yks. 1 (to) 
Abd. (JAM.) ; Ye had, In your ain hand to hadd, baith heft and 
blade, Ross Helenore (.1768) 90, ed. 1813. (n) Nhb. (R.O.H.) 
(la) w.Yks. 1 (13) Per. The Highland Clans stuck to the haft, 
MONTEATH Dunblane (1835) 107, ed. 1889. 

5. v. To fit with, supply with ; gen. in pass. 

S. ft Ork. 1 n.Yks. He was hefted wl plenty o' lads (I.W.). 
nc. Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 Bill's hefted up wi munney. Betty hoose is 
hefted up wl muck, MS. add. (T.H.) 

6. To hold fast, beset, encumber ; pen. in pass. 

n.Yks. 1 Ah doo'ts he'll find hissel' sair hefted wiv her ; n.Yks. 2 
Hefted with a large family. 

[For fig. use in the sense of a pretext, see Heft, sb. a \ 

HAFT, sb* Obs. Stf. A little island or raised bank 
in a pond on which water-fowl build their nests. 

The Hafts or Islands in thepooles, PLOTS//. ;i686) 232 ; (K.); 
Stf. 1 

HAFT, see Heft, sb. 2 , v* 

HAFTER, sb. Obs. N.Cy. 2 A wrangler, caviller. 

[Vitilitigalor, an hafter, a wrangler, a quarreller, GOULD- 
MAN (1678) ; so BARET (1580).] 

HAFTY, adj.. Cum. Yks. Also in form hefty Cum. 4 
e.Yks. [h)a'fti.l Saucy, pert; handy, active. See Haft, sb. 1 

Cum. 4 n.Yks. He's hafty at his work (I.W.). n. & e.Yks. Still 
fairly common in N. &. E. Ridings (R.S.). e.Yks. (Miss A.) 

HAG, sA. Sc. n.Cy. Wm. Yks. Lan. War. Glo. Ken. 
Sur. Sus. I.W. Wil. Dor. Som. Dev. Cor. Also in forms 
haig Cai. 1 ; heg Ken. 1 [h)ag, aeg.] 1. An evil spirit or 
infernal being in female form ; also applied to the fairies 
or pixies ; a witch. 

n.Yks. (T.S.), Ken. 1 , I.W.', w.Som. 1 

Hence Hagging, vbl. sb. practising the arts of a witch. 
n.Yks. 2 

2. Comb, (i) Hag-begagged, bewitched; (2) -bone, the 
shoulder-bone or blade of a sheep ; (3) -'s pence, old coins 
found in the ground ; (4) -ride, to bewitch ; to inflict with 
nightmare ; also used fig. and gen. in pp. ; (5) -stone, a 
stone with a hole in it, used as a charm against witches ; 
(6) -track, a 'fairy-ring' or circle of coarse green grass 
found in meadows and on downs. 

(i) Dev. Thereaway, every land save feyther's was called hag- 
bcgagged, to keep us childer in proper bounds belike, MADOX- 
BROWN Yeth-hounds (1876) 353. (.a) Som. Witches were believed 
to ride upon these and consequently it was necessary to burn 
them (W.F.R.). (3) Ken." (4) Sc. The thought of the dead men 
hag-rode my spirits, STEVENSON Calriona (1893) iii. Edb. Hag-rid 
wi' conscience, gout, an' spleen, LEARMONT Poems (1791) 58. 
n.Cy. Denham Tracts (cd. 1895) II. 86. Sus. This unhappy man, 
he said, was hag-ridden, HEATH Eng. Peas. (1893) 191. Sus. 1 , 

Wil. 1 Dor. Souls above us, your face is as if you'd been hag-rode, 
HARDY 7Vss(i89i)424, ed. 1895 ; Dor. 1 The nightmare is attributed 
to the supernatural presence of a witch or hag by whom one is 
ridden in sleep. Som. Abraham was hag-rod every night of his 
life about two ' in marnen,' RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life (1894) 
aos ; (W.F.R.) w.Som. 1 Also applied to horses which often break 
out into a sweat in the stable, and are said to have been hag-rided, 
or pixy-rided. The belief is quite common that the pixies come and 
ride the horses round the stable in the night. Most farm stable- 
doors have a rusty horseshoe nailed, sometimes to the threshold, 
generally on the inside of the lintel, to keep off the pixies. Dev. 
Hag-ridden, entangled (HALL.). Cor. There was the Vicar with 
inflated cheeks and a hag-ridden stare, ' Q.' Troy Town (1888) ix. 

(5) Lan. A hag-stone, penetrated with a hole, and attached to the 
key of the stable, preserved the horse from being ridden by the 
witch, HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 72; THORNBER 
Hist. Blackpool (1837 too; A hag-stone with a hole through, tied 
to the key of the stable-door, protects the horses, and if hung up 
at the bed's head, the farmer also, A'. &> Q. (1851) ist S. iii. 56. 

(6) Sur. Many a large ' ring ' or ' hag-track ' may be seen in lonely 
spots, JENNINGS Field Paths (1884) 67. Sus. Most interesting 
objects . . . upon the South Downs are the numerous fairy-rings 
or ' hag-tracks,' LOWER South Downs (1854) 154 ; Sus. 1 Supposed 
to be tracks of hags or witches who have danced there at night. 

3. Fig. A violent, ill-tempered woman, a scold ; an ugly, 
dirty woman. Cai. 1 , Lan. (S.W.), War. 2 , Glo. 1 

[1. Blue meagre hag, or stubborn unlaid ghost, MILTON 
Coinus (1634) 434.] 

HAG, sb* n.Cy. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Brks. Bck. Hrt. 
Ken. Sus. Hmp. I.W. Som. Dev. Also in forms aag 
w.Yks.; ag- Brks. 1 Sus. 1 ; aga Ken. Hmp. Wil.; agg 
Bck. ; aght Dev. ; ague Chs. 3 ; aig, haag w.Yks. ; 
haeg w.Yks. Chs.; haga I.W. ; hagga Brks. 1 ; haghe 
n.Cy. w.Yks. 3 Der. 1 nw.Der. 1 ; hague w.Yks. 1 Lan. 1 
ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 ; haig w.Yks. 45 Lan. 1 e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 ; haigh 
w.Yks. 28 ; hoeg Chs. 3 [eg, esg, aeg.] 1. A haw, the 
fruit of the hawthorn, Crataegus Oxyacantha ; gen. in pi. 
Also in cornp. Hag-berry. 

n.Cy. BAILEY (1721). w.Yks. Us lads kept blawin' aags at one 
another, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Apr. 4, 1891); Getting stuff to cat 
haegsand epps,SNOWDEN WebofWeaver ^1896) 6; w.Yks. 12345 , 
Lan. (S.W.', Lan.', ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 Chs. Science Gossip (1865) 
198; Chs. 13 , Der. 1 , nw.Der. 1 Brks. Gl. (1852); Brks. 1 , Ken. 
(W.H.E.1, Hmp. (J.R.W.), (W.H.E.), Hmp. 1 , Wil. (W.H.E.), 
I.W. (B. & H.) Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) [RAY (1691).] 
Hence (i) Agarves (? Hag-haws), (2) Agasses or 
Hagasses, (3) Agogs, sb. pi. haws, the fruit of the haw- 
thorn ; (4) Haggises, sb. pi. hips, the fruit of the dog-rose, 
Rosa canina. 

(i) Sus. 1 ia)Sus. (R.P.C.), Hmp. (J.R.W.) (3) Brks. 1 (4) 
Hmp. 1 

2. The hawthorn, Crataegus Oxyacantha. Lan. 1 

3. Comp. (i) Hag-blossom, the blossom of the haw- 
thorn ; (2) -bush, the hawthorn ; (3) -leaf, (4) -paper, 
the great mullein, Verbascum Thapsus; (5) -rope(s, the 
wild clematis, Clematis Vitalba ; (6) -taper, see (4) ; (7) 
thorn, (8) -tree, see (2). 

(i) w.Yks. (D.L.) Lan. Wilt ha' this bit o' hague-blossom ? 
BRIERLEY Irkdale 1,1865) iv. (a) w.Yks. (S.P.U.) (3, 4) Bck. 
Science Gossip (1869) a6. (5) Som. N. & Q. (1877) 5th S. viii. 
358 ; W. & J. Gl. (1873 ... w-Som. 1 (6) Hrt. ELLIS New Experiments 
(1750)33. (7) w.Som. 1 , Dev. 4 (8) w.Yks. (S.P.U.) 

[1. A form of lit. E. haw, OE. haga, the fruit of the 
hawthorn ; cp. LG. hagdoorn, ' Crataegus oxyacantha ' 

HAG, sb* n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Also Cor. [h)ag, aeg.] 
A thick white mist or fog. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Gent. Mag. (1794), ed. Gommc ; Nhb. 1 , Wm. (J.H.) 
n.Yks. A frost hag (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 1 Such as sometimes occurs 
coincidently with frost : whence frost hag ; n.Yks. 24 , m.Yks. 1 , Cor. 2 

Hence Haggy, adj. misty from the frost. n.Yks. 2 

HAG, sb* n.Cy. Nhb. Lan. [h)ag.] The paunch, 
belly. See Haggis, 3. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Nhb. 1 Lan. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; 
Lan. 1 

HAG, s6. 8 ? O*5. Bdf. Som. Idle disorder. 

Bdf. You have got the hag, BATCHELOR Anal. Eng.Lang. (1809) 
136. Som. (HALL.) 




HAG, v. 1 and sb. 6 Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Lan. Der. Not. Lin. Rut. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor. Shr. Brks. 
Htnp. Wil. Also written hagg Sc. War. Shr. 2 ; and in 
forms ag N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 w.Yks. Not. 1 ; agg Brks. 1 Hmp. 
Wil. 1 [h)ag, aeg.] 1. v. To hew, chop ; to cut down 
with an axe ; to hack, cut clumsily or roughly. 

Sc. That chief sin, that he should have a hand in bagging and 
hashing at Christ's kirk, STEVENSON Catriona (1893) xv. Fif. Wi' 
their swords them hash't and hagget, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 
211. Dmb. I doot I've haggit the feck o' my chin awa', CROSS 
Disruption (1844) xiv. Ayr. Let him swurl his glaive [sword] wi' 
a' his micht, and hag the heid o't aff at ance, SERVICE Notandums 
(1890) 125. Lnk. They may hag and hew my body as they 
please, WODROW Ch. Hist. (1721) IV. 112, ed. 1828. Gall. The 
dragoons are . . . haggin' them doon, CROCKETT Moss-Hags (1895) 
iii. N.I. 1 I hagged a wheen o' sticks. Ant. Ballymena Obs. 
(1892). N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 Cum. Begon to hag his way through 
t'deurr, DICKINSON Lamplugh (1856) 9; (M.P.) ; Cum. 3 T'oald 
tinkler hoond hed hagg't it off afooar he mead a fleeght on't, 71. 
Wm. He teeak it intle his heead it heed hagg it doon, Spec. Dial. 
(1877) pt. i. 25; (M.P.) n.Wm. (B.K.), s.Wm. (J.A.B.), n.Yks. 3 , 
m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. WILLAN List Wds. (1811) ; w.Yks. 1 They hagged 
a nice birk for't yusterneet, ii. 290 ; w.Yks. 2 , ne.Lan. 1 Not. 1 Don't 
'ag the meat that road. Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 
334. n.Lln. 1 Doan't hag thy meat 'e that how, lad. sw.Lin. 1 Of 
woodmen :' They started hagging last week.' Nhp. 1 \V&r. B'ham 
Wkly. Post (June 10, 1893) ; War. 123 , Shr. 2 Brks. 1 What be at 
a-aggin the me-at like that ther, 'twunt go hafe zo vur. Hmp. 1 
Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892) ; Wil. 1 

Hence (i) Hagger, sb. (a) one who uses a hatchet, one 
employed to fell trees ; (b) a coal-hewer ; (2 ) Haggit, 
ppl. adj. notched, jagged ; (3) Hagman, sb. one who gains 
his living by felling and selling wood ; a woodcutter. 

(i, a) Lnk. (JAM.) (b) Cum. 1 ; Cum. 4 It's leyke forty thousand 
cwoal naggers at wark i' me inseyde, W. C. T. X. (1894) 5, col. 2. 
(2) Sc. The rawzor haggit like a saw, HISI.OP Anecdote (1874) 
223. (3) n.Sc. (JAM.) e.Sc. That's what he ca'd his hagman last 
year, SETOUN R. Urquhart ^1896; xix. Yks. Obs. HONE Table-bk. 
(1827) 8. 

2. Phr. (i) to hag and trail, to ' cut and carry,' to be self- 
dependent, to do everything oneself; (2) at a thing, to 
persevere, labour, work away at a thing ; (3) rice, 
to cut brushwood ; fig. to do anything speedily, make 
a swift clearance of anything. 

(i) Lakel. 2 A man mun deea o' at ivver he can fer hisself ; he 
mun hag-an'-trail his awn. (2) Cum. 1 (3) Cum. ' Gaun on like a 
man haggin rice,' great progress made in a short time, N. & Q. 
(1871) 5th S. ii. 71. Cum., Wm. ' Ga'un on, like a man haggin' 
rice,' was sometimes used in a comic way, as indicating a swift 
clearance by a hungry or hasty person at table (M.P.). 

3. Comp. (i) Hag-block, (2) -clog, a chopping-block, 
a large block of wood, used to chop firewood, &c. on ; a part 
of a tree-stem ; (3) -iron or Haggon, a blacksmith's 
chisel ; (4) -stock, see (2). 

(r) Wgt. Hughie's shop was well stocked with visitors ; so much 
so that he could scarcely get the use of his hag-block, FRASER 
Wigtown (1877) 375- ( a ) Gall. I could hear him at the hag-clog 
where we cut the branches and wood into billets to go into the 
great fireplace, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) xxxv. n.Cy. HOLLOWAY. 
Cum. 1 n.Wm. Tak it ta t'hag-clog ta chop (B.K.). n.Yks. 124 , 
m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 (3) Rxb. A chisel on which the blacksmith cuts 
off the nails from the rod or piece of iron of which they are made 
(JAM.). w.Yks. 2 An inverted chisel which a blacksmith puts into 
his anvil when he wishes to cut anything off. (4) Lakel. 2 , Cum. 1 , 
s.Wm. (J.A.B.) ne.Lan. 1 As foul as t'hagstock. 

4. To use the rake in haymaking with a peculiar sharp 
action. Lei. 1 Cf. hack, v. 1 23. 

5. Fig. To bungle, mangle any business. 

Sc. But let them hag and hash on, for they will make no cleanly 
work neither in state nor church, WALKER Remark. Passages 

(1727) 80 'JAM.). 

6. sb. A stroke with a sharp and heavy instrument, 
a hack ; a notch, mark ; esp. in phr. to give the hallen, 
or post, a 'hag, to make a mark in remembrance of a 
notable eve'nt, to ' chalk up ' an event. Cf. hack, sb. 1 6. 

Ayr. I'm sure the post should get a hag when we hear o* him 
coming wi' hundreds o' pounds in his pouch, GALT Entail (1823) 
xxi. Lnk. ' He may strike a hag i' the post,' a proverbial phr. 
applied to one who has been very fortunate (JAM.). Cum. A very 

complimentary speech to a rare or notable visitor : ' We mun give 
t'hallen a hag as ye're cum't ' (M.P.). 

7. A clearing or cutting down of timber ; a cutting in 
a wood. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. The number of trees in the oak wood have been 
considerably diminished. A great hag in 1802-3 thinned them, 
H\KD\ Hist. Bwk. Naiur.Clnb,\ll\. 401; (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 , Cum. 

8. An allotment of timber for felling, a certain portion of 
wood marked off to be cut down. 

Sc. The derk hag, which had somewhat puzzled him in the 
butler's account of his master's avocations, . . was simply a 
portion of oak copse which was to be felled that day, SCOTT 
Waverley (1814) x ; There is to be exposed for sale by public roup, 
a hag of wood, consisting of oak, beech and birch, all in one lot, 
Edb. Even. Courant (Mar. 26, 1803) (JAM.). Cld. Woods that are 
extensive are divided into separate lots called hags, one of which 
is appointed to be cut annually, Agric. Surv. 137 (ft.\ Dmb. 
They [the oak woods] are of such extent as to admit of their being 
properly divided into 20 separate hags or parts, one of which may 
be cut every year, Statist. Ace. XVII. 244 (ib.). Nhb. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 
War. The separate portions [of a fall of timber] so divided are 
called each man's hagg, BAKER Gl. (1854). Shr. 1 When a wood 
is to be cut down, a number of men range themselves at the edge 
of the wood at about forty yards apart, then they start, proceeding 
in straight lines through the wood, hewing down the underwood, 
and hacking the outer bark of the trees with their ' hackers' as 
they go along ; shouting to each other in the meanwhile, in order 
to keep their respective distances, till they reach the farther limit. 
The lines thus cleared form the boundaries of the hag apportioned 
to each man to fell ; Shr. 2 

9. A lot of about 100 ash or willow poles. 

War. 4 The ould Colonel, he got 50 hags of poles off a quarter 
acre, and sold them for three pounds a hag. 

10. Brushwood, hedge, low bushy wood cut for firewood. 
Sc. The lesser branches used for fire-wood after the trees are 

felled for carpentering, sometimes Auld hag (JAM.) ; Give me some 
of that hag, MILLER My Schools (1879) iv. Frf. The fresh young 
sprouts, that took the place of the old tangled ' hagg,' after the 
purifying flames had passed over it, INGLIS Ain Flk. (1895) 15. 
ne.Yks. 1 Wor. In common use in connexion with the divisions of 
underwood, N. <&> Q. (1887^ 7th S. iii. 35. 

Hence (i) Hag-road, (2) -way, sb. a path or way cut 
through the undergrowth of a wood. 

(i) Der. We mun cut a hag-rooad thro t'underbrush, maister, 
N- <& Q- ( l8 78) 5th S. ix. 515. (2) s.Lin. Used by keepers, beaters, 
and sportsmen to signify the narrow winding paths that are cut 
through the undergrowth of a wood to allow the shooters to get 
at the game, ib. (1886) 7th S. ii. 366. Rut. ib. (1878) 5th S. ix. 
68 ; Rut. 1 Used by the beaters when engaged in driving game. 

11. Comp. (i) Hag-snar(e, the stub left in the ground 
from which coppice-wood has been cut; the stump of 
a tree ; (2) -staff, a rod used to mark the boundary of a 
fall of timber ; (3) -wood, a copse or wood fitted for having 
a regular cutting of trees in it. 

(i) n.Yks. 124 ne.Yks. 1 At Linton-on-Ousc there are two 
contiguous fields called 'T'hag' and Snahry clooas.' e.Yks. 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796) II. 324. n.Lin. 1 The perpendicular 
end or stump of the thorn at the surface of the ground after the 
upper portion has been partially divided and laid horizontally. 
(2) ne.Lan. 1 War. BAKER Gl. (1854). (3) Bwk. Ancient oak 
forests . . . which have grown into a kind of copse, or what is 
termed in Scotland hag-woods, Agric. Surv. 334 (JAM.). 

12. Phr. clear the hag, clear all out of the way. Gall. 
MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 251, ed. 1876. 

[1. Degrader une forest, to hagge, or fell it all down, 
COTGR. ; pai . . . hurlit jmrgh the hard maile, hagget the 
lere, Dest. Troy (c. 1400) 10023. ON. hoggva, to hew.] 

HAG, v. 2 Lin. Hmp. Dev. [ag, aeg.] 1. To pull, 
draw ; to drag out. 

Lin. (R.E.C.) s.Lin. Hag your money out (I.W.). s.Hmp. 
Tripped him up ... wi' hagging at a rope, VERNEY L. Lisle (1870) 
xxv. Dev. Missis, I've abin awver tii Mr. Broom's, an" 'ad out my 
tuthe, an' 'e hagged til 'n zo I thort 'e 'd abroked my jaw, HEWETT 
Peas. Sp. (1892). 
2. To rob, take. 

Lin. There was a nest there, but some one has hagged it (R.E.C. ). 

HAG, v? Nhb. 1 [hag.] Of the moon : to wane. 


>le, Refx>rts Provinc. ( 1889). 

1. A stout linen fabric, 

HAG, adj. Dev. [asg.] Hai 

She looks very hag since her troul 

HAGA, see "Hag, sb? 

HAG-A-BAG, sb. Obs. Sc. 

n.Sc. Properly cloth made wholly of tow for the use of the 
kitchen QAM.). Bnff. Thro' lawn hagabag her breast did keek, 
TAYLOR Poems (1787) 76. Lnk. Clean hag-a-bag I'll spread upon 
his board, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (1725) 37, ed. 1783. 
2. Refuse of any kind. n.Sc. (JAM.) 

HAG-ABOUT, sb. Yks. [a'g-sbat.] An idle, loung- 
ing fellow. 

w.Yks. He wor what is knone be that strong, but foorcibul wurd, 
a hag-a-baate, TIFFAMY Yks. Tyke's Ann. (1872) 35. 

HAG- A-KNOWE, sb. Lan. Also written haggoknow. 
An ungainly blockhead. 

Wot could we do wi sitch haggoknows as these i' Bowton ? 
STATON B. Shuttle, 34 ; Sit to deawn, thae gawmbless hag-a-knowe, 
oraw'llkom thi yure for tho, WAUGH Ben an' th' Bantam, v; Lan. 1 

HAGAL, HAGALEF, see Haggle, s/>. 1 , Hogalif. 

HAGASTED, adj. Sh.I. Familiarized with a par- 
ticular place by a long stay in it. S. & Ork. 1 

HAG-BERRY, sb. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Lan. e.Cy. Hmp. Also in forms eck-berry Cum. 1 ; egg- 
Cum. 1 n.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 ; hack- Sc. HAM.) Nhb. 1 e.Cy. 
Hmp. ; hacker- Nhb. 1 ; heck- N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Lakel. 1 Dur. 1 
Cum. 1 Wm. n.Yks. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. ; heg- Nhb. 1 Cum. Wm.; 
hie- Wm. 1. The fruit and tree of the bird-cherry, 
Prunus Padus. 

Per. On the banks of the Lunan, there is a shrub here called 
the hack-berry . . . that carries beautiful flowers which are 
succeeded by a cluster of fine blackberries, Statist. Ace. IX. 239 
QAM.). Lnk. While hagberry and bourtree bushes shelter the 
gardens from intrusive sheep, FRASER Whaups (,1895) i- N.Cy. 1 , 
Nhb. 1 . Lakel. 1 , Dnr. 1 , s.Dur. (J.E.D.) Cum. From its growth in 
hedges ; though children at Langwathby used to say, ' We caw 
them hegberries because they heg our teeth,' i. e. set the teeth on 
edge (B. & H.) ; Cum. 1 Wm. (J.H.) ; The heckberry trees . . . 
caught and emphasised the golden rays, WARD R. Elsmere (1888) 
28, nthed. n.Yks. (W.H.), n.Yks. 14 , ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. WILLAN 
List IVds. (1811); (J.T.) ; w.Yks. 1 , Lan. 1 , neXan. 1 , e.Cy., Hmp. 
(B. & H.) 
2. The wild service, Pyrus torminalis. m.Yks. 1 

[1. Dan. hceggebcer, Norw. dial, heggjebcer ( AASEN) ; ON. 
heggr, the bird-cherry (VIGFUSSON).] 

HAGDOWN, sb. I. Ma. The greater shearwater, 
Puffinus major. SWAINSON Birds (1883) 212. 

HAGEL, see Haggle, v.' 

HAGER, sb. Cor. 2 Ugly, deformed, rough ; fierce, 
cruel, evil. 

[OCor. hager (WILLIAMS).] 

HAGERY, adj. Sh.I. Also in form haegry. Of 
worsted : rough, short in the fibre. 

Dey widna luik at him [it] becaas dey tought he wis made o' 
hagery wirsit, Sh. News (June 12, 1897); 'Lass, I links hit's 
[worsted] haegry ! ' . . ' Haegry! . . Hit's a come o' lambs 'oo', man, 
an' hit wis awful short," ib. (Oct. 8, 1898). 

HAGES, sb. Sc. A disguised form of the word 
' Jesus,' used in petty oaths. 

Lnk. By hages! Jean, it's weel kent aboot the raws that ye 
wear the breks, GORDON Pyotshaw (1885) 21. 

HAGESTER, see Hagister. 

HAG(G, sb. 1 Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Lin. Shr. 
[h)ag.] A wooded enclosure ; a wood, copse. 

n.Cy. At Aukland Castle, the park was formerly called the Hagg 
(K.) ; N.Cy. 1 Gen. one into which cattle are admitted. Nhb. 1 
Com. 1 A woody place intermixed with grass land. A wooded hill. 
Wm. (J.H.), n.Yks. 124 e.Yks. Originally, perhaps, the woodland 
set apart, by the lord of the soil, for fuel for his tenants ; many 
woods yet retain the name of hags, and one wood, in Sinnington, 
that of ' poor folks hags,' MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796). m.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. 1 A hanging wood ; w.Yks. 2 A hag of hollin was the holly 
trees growing upon a certain portion of ground in the commons 
of the manor of Sheffield ; w.Yks. 4 , Lan. 1 , ne.Lan." Lin. (W. W.S.) ; 
Used only as a proper name for a wood (R.E.C.). Shr. 1 There is 
a farm called the Hag a few miles south of Bridgnorth, in the 
parish of Highley ; Shr. 2 

[He led me over holts and hags, FAIRFAX Tasso (1600) 

.] HAG(G 

viii. xli. A form of OE. haga, an enclosure (ARLE 
Charters'), lit. E. haw.} 

HAG G, sb.* Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lin. Rut. Nhp. 
e.An. Also in form hack Sc. (JAM.) [h)ag, aeg.] 1. A 
rock or cliff; an abrupt, cliffy prominence. 

Nhb. 1 n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Built on the face of the hag ; n.Yks. 4 , 
m.Yks. 1 

2. Wild, broken ground ; rocky moorland ; a common, 

Gall. Down heuchs and craigs and glens and hags, As fast as 
he cud flee, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 24, ed. 1876; Hags 
Rocky moor ground ; Rocky, mossy, black wilds, ib. 251. n.Yks. 1 
Such as may be met with in boggy, and therefore uncultivated, 
lands. w.Yks. The strongest nag that crosses th' hagg Wi' wots 
to Fullod mill, SENIOR Smithy Rhymes (1882) 46 ; w.Yks. 12 

3. A piece of soft bog in a moor or morass ; a break in 
a ' moss ' or bog from which peats have been cut. Also 
called Moss-hag, Peat-hag, and in comp. Hag-moss. 

Sc, Tearing thro' moss and hagg, SCOTT Abbot ( 1820) xvii ; 
That part in mosses which is naturally or artificially cut, hollowed, 
bagged, or hacked ; naturally by water runlets forming hollows, 
and artificially by, among other means, the cutting and removal 
of peat, N. & Q. (1874) sth S. ii. 253. Per. The murky flag 
Flaps on Turftenant's rushy hag, SPENCE Poems (1898) 189. Drab. 
I had made sure To find him in the hag o' Coars-Neuk Moor, 
SALMON Gowodean (1868) 49. Slg. The summit and back part is 
a deep muir ground, interspersed with moss hags, Statist. Ace. XV. 
317 (JAM.). Ayr. Sendin' the stuff o'er muirs an' hags Like 
drivin' wrack, BURNS Ep. toj. Lapraik (Sept. 13, 1785 , st. 2. Lnk. 
Now a splash would be heard, followed by a roar, as some luckless 
wight fell into a moss hagg, FRASER Whaups (1895) 119. Edb. 
A deep peat moss, broken into hags and hillocks, PENNECUIK Wks. 
(1715) 116, ed. 1815. Peb. Wi' a divot's weight Ta'en from mossy 
hag, Lintoun Green (1685) 39, ed. 1817. Slk. I was crossing frae 
Loch Ericht fit to the held o' Glenorchy, and got in among the 
hags, CHR. NORTH Noctes fed. 1856} II. 405. Rxb. A'. & Q. (1874) 
5th S. ii. 115. Dmf. Instead o' hag moss beat wi' sleet, Were 
miles on miles, rich holms o' wheat, SHAW Schoolmaster (1899) 
369. Kcb. 'Mang our clints and hags and rashy bogs Chiefs do 
appear would claw a fallow's lugs, ELDER Borgue (1897) 33. 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Right yaul they lap ower hagg and syke, GRAHAM 
Moorland Dial. (1826)5; (R.O.H.) Cnm. (M.P.), Wm. J.H.), 
n.Yks. 28 Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (18841 334. n.Lin. 1 
Ther's many a boss lies been lost e' them peat moor hags. sw.Lin. 1 
If you get into one of them hags, there is no getting out. 

Hence Haggy, adj. full of ' hags,' rough, broken, boggy. 

Dmb. The fee o't thrivin' moss and haggle wood, SALMON 
Gowodean (1868 70. Lnk. He thocht he had yet tae cross A haggy, 
benty. splashy moss, THOMSON Musings (1881) 62. n.Yks. 4 Lin. 
A bad highway is said to be ' strange and haggy,' N. & Q. (1874) 
5th S. i. 311. Nhp. 1 Applied to any coarse rough- uneven ground. 
Most used in a woodland district. e.An. 1 Suf. Applied to the 
broken and uneven surface of the soil when in a moist state, 
RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 294, cd. 1849. e.Suf. (F.H.) 

4. A water-hollow or channel, wet in winter and dry in 
summer. Sc. TV. &> Q. (1874) 5th S. ii. 253. 

5. A muddy hollow, a deep hole in a rut. 

Lin. N. & Q. (1873) 5th S. i. 311. sw.Lin. 1 The road was full 
of hags. 

6. A stiff clump of coarse grass ; an islet of grass in the 
midst of a bog. 

Sc. He led a small'and shaggy nag, That through a bog, from hag 
to hag, Could bound like any Billhope stag, SCOTT Last Minstrel (cd. 
1847) c. iv. st. 5. Rnt. 1 ' How did you get on with the mowing?' 
' Very well, sir, if it wunt for them hags ; they do turn the 
scythe so." 

[3. (The castle) es hy sett apon a cragg Gray and hard, 
widuten hagg, Cursor M. (c. 1340) 9886.] 

HAG(G, sb. 3 Fif. [hag.] 1. A stall-fed ox. MORTON 
Cyclo. Agric. (1863). 2. One who tends fat cattle. COL- 
VILLE Vernacular (1899) 19. 

HAG(G, v. 1 and sb* Sc. Irel. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Not- 
Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Shr. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Bdf. Ken. Sus. 
Wil. Som. Dev. Cor. Also in forms ag m.Yks. 1 w.Som. 1 ; 
agg w.Yks. Lan. 1 Chs. 123 Der. n.Lin. 1 Nhp. 1 Glo. Bdf. Sus. 
Wil. 1 Dev. 1 Cor. 1 [h)ag, aeg.] 1. v. To incite, urge ; 
to try to persuade ; to ' egg ' ; to excite to quarrel ; to 
provoke, irritate. 




w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 229. Chs. She keeps 
aggingme fort'buy it. They keptaggingthem onto fight (E.M.G.); 
Chs. 123 Lei. 1 Doon't ye hagg him on. Sus. HOLLOWAY. Wil. 1 
n.Dev. GROSE (1790) ; Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 421. Cor. THOMAS 
Randigal Rhymes (1895) Gl. ; Cor. 1 

2. To worry, tease ; to ' gnag ' at. 

Wxf. And my ould thief of a mesther, tattheration to him ! 
hagging, hagging, till he'll have the very flesh wasted off of our 
bones, KENNEDY Banks Boro (1867) 243. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Shoe 
was a roof kind iv a woman, an' 'er 'usband wor fair hagged to 'is 
graave (F.P.T.). Lan. 1 Thae'rt aulus aggin' at mi. Der. Yo keep 
aggin and teasin', WARD David Grieve (1892) I. viii. Lin. He 
said he was only agging me, N. & Q. (1880) 6th S. ii. 485. 
sw.Lin. 1 I've hagged at her such a mess o' times about it. War. 
The old lady and all the family hagged me to death, Times (Dec. 
19, 1889) 6, col. 6. Shr. 2 Glo. BAYLIS Illus. Dial. (1870) ; (F.H.) 
Bdf. (J.W.B.) w.Soni. 1 Her'll ag anybody out o' their life, her 
will. Dev. 1 Iv her was to begin to aggie way en there wid be no 
hod, 5. n.Dev. Thy skin oil vlagged with nort bet agging, Exm. 
Scold. (1746) 1. 75. 

3. To haggle, dispute, argue. 

Nhp. 1 , War. 2 , Glo. 1 Dev. When they beginn'th tu haggee I 
turns tail and urn'th 'ome, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892). 

4. To fatigue, tire out, ' fag." 

m.Yks. 1 I was sore hagged with going. Hagging at it [toiling 
at it]. w.Yks. 2 Shoo fair hags hersen. He wur fair hagged up. 
e.Lan. 1 Not. I'm hagged to death (J.H.B.). sw.Lin. 1 I'm quiet 
hagged out. It bothers me, and hags me to dead. Lei. 1 I've 
walked all the way, and don't want to come again, it's so hagging. 
It's very haggin' when you'n no servants. Nhp. 12 Wil. 1 Her've 
a had a lot to contend wi' to-year, and her's hagged to death wi't aal. 

Hence (i) Hagged or Haggit, ppl. adj. tired, worn 
out ; harassed, careworn, thin ; (2) Haggey, adj., (3) 
Hagging, ppl. adj. tiring, fatiguing. 

(i)Sc. Wi' haggit ee,and haw as death, The auld spae-man did 
stand, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) I. 235. w.Yks. 1 , Chs. 1 3, 
nw.Der. 1 s.Lin. How hagged the poor o'd wench looked (T.H.R.). 
Shr. 1 Poor Nancy Poppet looks despert 'aggit, as if 'er worked 
'ard an' far'd 'ard. Oxf. 1 MS. add. Brks. Thee look'st hagged 
at times, and folk '11 see't, and talk about thee afore long, HUGHES 
T. Brown Oxf. (1861) xviii ; Brks. 1 Ken. Why dis here wall It 
looks sa old and hagged, MASTERS Dick and Sal (c. 1821) st. 48; 
Ken. 1 ' They did look so very old and hagged ' ; spoken of some 
maiden ladies. n.Wll. He looks sort o' hagged, dwont ee? (E.H.G.) 

(2) Nhp. 2 'A haggey road,' i.e. one that is tiring to the horses. 

(3) Nhp. 1 It was a hagging job for the horse, he had such a heavy 
load to draw. 

5. In pass, with about : to be buffeted about, treated un- 

w.Yks. Nout macks ma war mad ner ta see tway at a poor 
fellah is agged abaht if he appears ta be dahn a bit, Bill Hoylhus 
Ends Aim. (1873). 

6. sb. A worry, trouble, burden ; a difficulty. 

Chs. 1 If one tries to persuade another against his will it would 
be said, ' I got him to go at last but I'd a regular hag with him.' 
s.Chs. 1 n. Lin. 1 ' That's a soor agg ' is a common expression to 
indicate a teasing circumstance. sw.Lin. 1 The child's a great hag 
to her. It's a hag, carrying it all that way. 

Hence Hag-stop, sb. weariness ; a stoppage, dilemma. 

Lin. 1 I never had such a hag-stop before. 

7. A task, job, an allotted portion of work ; esp. in phr. 
to work by the hag, to do piece-work in contradistinction 
to day-work. 

n.Cy. (HALL.), Lan. 1 ne.Lan. 1 I wark be t'hag, an' net be t'day. 
Chs. 123 s.Chs. 1 They'n tayn the wheeat by hagg an they bin 
gooin' to butty o'er it (s.v. Butty). nw.Der. 1 A rough hag ; a 
tough hag. Nhp. 1 An allotted portion of manual labour on the 
soil ; as digging, draining, embanking, &c. ' Have you done your 
agg? ' Shr. 1 I'm on'y doin' a bit of a 'ag fur owd Tummas ; Shr. 2 
On by the hagg. Glo. 1 

Hence (i) Hag-master, sb. an overseer or contractor; 
(2) -work, sb. piece-work. 

(i) Chs. 13 , s.Chs. 1 Nhp. 1 One who contracts for the completion 
of a specific work or portion of work, at a stipulated price, em- 
ploying others to execute it under his superintendence. (2) Chs. 1 3 , 
s.Chs. 1 , Shr.2 

8. One who does another's tasks, a drudge. 

w.Yks. Ah think thi nont [aunt] is 't'hag fer ye o' (B.K.). e.Lin. 
A place or situation which is hard to fill to the employer's satisfac- 
tion, is called a hag's plaace (J.C.W.). 

HAG(G, sb* Wm. Yks. [h)ag.] A hedge or fence. 
See Hay, sb. 2 

Wm. (J.H.) e.Yks. COLE Place Names (1879) 33- 

HAG(G, v. z Sc. Also in form haig (JAM.), [hag.] Of 
cattle : to butt with the head, to fight. 

Mry. You may see the elf-bull haiging with the strongest bull 
or ox in the herd, AT. Antiq. (1814) 404 (JAM.). Buff. 1 

Hence Haggin, ppl. adj. given to butting with the head. 

Bnff. 1 She's a haggin' brute o' a coo, that. 

HAGG, HAGGA, see Hag, v., Hag, sb. 2 

HAGGADAY, s6. Yks. Lin. Nrf. Also in form hago- 
day Nrf. [hja'gade.] 1. A latch to a door or gate. 

Yks. (HALL.) n-Lin. 1 A haggaday is frequently put upon a 
cottage door on the inside, without anything projecting outwards 
by which it may be lifted. A little slit is made in the door, and 
the latch can only be raised by inserting therein a nail or slip of 
metal. ' Old men alus calls them wooden snecks wheare you hev to 
put yer finger thrif a roond hoale e' th' door to oppen 'em, haggadays.' 
2. A sanctuary ring-knocker. 

Nrf. JESSOPP Hist, of Si. Gregory's Church (1886) 10 ; In the 
church of St. Gregory, Norwich, is a large antique knocker for 
use by persons seeking sanctuary. This is called a ' hagoday,' 
N. & Q. (1894) 8th S. vi. 188. 

[1. An haguday, vectes, Cat/t. Angl. (1483).] 

HAGGAGE, sb. Som. Dev. Also written hagage 
Dev. ; hageg- n.Dev. [ae-gidg.] A term of reproach for 
a woman, a ' baggage ' ; an untidy, slatternly woman. 

w.Som. 1 Dev. Dawnt 'a' nort tii zay tu thickee slammicking 
gert haggage ! HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892). n.Dev. Horae Subsecivae 
(1777) 197 ; What disyease than ya gurt haggage, Exm. Scold. 
(1746) 1. 27. nw.Dev. 1 

Hence (ij Hagegy, adj. untidy, slovenly ; loose ; (2) 
Haggaging, (a) adj., see (i) ; (b) sb. a term of reproach 
for a woman. 

(i) n.Dev. If ha lov'th Jakes, why let un beckon Hagegy Bess, 
'RocK Jim an' Nell (1867) st. 89. (2,0) w.Som. 1 Dev. Achittering, 
raving, rixy.lonching, haggaging moil, MADOX-BROWN Dwale Blttih 
(1876) bk. i. i ; A servant-girl describes another girl as 'very 
good to work, but very hagagin',' Reports Provinc. (1891) ; Dev. 1 
The very daps of her mother, another such a haggagen, maunder- 
ing, hawk-a-mouth'd trub, 7 ; Dev. 2 Jane Ley's a cruel haggagin' 
body. n.Dev. A buzzom-chuck'd haggaging moyle, Exm. Crlshp. 
(1746) 1. 502. (A) Dev. Calling her ould witch an' haggaging as 
they did . . . had crossed her mind a bit, MADOX-BROWN Yeth-hounds 
(1876) 251. 

HAGGAN, sb. Obs. Cum. A kind of pudding ; see 
below. Cf. haggis. 

Sometimes fruit, suet, and the minced entrails of a sheep, and 
sometimes only oatmeal, suet, and sugar boiled in the large gut of 
a sheep (J.L.) (1783). 

HAGGAR, adj. Yks. [Not known to our correspon- 
dents.] Wild, untamed. (HALL.) 

HAGGARD, sb. Sc. Irel. I.Ma. Cth. Pern. ?w.Cy. 
Also in forms haggart Sc. (JAM.) Wxf. I.Ma. Pem. ; hag- 
yard Sc. N.I. 1 [h)a-gad, -at.] A stack-yard. 

Gall. MACTAGGART Enrycl. 11824) 251, ed. 1876. Kcb., Wgt. 
JAM.) Ir. The master wasn't in the haggard, CARLETON Fardo- 
rougha (1836) 78. N.I. 1 Uls. An enclosed place near the farm- 
house (M.B.-S.). Lns. The corn [was] all safe in the haggard, 
CROKER Leg. (1862) 242. Wxf. A haggart with hay-ricks and 
corn-stacks, KENNEDY Evenings Duffrey ( 1869) 62. I.Ma. Searched 
. . . every place on the farm, and the haggart and pokin every 
stack, BROWN Doctor i 1887) 70 ; They crossed the haggard, . . she 
scattering great handfuls of oats, CAINE Manxman (1894) pt. n. 
viii. Cth. (W.W.S.), Pem. (E.D.) s.Pem. LAWS Little Eng. 
(1888)420. 1. w.Cy. (HALL.) 

Hence Haggard-mows, sb. mows in the stack-yard, not 
in the field. Cth. (W.W.S.) 

[ON. hey-gardr, a stack-yard (VIGFUSSON).] 

HAGGART, sb. Lth. (JAM.) [Not known to our 
correspondents.] An old useless horse. 

HAGGEL, HAGGEN-, seeHaggle.s^X^Hoggan.sfi. 1 

HAGGER, v. 1 and sb. 1 Sc. [ha'gar.] 1. v. To cut 
roughly and unevenly, to hack, mangle. Bch., s.Sc. QAM.) 
See Hag, v. 1 

Hence (i) Haggeran, vbl. sb. the act of cutting in 
a rough manner. Bnff. 1 ; (2) Hagger'd, ppl. adj. un- 
evenly cut, mangled, full of notches. Bch.. s.Sc. UAM.) 




2. sb. A large cut, esp. one with a ragged edge. 

Bnff. 1 ' A've gien ma finger a great bagger wee a Knife.' ' He 
took a bullax and ga' the tree a bagger half-through.' 

Hence Haggeral, sb. a very large cut ; an open, fester- 
ing sore. ib. 

HAGGER, v. 2 and sb? n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Also written 
haggar N.Cy. 1 ; and in form beggr Nhb. [h)a'ga(r.J 

1. v. To ' beggar ' ; in games of marbles, &c. : to win all 
an opponent's marbles, &c., to ' clear out.' Gen. used in pp. 

Nhb. In Hexham when a boy has lost all his marbles or cherry- 
stones, he is said to be heggr'd, N. V Q. (1871) 4th S. viii. 304 ; 
ib. 407 ; Nhb. 1 He wis fair hagger't. 

2. A term in marbles ; see below. 

Nhb. The loser [in a game of marbles] usually asks the winner 
to give him one back for his heggrs, N. & Q. (1871) 4th S. viii. 304. 

3. Comb. Hagger-maker's shop, a public-house. N.Cy. 1 , 
Nhb. 1 , Yks. (HALL.) 

HAGGER, v. a and sb. a Ags. (JAM.) [Not known to 
our correspondents.] 1. v. To rain gently. 2. sb. A 
fine small rain. 

HAGGER, v* Wil. 1 [ae'ga(r).] Of the teeth : to 
chatter with cold. Cf. hacker, v. 4. 

HAGGERDASH, sb. and adv. Sc. Also in form 
haggerdecash Ags. (JAM.) 1. sb. Disorder ; a broil. 
Lnk. (JAM.) 2. adv. In confusion, in a disorderly 
state, topsy-turvy. Ags., CId. (ib.) 

HAGGERIN, ///.<#. Lth. UAM.) [Not known to our 
correspondents.] In phr. haggerin and swaggerin, in an 
indifferent state of health ; fig. unprosperous in business. 

HAGGERSNASH, sb. and adj. Sc. [Not known to 
our correspondents.] 1. sb. Offals. n.Sc. (JAM.) 

2. Fig. A spiteful person. Ayr. (ib.) 

3. adj. Spiteful, sharp. 

Ayr. I maun lea' them to spaing athort their tapseltirie taun- 
trums an' haggersnash pilgatings upo' some hairum-skairum rattle- 
scull, Edb. Mag. (Apr. 1821, 351 (ib.). 

HAGGERTY, adj. Sc. Also written haggarty Frf. 
|ha-garti.| In comb, (i) Haggerty-tag, in an untidy, 
ragged manner ; (2) -tag-like, (3) -taggerty, ragged, 
tattered, ragamuffin. 

(i, a; n.Sc. JAM.) (3)16. Frf. This haggarty-taggarty Egyptian, 
BARRIE Minister (1891) xiv. 

HAGGILS, sb. pi. Fif. QAM.) In phr. in the haggils, 
in trammels. 

HAGGIS, sb. and v. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. War. 
Shr. Glo. Also in forms haggas Nhb. n.Yks. ; haggassl e 
Nhb. ; haggles Sc. Lan. ; haggise Sc. ; haggish Sc. 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb? Cum. ; haggus n.Cy. Lan. 1 Glo. 1 ; heygus 
Lan. 1 [h la'gis. avgis. | 1. sb. A dish, gen. consisting 
of the lungs, heart, and liver of a sheep, minced with suet, 
onions, &c., and cooked in a sheep's maw. 

Sc. It ill sets a haggis to be roasted, RAMSAY Prov. ( i 737) ; I hope 
he'll get a haggis to his dinner, SCOTT Bride of Lam. (1819) xviii. 
Bcb. Like an ill-scraped haggis, FORBES jrn. (1743) a. Abd. I left 
my mitherTocookthehaggies,CocKS/rawsj8io)I. 120. w.Sc.Gif 
a' your hums and ha's were hams and haggises, the parish o' Kippen 
needna fear a dearth, CARRICK Laird of Logan (1835 173. Dmb. 
A table bent wi" cheer . . . Haggis aboon and mutton at the foot, 
SALMON Gowodtan (1868) 108. Rnf. [I] set some haggis down 
afore, I trow the smell o't didna shore, PICKEN Potms (1813) I. 6a. 
Ayr. Not forgetting the savoury sonsy haggis, GALT Entail (1833) 
vii. Lnk. On the haggles Elspa spares nae cost, RAMSAY Gentle 
Shep. (1735) 44, ed. 1783. Lth. A sonsey haggis, reeking, rose 
Fu' proudly in the centre, BRUCE Poems (1813) II. 65. Edb. A 
haggis fat Weel tottled in a scything pat, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 
186, ed. 1785. Bwk. Mountalban for a haggis ; Lamington fortea, 
HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 33. Slk. If I would . . . take a 
share of a haggis wi' them, HOGG Tales (1838) 151, ed. 1866. Rxb. 
A very singular superstition in regard to this favourite dish pre- 
vails in Rxb. and perhaps in other southern counties. As it is a 
nice piece of cookery to boil a haggis, without suffering it to burst 
in the pot and run out, the only effectual antidote known is nomi- 
nally to commit it to the keeping of some male who is generally 
supposed to bear antlers on his brow. When the cook puts it into 
the pot, she says, ' I gie this to such a one to keep ' (JAM.) ; 
A good fat haggles, if his purse can spare it, RUICKBIE Wayside 
Cottager (1807) 73. Dmf. Mony a haggis that reeked an' swat, 

THOM Jock o' Knotve (1878) 39. Wgt. It was only a haggish, an 
A think ee needna mak' sae muckle din aboot it, FRASER Wigtown 
(1877)363. n.Cy. BorderGl. (Coll. L.L.B.) ; N.Cy. 1 Nhb. GROSE 
(1790) ; Like the first puffe of a haggasse, RICHARDSON Borderers 
Table-bk. (1846) VI. 309 ; Nhb. 1 Tripe minced small. Cum. Some- 
times fruit, suet, and the minced entrails of a sheep, and sometimes 
only oatmeal, suet, and sugar, boiled in the large gut of a sheep. 
It was till lately the common custom to have this dish to breakfast 
every Christmas day, and some part of the family sat up all night 
to have it ready at an early hour. It is now used at dinner on the 
same day (J.L.) (1783); We'd stew'dgeuse and haggish, ANDERSON 
Ballads (ed. 1808) 173 ; Cum. 1 A pudding of mincemeat for eating 
with potatoes on Christmas day. Lan. Her food . . . was haggis, 
made of boil'd groats, mixed with thyme or parsley, HARLAND 
& WILKINSON Fit-Lore (,i 86 7) 20 7 ; ^ &a - 1 Pottage made of herbs 
e.Lan. 1 A pudding of herbs. 

2. Comp. (i) Haggis-bag, the maw of a sheep in which 
the haggis is cooked ; fig. a windbag, a contemptuous 
term for anything ; (2) -feast, a feast or meal consisting 
of haggis ; (3) -fed, fed upon haggis ; (4) -headed, soft- 
headed, foolish, stupid ; (5) -heart, a soft, cowardly heart ; 
(6) -kail, the water in which a haggis is cooked; (7) -meat, 
minced and seasoned tripe ; (8) -supper, a supper con- 
sisting of haggis ; (9) -wife, a woman who sells minced 
and seasoned tripe. 

(i) Sc. It is more like an empty haggis-bag than ony thing else, 
Blackw. Mag. (Sept. 1819) 677 (JAM.V Dmb. ' Principles ! haggis 
bags ! ' exclaimed the lady, CROSS Disruption (1844) v. (a) Nhb. 
Aw'd suener hev a haggish feast, Or drink wi skipper Morgan, 
ALLAN Tyneside Sngs. (1891) 333. (3) Ayr. But mark the rustic, 
haggis-fed, BURNS To a Haggis (1787) st. 7. (4) Edb. Bring 
haggis-headed William Younger, PENNF.CUIK Wks. (1715) 412, ed. 
'815. (5) Edb. His haggis heart it fills Wi' grief, FORBES Poems 
(1813) 40. (6) Bnff. Wi' puddin broe or haggles kail, Or some- 
thing maks a battin meal, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 53. (7) Nhb. 
Aw got tired o' sellin' haggish meet, BAGNALL Sngs. (c. 1850; 26; 
Ov sheep's feet then we hev a feed, An' haggish meat an' aw, man, 
ib. 33 ; Nhb. 1 (8) Sc. A wis at a haggis supper that nicht, Jokes, 
and S. (1889) 36. (9 Nhb. Whaiv haggish wives wi' tubs an" 
knives, ROBSON Evangeline (1870) 343. 

3. The paunch, belly. Cf. hag, sb* 

Lnk. John goes to the amry and lays to the haggles, till his ain 
haggles cou'd had nae mair, GRAHAM Writings 1,1883) II. 210. 
Feb. Ned wi' his haggise loom Sail's stringless coats, as fast 's he 
dow,Geed back, Lintoun Green (1685) 62, ed. 1817. n.Cy. GROSE 
(17901. Lan. ib. MS. add. (C.) ; Lan. 1 

4. The smaller entrails or 'chitterlings' of a calf. War. 2 , 
Shr. 1 , Glo. 1 

5. Phr. to cool one's haggas, to beat one soundly. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). n.Yks. lie coul thy haggas, bitch, if I begin, 
MERITON Praise Ale (16841 1. 76 ; (K.) 

6. Fig. A term of contempt applied to a lumpish, un- 
wieldy person ; a soft, ' pudding-headed ' person ; a 

Dmf. The lazy haggises! CARLYLE.Z>tf.(i886)II.a8. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 

7. v. In boxing : to bruise, cut up, ' do for ' ; fig. to 
scatter, spread abroad. 

Nhb. Come up to the Scratch ! or, the Pitman haggish'd, ROBSON 
Sngs. of Tyne (1849) 381 ; So wishing trade may brisker be, An' 
fuels aw haggished owre the sea, ib. 295 ; By gox, 'fore aw's duen 
ye'll be haggished eneuf, ib. Evangeline (1870) 347 ; Nhb. 1 

[1. Haggas a podyng, caliette de mouton, PALSGR. (1530); 
Hagws of a schepe. Take the roppis with J)e talowe & 
parboyle hem ; ban hakke hem smal, Cookery Bk. (c. 1430), 
ed. Austin, 39.] 

HAGGLE, s*. 1 Chs. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Dor. Dev. Cor. 
Also written hagal I.W. ; haggel Cor. ; haggil Hmp. 1 ; 
hagl- Cor. ; and in forms agald Wil. 1 ; aggie Dev. 
nw.Dev. 1 ; agle Chs. Cor. 12 ; awgl- Cor. 12 ; haigle n.Dev. ; 
hail, hayel Dor. ; orgl- Cor. 1 [a'gl, ae'gl.] A haw, the 
fruit of the hawthorn, Crataegus Oayacantha ; also in comp. 
Haggle-berry. See Hag, sb* Cf eggle-berry. 

Chs. (B. & H.), Hmp.l, n.Hmp. (J.R.W.), I.W., Wil. 1 Dor. 
w.Gazette (Feb. 15, 1889) 7, col. i. Dev. A farmer informs me 
that the saying : 'Many aggies, Many cradles,' is frequently added to 
the better-known sayings : ' Many nits, Many pits; Many slones, 
Many groans,' Reports Provinc. (1893); Horae Su&ffliwu (1777) 
198. n.Dev. Sloans, bullans, and haigles be about, ROCK Jim an' Nell 



(1867)51.12. nw.Dev. 1 Cor. Housen and shops so thick as haggel, 
TREGELLAS Tales (1867) 67; Cor.' " 

Hence (i) Hagglan, Aglon, Awglon, or Orglon, sb. a 
haw ; (2) -tree, sb. a hawthorn tree. 

(i) Cor. Her lips were red as hagglons, THOMAS Randigal 
Rhymes (1895) n ; Cor. 12 (2) Cor. The lizamamoo and the 
keggas grew under the hagglan-tree, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes 
(1895) 15- 

HAGGLE,s6. 2 Sh.I. [ha'gl.] A subordinate division- 
mark between districts. S. & Ork. 1 

HAGGLE, v. 1 and sb. 3 Var. dial, and colloq. uses in 
Sc. Irel. and Eng. Also written haggel Cum. 3 ; hagil Sc. 
(JAM.) ; hagle Lan. Glo. ; and in forms aggie w.Yks. 5 
Lan. Nhp. 1 Bdf. n.Bck. Wil. 1 ; haigel Sc. ; haigle Sc. 
Nhb. 1 ; heggle Sus. 1 [h)a'gl, ae'gl.] 1. v. To cut awk- 
wardly or unevenly, to hack, mangle ; to bungle. See 
Hag, v. 1 

Fif. (JAM.) Ayr. They may learn at the college to haggle aff a 
sair leg, GALT Sir A. Wylie (1822) ciii. Ant. GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (C.) Cum. 1 ; Cum. 3 An' he haggelt an' cot at his pultess- 
bleach't po', 162. n.Yks. 14 w.Yks. THORESBY Lett. (1703) ; 
w.Yks. 24 ; w.Yks. 5 ' Luke how thah's aggled that loaf !' Cloth is 
' aggled ' when the knives of the cutting-machine, or rather the 
roller on which the knives are fixed, pimp and cut the cloth at 
short distances till it is re-arranged. ne.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 Yi 
mun)u aag-1 dhu cheyz ; taak' it streyt ufoa-r yi [Ye munna haggle 
the cheise; tak it streight afore ye]. Not. (J.H.B.), Not. 1 , Lin. 1 . 
n.Lin. 1 , Nhp. 1 Shr. 1 Dunna yo' 'aggie the mate i' that way I 
conna bar to see it ; Shr. 2 Glo. BAYLIS///S. Dial. (1870) ; Home 
Subsecivae (1777) 198. Oxf. 1 MS. add. Bdf. To cut unevenly, as 
a joint of meat or a loaf of bread (J.W.B.). Wil. They took out 
their knives and haggled the skin off, JEFFERIES Bevis (1882) vii ; Wil. 1 

Hence (i ) Haggled,/>/>/. adj. hacked, mangled, mutilated ; 
(2) Hagglin, ppl. adj. rash, incautious ; (3) Haggly, adj. 
rough, unevenly cut. 

(i) Gall. I see thee, little loch. Thou art clear this morning. 
Thou art red at even, and there is a pile of haggled heads by thee, 
CROCKETT Raiders (1894) xiv. (.2) Flf. A hagglin' gomrel (JAM.). 
( 3 ;Cld. (JAM.), s.Chs. 1 

2. To dispute, cavil, argue ; esp. to dispute the terms 
of a bargain ; to chatter ; to quarrel, bicker. 

Sc. To use a great deal of useless talk in making a bargain, SIB- 
BALD Gl. (JAM.) Abd. Sandy Mutch would not ' haggle ' over a few 
shillings, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 107. Cai. 1 Per. It wes for 
love's sake a' haggled an' schemed, IAN M ACLAREN A uld Lang Syne 
(,1895) 157. Slk. I ... baidna langerto haigel, HOGG Tales (1838) 
no, ed. 1866. N.I. 1 , Dur. 1 , Cum. 1 n.Yks. Thoo's allus haggling 
and scouding (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 12 *, m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Their isn't a 
minute's peace i' t'house they're always haggling and jaggling 
about something (H.L.); LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 229; 
w.Yks. 1 Lan. He's always aggling about something not worth a 
farthing (S.W.). ne.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , Not. (W.H.B.), Not. 1 , Lin. 1 , 
nXin. 1 s.Lin. Them two'll haggle ower nowt by the hour if 
nobody stops 'em (T.H.R.). War. (J.R.W.) ; War. 4 What a mon 
you be ! you'll haggle for the last farding. m.Wor. Don't haggle 
any more about it (J.C.). se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Yo' wanten to 'aggie, 
dun'ee yo' bin al'ays ready for cross-pladin' ; Shr. 2 Glo. Wall, 
we bided thur and haggled a smart while. BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
(1890) 140; BAYLIS Illus. Dial. (1870). Brks. 1 Sometimes also it 
is used in the sense of ' to hesitate in reply.' ' A haggled a good 
bit avoor a'd tell I wher a'd a-bin.' n.Bck. (A.C.), e.An. 2 , Sus. 2 , 
Hmp. 1 Dev. Horae Subsecivae (1777) 198. Cor. Mrs. Tucker used 
to haggle with everybody, PARR Adam and Eve (1880) III. 235. 

Hence (i) Haggling, (a) sb. a dispute, argument; a pro- 
longed bargaining ; (b) ppl. adj. vexatious, trying, weari- 
some ; (2) Hagil-bargain, sb. one who is difficult to come 
to terms with in making a bargain, a ' stickler.' 

(i, a) Frf. ' The chairge is saxpence, Davit,' he shouted. Then 
a haggling ensued, BARRIE Licht (1888) ii. n.Yks. 2 , se.Wor. 1 (b) 
Bnff. 1 A term applied by fishermen and sailors to weather, in which 
the wind dies away during daytime, and springs up towards evening. 

SUS. 1 (2) Rxb. SlBBALD Gl. (1802) (JAM.). 

3. To tease, worry, harass ; to over-work, fatigue, 
tire out. 

Cum. 1 , n.Yks. 14 ne.Lan. 1 War. 4 What are you haggling our Bess 
for? Oxf. I get quite haggled, Sir, by the close of the day (W.F.R.) ; 
Oxf. 1 Often applied to energetic preachers. ''Ow'adid'aggle'isself.' 

Hence Haggled, ppl. adj. wearied, harassed, worn out. 

sw.Lin. 1 Poor things, how haggled they look ! 

4. To advance with difficulty; to do anything with much 
obstruction, to struggle. 

Bwk., Rxb. To carry with difficulty anything that is heavy, cum- 
bersome, or entangling (JAM.). Rxb. I hae mair than I can haigle 
wi'. My lade is sae sad I can scarcely haigle (ib.). Nhb. Aa 
could hardly get haigl't through (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 Here she comes 
haiglin wi a greet bunch o' sticks. Lan. Hagglin at th' seek to get 
hissel out, WAUGH Old Cronies (1875) iv. 

5. sb. A mild dispute ; the process of bargaining. 
s.Wor. 1 , Glo. (A.B.) 

[1. Suffolk first died : and York, all haggled over, Comes 
to him, SHAKS. Hen. V, iv. vi. n. 2. Harceler, to haggle, 
huck, hedge, or paulter long in the buying of a commodity, 
COTGR. 8. We are so harassed and haggled out in this 
business, CROMWELL Lett. (Aug. 20, 1648).] 

HAGGLE, v? and sb* n.Cy. Yks. Pern. Also written 
hagel s.Pem. ; haggel e.Yks. ; hagle s.Pem. ; and in 
forms aggie e.Yks. ; hag- m.Yks. 1 [h)a-gl.] 1. v. 
To hail. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790); (K.) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 It beeath haggl'd 
and snaw'd. ne.Yks. 1 It haggled heavy t'last neet. e.Yks. It 
haggled't morn, COLES PlaceNames( 1879) 30; (MissA.); e.Yks. 1 
We moont gan oot just yit, it's beginnin te haggle. m.Yks. 1 
[RAY (1691).] 

2. sb. Hail, a hailstone : also in comp. Haggle-stone, 

e.Yks. (R.M.) ; Haggles doon wide chimlaclatthered, Yks. Dial. 
(i887 N i 35 ; MORRIS Flk-Talk (1892). m.Yks. 1 s.Pem. There is a 
shower of hagles a comin'(W.M.M.) ; LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 420. 

HAGGLE-CART, sb. Oxf. [as-gl-kat.] A horse and 
cart let out on hire to do rough work or odd jobs ; also 
used attrib. and vb. 

' Haggle-cart man,' a person whose services may be hired for 
any kind of carting work required of him. 'Haggle-cart men ' and 
' haggle-cart work ' are common terms in Oxford (G.O.); We are 
to distribute the work equally amongst the haggle-cart men in 
Oxford, Oxf. Times (Jan. 7, 1899) 3 ; Oxf. 1 Ea goes [guez] to 
haggle-cart, MS. add. 

HAGGLER, sb. Lon. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Dor. Also 
written hagler Hmp. 1 Dor. [as'gla(r).] 1. A pedlar, 
huckster ; a ' middle-man.' Cf. higgler. 

Lon. In Billingsgate the'forestallers' or middlemen,.. as regards 
means, are a far superior class to the ' hagglers ' (the forestallers 
of the green markets), MAYHEW Land. Labour (1851) I. 67. Wil. 
SLOW Gl. (1892). Dor. I be plain Jack Durbeyfield the haggler, 
HARDY Tess (1891") 4 ; An you do know young Jimmey Brown the 
hagler, Eclogue (,1862) 26 ; Dor. 1 One who buys up poultry to sell 
2. The upper servant of a farm. Hmp. 1 , I.W. 12 

HAGGLE-TOOTH, sb. Som. Dev. A tooth belonging 
to the second set which appears prematurely through the 
gum and projects. Dev. 1 Cf. aigle, 4. 

Hence Haggle-toothed, adj. having prominent or pro- 
jecting teeth. 

w.Som. 1 Ag-1-teo-dhud. Dev. Horae Subsecivae (1777) 198. 
n.Dev. Wey zich a whatnozed haggle-tooth'd . . . theng as thee 
art, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 58. 

HAGGOKNOW, see Hag-a-knowe. 

HAGGRIE, sb. Bnff. 1 [ha'gri.] An unseemly mass. 

It is very often spoken of food badly cooked and served up in 
an untidy way. 

HAGHOG, sb. Obs. Rut. 1 A hedgehog. 

Paid for a haghog, zd., Chwarden's Accts. (1720). 

HAGHT, sb. Ant. A voluntary cough to remove 
mucus from the throat. Balfymena Obs. (1892). 

HAGH YE, phr. Obsol. Cum. 1 Listen, hark ye. 

HAGIL, HAGLE, see Haggle, t/. 12 , Hauchle. 

HAGISTER, sb. Lin. Ken. Also written hagester, 
haggister Ken. ; and in form eggiste Lin. Dor. The mag- 
pie, Pica rustica. 

Lin. A gamekeeper's word, N. & Q. (1899) gth S. iv. 357 ; 
<T.H.) Ken. RAY (1691) ; (K.) ; I took up a libbet to holl at a 
hagester that sat in the pea gratten, GROSE (1790) ; I hove a libbit 
at the hagister, LEWIS /. Tenet (1736) (s.v. Libbit) ; Ken. 12 

[EFris. dkster, ekster, hakster, heister, 'pica ' (KOOLMAN) ; 
Du. aakster (more commonly ekster), the magpie (DE VRIES) .] 




HAGLY-CRAB, sb. Hrf. A variety of apple. 

Nature has endued some apple trees, such as the redstreak, . . 
with the power of maturing their fruits earlier in the season than 
others, such as the hagly crab, golden pippin, MARSHALL Krvitw 
(1818) II. 989. 

HAGMAHUSH, sb. Sc. An awkward sloven ; also 
used attrib. 

Abd. O laddy ! ye're a hagmahush ; yer face is barkid o'er wi' 
smush, BEAT-TIE Parings (1801) 5, ed. 1873 ; Most commonly 
applied to a female (JAM.). 

H AC-MALI L,.s//. Som. 1. The titmouse, A credularosea. 

N. & Q. (1877) sth S. viii. 358 ; W. & J. Gl. (1873). 
2. A sloven, slattern. 

W. & J. Gl. (1873). w-Som. 1 Her's a purty old beauty, her is 
a rigler old hag-mall [hag-maa-1]. 

HAGMAN-HEIGH, see Hogmany. 

HAG-HARK, sb. Sh.I. A boundary stone, a stone 
set up to indicate the line of division between separate 
districts ; also called Hag-stane. 

JAKOBSEN Norsk in Sh. (1897) 117 ; (Coll. L.L.B.) ; S. & Ork. 1 

HAGMENA, see Hogmany. 

HAG-NAIL, sb. Suf. Same as Agnail (q.v.). 

HAGODAY, see Haggaday. 

HAGRI, sb. Sh.I. In phr. to ride the hagri, see below. 

There is an old Shetland expression : ' to ride de hagri ' ' hagri ' 
being an O.N. hag(a)rei8 : skattald-ride. In former times neigh- 
bouring proprietors used to ride in company around their skattald- 
boundaries in order to inspect the marches, or put up new 
march-stones, and thus prevent future disputes. Every year, 
when this was done, they took with them a boy, the son of some 
crofter, residing on one or other of the properties. At every 
march-stone they came to, the boy got a flogging : this, it was 
thought, made him remember the place ever after. For every 
year this ' hagri ' or skattald-riding was done, a different boy was 
selected to accompany the proprietors and receive the floggings, 
JAKOBSEN Dial. (1897) 109. 

HAG-STONE, see Haggle, sb* 2. 

HAGUE, sb. and v. N.Cy. 1 [heg.] 1. sb. The in- 
clination of a dike with the seam in a coal-pit. Cf. hade, s*. 2 
2. v. To incline, slope. ' She hagues sare to the south.' 

HAGUE, see Hag, sb* 

HAGWESH,s6. Cum. 1 Ruin, bankruptcy. Cf.bagwesh. 

HAGWIFE, sb. Sc. A midwife. 

Lnk. I maun hae a hagwife or my mither dee, for truly she's 
very frail, GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 208. 

HAG-WORM, sb. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Win. Yks. Lan. 
Lin. Also written hag-wurm Cum. 8 ; and in forms ag- 
worm w.Yks. ; -worrum e.Yks. 1 ; haggom n.Yks. 3 ; hag- 
worrum e.Yks. 1 [h)a'g-warm, -warn.] 1. The adder 
or viper, Pelias berus. 

n.Cy. Ah's as crazy as a hag-worm ower yon nag o' oors <"B.K.). 
Nhb. RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk. (1846) VIII. 15; (R.O.H.) 
Lakel. 1 Cum. ' What thinks teh they fand iv his stomach ? ' 
' Mebby a hag-worm,' SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 99 ; Cnm. 3 An 
t'fat rwoastit oot o beath hagwurms an eels, 161 ; Cnm. 4 Wm. A 
hagworm will bite fra the clint, HUTTON Bran New Work (1785) 
1.407. s.Wm. (J.A.B.) Yks. GROSE (1790). n.Yks. 124 e.Yks. 
MARSHALL Kur. Econ. (1788) ; e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. 
Ntddtrdalt (c. i88a) Gl. ; HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781). Lin. 
STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 334 ; Lin. 1 n.Lin. 1 Obsol. 
2. The common snake, Coluber natrix ; also used gene- 
rically for snakes of any kind. 

N.Cy. 1 , Ctun. n.Yks. Science Gossip (1882) 161 ; n.Yks. 2 Often, 
though wrongly, applied to the common harmless snake ; n.Yks. 3 
ne.Yks. 1 Used generically rather than specifically. m.Yks. 1 
Applied to all kinds of snakes, which are rarely found out of 
woods. w.Yks. WILLAN Z.w/ ff<fc. (1811). Lan. 1 , n.Lan. 1 

8. The blind-worm, Anguisfragilis. 

Nbb. It is affirmed that the bite of the hag-worm ... is much 
more deadly, RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk. (1846) VIII. 15; 
Nhb. 1 Dnr. 1 A worm of a brown mottled colour, the belly being 
lighter. It is about a foot in length, and an inch in diameter. 
Cnm. HUTCHINSON Hist. Cum. (1794) I. App. 54; Cnm. 4 w.Yks. 
Yan 'ud awmost think ye'd swallowed a hagworm, Jabee Oliphant 
(1870) bk. i. v ; w.Yks. 1 

4. Camp, (i) Hagworm-flower, the star- wort, Stellaria 
holostea ; (a) -stones, perforated fragments of the grey 
alum shale found on Whitby beach. 

(0 Vks. (B. & H.) (a) n.Yks. 2 The round holes were 
traditionally supposed to be due to the sting of the adder. 

[1. ON. h8gg-ormr, a viper (ViGFUSson).J 

HAG-YARD, see Haggard. 

HAH, HAHL, HAHM, HAHNSER, see I, Hale, v.\ 
Haulm, Heronsew. 

HA-HO, sb. Irel. Also in form hi-how N.I. 1 
hedge-parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris. 

N.I. 1 Of the parts of the stem between the joints children make 
'pluffers' to 'pluff' hawstones through. Children also make 
' scouts ' i. e. squirts, of the stem of this plant. An instrument for 
producing a noise is also made. ' When we were wee fellows we 
used to make horns of the hi-how.' Ldd. (B. & H.) 

HAHO, see Haihow. 

HATCHES, sb. Sc. Also written haichess Abd. (JAM.); 
haichus Rxb. (JAM.) Force, impetus ; a heavy fall, the 
noise made by the falling of a heavy body. 

n.Sc. (JAM.), Abd. (16.) Frf. [She] Mistook a fit for a her care, 
An' wi' a haiches fell, MORISON Poems (1790) 25- Rxb - (J AM -) 

HAH), see Hade, sb. 12 , Hide, v? 

HAID-CORN, sb. Nhb. The plants of wheat in winter. 
(HALL.), Nhb. 1 Cf. hard-corn. 

HAIFER.v. Whs. e.An. To toil, labour. (HALL.^e.An. 1 

HAIFTY-KAIFTY,a^'. w.Yks. 2 Also in form hefty- 
kefty. Wavering, undecided. Cf. havey-cavey. 

HAIG, HAIGEL, see Hag, sb. 1 *, Hagg, v., Haggle, v. 1 

HAIGH, sb. Sc. Wm. A precipice ; a hillside. 

Per. Syne a great haigh they row'd him down, DUFF Poems, 87 
(JAM.). Wm. GIBSON Leg. (1877) 93. 

HAIGH, v. Lan. Chs. Also written hay. To raise, 
lift up, heave ; to take the top earth off gravel. 

Lan^AfarmeratFlixton had fetched some gravel and complained 
of his pay, saying, ' I had to hay it as well.' Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 Hay 
it up. 

[Nu sket shall illc an dale beon All he;hedd upp and 
fillcdd. Onnulum (c. 1200) 9204.] 

HAIGH, HAIGLE, see Hag, sb. 2 , Haggle, sb. 1 , v. 1 

HAIG-RAIG, adj. Wil. [e-g-reg.] Bewildered. 

SLOW Gl. (1892 ; Wil. 1 (s.v. Hag-rod). 

HAIGRIE, sb. Sh.I. Also in forms haegrie; hegrie 
S. & Ork. 1 (JAM.) [he'gri.] The heron, Ardea cinerea. 

The . . . heron (.haigrie) . . . might surely have been scheduled 
. . . [for] protection, Sh. News (Jan. 14, 1899); Gazin' aboot him 
lack a howlin' haegrie, STEWART Tales (1892) 256; (W.A.G.) ; 
SWAINSON Birds (1885; 144 ; EDMONSTON Zetl. (1809) II. 266 (JAM.). 

[Norw. dial, hegre, a heron (AASEN) ; ON. hegri.] 

HAIHOW, sb. n.Cy. Shr. Also in forms haho n.Cy. ; 
high hoe Shr. The green woodpecker, Gecinus viridis. 

n.Cy. Poetry Provinc. in Cornfi. Mag. (1865) XII. 35. Shr. Its 
loud, laughing note has caused it to be called High hoe or Hai how, 
SWAINSON Birds (1885) 100; Shr. 1 [Pimard, Heighaw or Wood- 
pecker, COTGR.] 

HAIK(E, HAIKED, see Hack, sb. 12 , Hake, sb. a , v., 

HAIL, sb. 1 Sc. Irel. [hel.] Small shot, pellets. 

Edb. They canna eithly miss their aim, The wail o' hail they 
use for game, LIDDLE Poems (1821) 69. N.I. 1 Sparrow hail. ' The 
whole charge of hail went into his back.' 

[Postes, big hail-shot for herons, geese, and other such 
great fowl, COTGR.] 

HAIL, v. 1 Sc. Som. Cor. [h)el.] To shout; to 
roar, cry. 

Frf. They hailed doon to see if ony o' the inmates were alive, 
WILLOCK Rosetty Ends (1886) 72, ed. 1889. Som. Trans. Phil. 
Soc. (1858) 159 ; (HALL.) Cor. The souls of the drowned sailors 
. . . haunt these spots, and the ' calling of the dead ' has frequently 
been heard. . . Many a fisherman has declared he has heard the 
voices of dead sailors ' hailing their own names,' HUNT Pop. Rom. 
w.Eng. (1865) 366, ed. 1896. 

HAIL, v." and sb." Sc. Nhb. Cum. Also written hale 
Sc. Nhb. 1 Cum. 14 [hel.] 1. v. To drive the ball to the 
goal ; to win the goal. Cf. dool, sb. 3 3. 

Edb. When the ball is driven to the enemy's boundary it is 
'hailed' (D.M.R.). Cum. 1 ; Cum. 4 The ball went 'down' very 
soon and did not stop until nailed in the harbour. 

Hence Haler, sb. a ' goal ' or ' win ' in the game of 
' si i inn y ' or ' shinty.' Cum. 4 




2. Phr. (i) hail the ball, (2) the dool or dools, a term 
used in football or other similar games, meaning to win a 
goal, drive the ball through the goal ; to win the mark, be 

(i) Sc. (JAM.) Abd. The ba' spel's won And we the ba' ha'e 
hail'd, SKINNER Poems (1809) 51. Nhb. The dawn will be cheery, 
When death 'hails' the ba ! PROUDLOCK Borderland Muse (1896) 
248 ; We haled the baa safe i' the chorch porch [the goal], DIXON 
Shrove-tide Customs, 6; Nhb. 1 Cum. Others start to hale the ball 
(E.W.P.). (a) See DOOL, sb. 2 3. 

3. sb. The call announcing the winning stroke at shinty 
and some other ball games ; the act of driving the ball to 
the boundary. 

Sc. (JAM.) , Cal. 1 Edb. The cry of ' hail ' is raised at the game of 
shinty when the ball is driven through the enemy's goal (D.M.R.). 

4. The goal at shinty, football, &c. ; the ' goal' scored. 
Sc. The struggle is, which party will drive the ball to their 

' hail,' Chambers' Information (ed. 1842) s.v. Shinty ; The hails is 
wun, T ARR AS Poems (1804) 66 (JAM.). Abd. The hail at 'shinty,' 
and the dell at 'hunty' and 'kee how,' CADENHEAD Bon Accord 
(1853) 192. Edb. The goal at shinty is known as ' the hails,' and a 
goal wonisa'haiP (D.M.R.). Dmf.(jAM., s.v. Han'-an-hail). Nhb. 1 
' To kick hale ' is to win the game. Cum. A hail at feut-bo between 
t'scheulhoose an' t'low stump, SARGissoN/o<?Scoa/> (1881)2; Cum. 4 

5. pi. A game of ball somewhat resembling ' shinty ' or 
hockey ; see below. 

Lth. Great was the variety of games played with the ball, both 
by boys and girls, from ' shintie ' and ' hails ' to ' stot-ba ' and 
'bannets,' STRATHESK More Bits (ed. 1885) 32. Edb. At the Edb. 
Academy there is a game called ' hails,' which is akin to hockey, 
only it is played with the flat wooden rackets called 'clackens,' 
and the manner of playing is different (D.M.R.). 

6. The place for playing off' the ball at hockey and 
similar games. Sc. Also used in pi. (JAM.) 

7. Comp. (i) Hail-ball, a boys' game ; see below ; also 
called Han-an'-hail (q.v.) ; (2) -lick, the last blow or kick 
of the ball, which wins the game at football, &c. 

(i) Dmf. Two goals called 'hails' or 'dules' are fixed on. . . 
The two parties then place themselves in the middle between the 
goals or 'dules,' and one of the persons, taking a soft elastic ball 
about the size of a man's fist, tosses it into the air, and as it falls 
strikes it with his palm towards his antagonists. The object of 
the game is for either party to drive the ball beyond the goal which 
lies before them, while their opponents do all in their power to 
prevent this (JAM., s.v. Han'-an-hail). (2) Knr. (JAM.) 

HAIL, int. Yks. Also written hale, [el.] A cry used 
to drive away geese. 

n.Yks. ' Hale,' be off wi' ye, opposed to ' Abbey, abbey, abbey,' 
a summons to come ^R.H.H.). e.Yks. (Miss A.) 

HAIL, HAILL, see Ail, sb. 2 , Hale, sb. 1 , adj., v. 12 , Heal, v? 

HAILY, sb. Brks. Also written haighly. [Not known to 
ourothercorrespondents.] [e'li.J An onset, onrush. (J.C.K.) 

HAIM, HAIMALD, jsee Hame,s6. 12 , Hain, v>, Hamald. 

HAIN, sb. 1 Sc. [hen.] A haven, place of refuge. 

Ags. The East Hain 'JAM.). Frf. The hind comes in, if hain he 
win, LOWSON Guidfollow (1890) 242. 

HAIN, sb. 2 Chs. [en.] Hatred, malice. (HALL.), Chs. 13 

[Fr. haine, hatred.] 

HAIN, v. 1 and sb* Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also written haain Brks. 1 I.W. 12 ; haen Abd. Ant.; hane 
Sc. (JAM.) ; hayn s.Wor. 1 Oxf. 1 Hmp. 1 ; hayne Glo. 1 Som. 
Cor. 12 ; and in forms haim Glo. 12 ; hein Frf. ; hen- Nhb. 1 
[h)en.] 1. v. To enclose, surround by a hedge ; to shut 
up or preserve grass land from cattle, c., with a view to 
a crop of hay. Also with up. 

Gall. (JAM.) Nhb. (J.H.); Nhb. 1 A grass field kept back from 
pasture till late in summer is said to be hained. Nhp. 1 ' Have you 
hained your land ?' i.e. have you excluded cattle from the field, 
in order that the grass may grow ? Nhp. 2 , War. (J.R.W.) Wor. 
Old turf keeping for sale. This keeping is very fresh, having been 
winterhained,ws/ia<./-.(Mayi4,i898). s.Wor. 1 Glo.J.S.F.S.); 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1789) I ; Gl. (1851); Glo. 12 Oxf. When 
the cattle are taken off, and the fences made up, the meadows are 
hayned (K.) ; N.&Q. (1884) 6th S. ix. 390 ; Oxf. 1 , Hmp. 1 I.W. 1 
Don't thee dreyve the cattle into that meead, caas "tes haain'd up ; 
t.W. 2 Wil. They make a practice of haining up their meadows as 
early as possible, MARSHALL Review (1818) II. 489 ; BRITTON 
Beauties (1825); Wil. 1 Dor. 1 The mead wer winter-hffmed. Som. 
His plan is to winter hayne fifteen acres, Reports Agric. (1793- 

1813) 114 ; (W.F.R.) ; JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; SWEET- 
MAN JVincanton Gl. (1885). Cor. 12 

Hence Hained, ppl. adj. (i) of grass : preserved for hay, 
not used as pasture ; (2) of ground : enclosed, preserved 
from pasturage for a season. Also usedyzg-. 

(i) Sc. That the bees may feed on the flowers of the heath and 
late meadows or hain'd, that is kept grass, MAXWELL Bee-Master 
( I 747) 55 (JAM.) ; We'll thrive like hainet girss in May, CHAMBERS 
Sngs. (1829) II. 517. w.Eng. MORTON Cydo. Agric. (1863). (a) 
Sc. (JAM.) Abd. Hawkies twa, Whilk o'er the craft to some hained 
rig she leads, STILL Cottar's Sunday (1845) 18. Flf. Transferred 
to a man who is plump and well grown. ' Ye've been on the hain'd 
rig" (JAM.). s.Sc.In sheep-farms, hained ground means, that which 
is reserved for a particular purpose, such as to pasture the lambs 
after they are weaned, or for the purpose of making hay from, 
N. & Q. (1856) 2nd S. ii. 157. Ayr. Wi' tentie care I'll flit thy 
tether To some hain'd rig, BURNS To his Auld Mare, st. 18. Slk. 
That's the hained grundlike, HOGG 7afe(i838) 23, ed. 1866. Kcb. 
Now weir an' fence o' wattl'd rice The hained fields inclose, 
DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 51. n.Cy. N. if Q. (1856) 2nd S. ii. 157. 

2. To protect or preserve from harm ; to shield, exculpate. 
Frf. Hain them weel, and deil the fear But on ye'll get, SANDS 

Poems (1833) 2 4- Rnf - Wha wadna up an' rin To hain a weel 
pay'd skin? FINLAYSON Rhymes (1815) 57. Ayr. Be hain'd wha 
like, there was no excuse for him, HUNTER Studies (1870) 26. Lnk. 
The guidwife, to hain her table, Spread a coverin" white as snaw, 
NICHOLSON Kiluiuddie (ed. 1895) 52. Edb. Hain the life o' mony 
a brave ane, CRAWFORD Poems (1798) 91. e.Dnr. 1 

3. To husband, economize, use sparingly ; to save up, 
hoard, lay by. 

Sc. It is well hain'd, that is hain'd off the belly, KELLY Prov. 
(1721) 182; Kail hains bread, RAMSAY Prov. (1737^ ; We hain our 
little hates, and are niggards of the love that would begin Heaven 
for us even here, KEITH Bonnie Lady (1897) 73. Sh.I. Dey [bones] 
wir weel hained, for we haed naethin' troo da voar, I may say, bit 
just mael an' waiter, STEWART Tales (1892) 249. Cai. 1 Kcd. Bere 
an' aits in sheaves or tails, Weel haint the simmer through, GRANT 
Lays (1884) 3. Abd. I wyte her squeelin's nae been hain't, Good- 
wife (1867) st. 13. Frf. Come, hain your siller, pick an' eat, 
BEATTIE Arnha (c. 1820) 16, ed. 1882. Per. I cut the bread thick 
to hain the butter, FERGUSSON Vill. Poet. (1897) 121. s.Sc. A man 
among men he For catching the soveran and haining the penny ! 
ALLAN Poems (1887) 65. Rnf. Some hae routh to spen' an' hain, 
NEILSON Poems (1877) 27. Ayr. Ye're no to hain your ability in 
the business, GALT Sir A. Wylie (1822) xxviii ; (J.M.) Lnk. The 
thrifty mither did her best their scanty means to hain, NICHOLSON 
Idylls (1870) 129. Edb. He wastes a poun, an' hains a penny, 
LEARMONT Poems (1791) 65. Slk. You needna hain the jeel [jelly] 
for there's twa dizzen pats, CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) IV. 98. 
Rxb. The French Their lead an' powther hae nae hain'd, A. SCOTT 
Poems (ed. 1808) 142. Gall. What Highlan' han' its blade would 
hain ? NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 178, ed. 1897. Wgt. A thrifty 
bit wife wha his weekly wage hains, FRASER Poems (1885) 177. 
N.I. 1 Ant. ' Haen your kitchen,' that is save your soup, beef, or 
whatever else you have got to eat with your potatoes, Ballymena 
Obs. (1892). N.Cy. 1 Haining a new suit of clothes. Nhb. The 
gear I hain, he just destroys, PROUDLOCK Borderland Muse 
(1896) 339 ; Nhb. 1 A man hains his food or drink to make it go as 
far as possible. Dur. GIBSON Up-Weardale Gl. (1870). Cum. 
We'll not give yae pleace a' our gift An' hain nought for anither, 
Sngs. (1866) 239 ; Cum. 4 , s.Wor. (H.K.) 

Hence (i) Hained, ppl. adj. (a) saved up, hoarded, pre- 
served from use ; freq. in comb. Weel-hained ; (b) fig. 
preserved, kept in store ; (2) Hained-up, ppl. adj., see 
(*> ) 5 (3) Hainer, sb. one who saves anything from being 
worn or expended ; (4) Haining, () ppl. adj. thrifty, 
saving, frugal, penurious ; (b) sb. economy, frugality, 
saving; parsimony; (5) Hainings, s6. //.earnings, savings. 

(i, a) Sc. The long-hained silver is paid over the counter, KEITH 
Prue (1895) 159. Abd. I maun yield my weel-hained gear to deck 
yon modern wa's, CADENHEAD Bon Accord (1853) 187. Per. She 
puts on her weel-hain'd tartan plaid, NICOLL Poems (ed. 1843) 94. 
Dmb. It's no my weel-hained pickle siller that's to keep him up 
ony langer to play the fule, CROSS Disruption (1844) i. Ayr. Wha 
waste your weel-hain'd gear on damn'd new Brigs and Harbours ! 
BURNS Brigs of Ayr (1787) 1. 173. Edb. Hain'd multer hads the 
mill at ease, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 150, ed. 1785. Dmf. Our 
guidwife coft a snip white coat, Wi' monie a weel hained butter- 
groat, CROMEK Remains (1810) 90. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) 
Nhb. Auld Bella's well hain'd china ware, PROUDLOCK Borderland 

D 2 




Muse ( 1896) 338. (6) Sc. Hain'd men ! will ye not heark ? AYTOUN 
Ballads (ed. 1861 ) 1. 91. (a) Sc. It's fair pizen, It's naething but the 
hained-up syndings o' the glesses, KEITH Bonnie Lady (1897) 29. 
(3) Cld. He's a gude hainer o' his claise. He's an ill hainero' his 
siller (JAM.). (4, a) Sh.I. Der ower hainin ta spend mair isdey 
can help, Sh. News (Aug. 19, 1899). Bnff. 1 Elg. Jeems, though 
he's hainin', keeps a gey decent dram, TESTER Poems (1865) 133. 
Ayr. Being of a haining disposition, SERVICE Notandums (1890) 9. 
(6) Sh.1. Lang want, dey say, is nae bread hainin, Sh. News (July 
9, 1898). Abd. That's an unco haenin o' the strae, ALEXANDER 
Johnny Gibb (1871) xxxvii. Ayr. A spirit of scarting and haining 
that I never could abide, SERVICE Dr. Duguid(ed. 1887) 25. Lnk. 
Our John was aye a great man for hainin', ROY Generalship (ed. 
1895) a. (5) Ayr. My lawful jointure and honest hainings, GALT 
Entail (1823) Hi. 

4. Phr. (i) hain the charge, to save expense ; to grudge, 
be penurious ; (a) the road, to save a journey. 

(i) Sc. If my dear wife should hain the charge As I expect she 
will, CHAMBERS Sngs. (1829) II. 487. (a) Edb. If ye'd stay'd at 
hame, and cooked, And hain'd the road, LIDDLE Poems (1821) 27. 

5. To save or spare exertion, trouble, &c. 

Sc. (JAM.) Sh.1. I could a haind my trouble, Sh. News (July a, 
1898). Inv. To hain one's self in a race, not to force one's self at 
first (H.E.F.). Bch. They are so hain'd, they grow so daft, FORBES 
Dominie (1785) 43. Abd. Swankies they link aff the pot To hain 
their joes, KEITH Farmer s Ha' (1774) sL 60. Slg. Flit in tethers 
needless nags That us'd to hain us, MUIR Poems (1818) 13. Ayr. 
Sic hauns as you sud ne'er be faikit, Be hain't wha like, BURNS 
2nd Ep. to Davie. e.Lth. I'm suir ye dinna hain yoursel, sir, 
HUNTER J. Inwick (1895) 134. Dmf. Wha toiled sae sair tae hain 
me. QUINN Heather (1863) 345. Gall. You know I havena sought 
to hain you in the hottest of the harvest ; neither have I urged you 
on, NICHOLSON Hist. Tales (1843) 334. N.I. 1 Ye hained yersel' the 
day. Nhb. 1 A man takes work easily and hains himself in order 
that his strength may endure to the end of the day. 

Hence Hained, ppl. adj. (i) well-preserved, not wasted 
by bodily fatigue or exertion ; (2) fie. chaste. 

(i) Nhb. 1 A man who has gone through a long life and presents 
a fresh appearance is said to be 'weel hained.' (a) Sc. 'Well- 
hained,' not wasted by venery (JAM.). 

6. With on : to grudge the expense of a bargain ; to 
grudge one's pains or trouble. 

Efteraa've myed the bargain aa hen'don't (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 ' He 
seun henned on't,' he soon gave it up or tired of doing it. 

7. With /row or off: to abstain or hold aloof from. 

Slg. I am sorry he has been so long hained from Court, BKUCE 
Sermons (1631) ao, ed. 1843. Brks. 1 Us 'ool haain aff vrom taay- 
kin' any notice on't vor a daay or two, praps a wunt do't no moor. 

8. To cease raining. 

Sh.I. Da rain hained an' da wind banged ta wast wi' a perfect 
gyndagooster, SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) 250 ; ib. 119. 

9. sb. A field shut up for hay ; an enclosure. 

Hrf. (W.W.S.), Hrf. 1 Glo. LEWIS Gl. (1839); Glo. 1 Wil. 
BRITTON Beauties (1835). Som. Mr. H., speaking of an egg he had 
found on another person's land, said, ' I had no right to it ; it wasn't 
my hain ' (W.F.R.). 

[1. Norw.dial.//?7K,to fence in, enclose (AASEN); soON. 
hegna (ViGFUSsoN). 3. In Seytoun he remaned, Whair 
wyne and aill was nothing hayned, Sat. Poems (1583), ed. 
Cranstoun, I. 372.] 

HAIN, v." Lin. To possess. 

(HALL.); Trans. Phil. Soc. (1858) 159. 

HAIN, v. 8 e.An. Also in forms heigh'n e.An. 1 2 ; 
heign, heig'n Nrf. ; heyne Suf. ; highen Nrf. [en.] To 
raise, heighten, esp. to raise in price. 

e.An. 1 Invariably applied to the increase of prices, wages, &c. 
e.An. 1 Flour is hain to-day a penny a stun. Nrf. Yow would a 
larfcd . . . tu see that old hussy [a cow] hain up her tail, PATTERSON 
Man and Nat. (1895) 66 ; Master said ... he should heig'n the 
whole of his men on Saturday night, SPILLING Molly Miggs (1873] 
8 ; I'm afeard that flour will be hained again next week ( W.R.E.) 
A bricklayer speaks of heigning a wall, COZENS- HARDY Broad Nrf. 
(1893) 15; (W.H.Y.) ; GROSE (1790). e.Nrf. To hain the rent, 
the rick, the ditch, MARSHALL Rur. Earn. (1787). w.Nrf. Every 
thin' is heighen'd 'cept wages t'yaar, ORTON Beeston Ghost (1884) 7 
Suf. RAVEN Hist. Suf. (1895) a6a. 

[I have spoke with Borges that he shuld heyne the 
price of the mershe, Paston Let. (14651 II. 176; Heynyn 
exalto, elevo, Prompt.] 

Ess. [en.] To drive away. 
Trans. Arch. Soc. (1863) II. 185 ; (W.W.S.) 


HAIN v. 5 Som. Dev. Also written hayne Dev. ; and 
n forms ain w.Som. 1 ; aine Som.; hend, hen(n Som. 
Dev. ; yean Dev. 1 ; yen Dev. 12 n.Dev. nw.Dev. 1 [en, en, 
en.] To throw, fling, esp. to throw stones, &c. 

Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; W. & J. Gl. (1873); 
Monthly Mag. (1814) II. 126. w.Som. 1 Dhu bwuuyz bee arneen 
stoa-unz tu dhu duuks [The boys are throwing stones at the ducks J. 
Dev. Ef zo be thee dissent be quiet, I'll henn thease gert cob to 
thy heyde ! HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) ; Don't you hayne stwones, 
there ! PULMAN Sketches (1842) 103, ed. 1871 ; MOORE Htst. (1829! 
I 354 ; Still most commonly applied to throwing stones, though 
not always, Reports Provinc. (1889) ; Dev. 1 Whan a had greep d 
down a wallige of muss, a ... yean'd et away, a ; Witherly up 
with his voot and yand over the tea-kittle, ib. 4 ; Dev. 2 n.Dev. Yen 
ma thick Cris'mus brawn, ROCK/I'< an' AW/(i867) st. I ; Tha henst 
along thy Torn, Exm. Scold. (1746) I. 255. nw.Dev. 1 Yen 'n away. 

[Our giwes him ladde wibboute be toun and henede him 
wib stones, be Holy Rode (c. 1300) 263. OE. hanan, to 
stone (John x. 32).] 

HAIN, see Hine. 

HAINBERRIES, sb. Sc. Raspberries, the fruit of 
Rubus Idaeus. Cf. hindberry. 

Sc. Haw.burs an hainberries grow bonnilie, EDWARDS Mod. 
Poets, 3rd S. 396. Rxb. (JAM.) 

HAINCH, sb. and v. Sc. Irel. n.Cy. Nhb. Lakel. 
Written hainsh Rnf. ; also in forms bench Sc. Ant. Cum. 4 ; 
henge Nhb. 1 ; hinch Sc. Inv. Bnff. 1 Per. N.I. 1 s.Don. 

1. sb. The haunch. 

Sc. (JAM.) Gall. The upper han' at last he has gat, And reel'd 
thee on thy bench fu' flat, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 501, ed. 
1876. N.I. 1 The corn was that short a Jinny Wran might ha' sat 
on her hinches an' picked the top pickle off. Ant. GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (C.) s.Don. SIMMONS Gl. (1890). N.Cy. 1 Nhb. In con- 
stant gen. use (R.O.H. ). 

2. Cotnp. (i) Hench-bane, the haunch-bone; (2) -deep, 
up to the haunches; (3) -hoops, obs., hoops over which skirts 
were draped ; (4) -knots, bunches of ribbons worn on the 
hips ; (5) -vent, a triangular bit of linen, a gore. 

(i) Inv. (H.E.F.) Gall. A cleg that nips him on the hench bane, 
CROCKETT Raiders (i8g4)xlvi. (2) Sh.I. Da fans o' snaw wis lyin' 
hench deep, Sh. News (Feb. 5, 1898). Per. In scatter holes hinch- 
deep I've been Wi' dirt a' mestered to the e'en, SPENCE Poems 
(1898) 165. (3) Ayr. Her twa sisters, in their hench-hoops with 
their fans in their hands, GALT Entail (1823)1. (4) Edb. CHAMBERS 
Trad. Edb. II. 59. (5) Gall. (JAM.) 

3. A term in wrestling ; see below. 

Cum. 4 Fallen into disuse among modern wrestlers ; it is the 
equivalent of the 'half-buttock.' The wrestler turns in as fora 'but- 
tock ' and pulls his opponent across his haunch instead of over his 
back as in the ' buttock.' ' He was an excellent striker with the 
right leg, effective with the hench, and clever also at hyping,' 
Wrestling, 142. 

4. v. To throw by resting the arm on the thigh, to throw 
under the leg or haunch ; to jerk, fling. Also usedySg-. 

Bnff.' Rnf. Natural Fools to rank an' power She hainshes un- 
deservin', PICKEN Poems (1813) I. 147. Ayr. He was the best at 
hainching a stane, young or auld, that I ever saw, SERVICE Dr. 
Duguid (ed. 1887) 43. Gall. There were few places . . . from 
which I could not reach an erring youth with pebble cunningly 
' henched,' CROCKETT Raiders (1894) xii. N.I. 1 To throw stones by 
bringing the hand across the thigh. Ant Hoo far can you throw 
a stane by henchin' it? A henched it to him. Ballymena Obs. 
(1892); GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Uls. V M.B.-S.) s.Don. 
SIMMONS Gl. (1890). N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 To throw a stone by striking 
the hand against the haunch bone and throwing it with high tra- 
jectory. Cum. 4 

[1. King James . . . strukne in the hench or he was war 
. . . dies, DALRYMPLE Leslie's Hist. Scotl. (1596) II. 81.] 

HAINE, sb. w.Yks. 2 The same as Ain (q.v.). 

HAINER, sb. e.An. 1 [Not known to our correspon- 
dents.] The master who holds or sustains the expenses 
of the feast. 

HAINGLE, v. and sb. Sc. [he'ngl.] 1. v. To go 
about in a feeble, languid way; to hang about, loiter, 
wander about aimlessly. 

Sc. They haingled frae folk to folk, WADDELL Ps. (1871) cv. 13; 




(JAM.) e.Fif. To haingle aboot through the streets o' a big city, 
LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xviii. 

2. sb. A lout, booby, an awkward fellow. 

Sc. I'll gar ye ye wilycart huingle ; an ye gie me sic a fright. 
Si. Patrick (1819) (JAM.). 

3. pi. The influenza. 

Ags. From hanging so long about those who are afflicted with 
it, often without positively assuming the form of a disease GAM.). 

4. Phr. to hae the haingles, to be in a state of ennui, ib. 
HAINING, sb. Sc. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Der. Glo. Brks. 

Also in form haning Abd. [h)e - nin.] The preserving of 
grass for cattle ; protected grass ; any fenced field or en- 
closure ; a separate place for cattle. See Hain, v. 1 

Abd. As haining water'd with the morning dew, Ross Helenore 
(1768) 140, ed. Nimmo ; Any field where the grass or crop is 
protected from being eaten up, cut, or destroyed, whether inclosed 
or not (JAM.). Nhb. A company of hay-makers, whose work in 
the adjacent haining had been interrupted, Denham Tracts (ed. 
1895) II. 208; Nhb.i w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 
Gl. Lan. DAVIES Races (1856) 268. Der. The laying or shutting 
up meadows for hay is called hayning, GLOVER Hist. ^1829) I. 203. 
Glo. 1 Brks. We present that no owner or occupier of land in 
Northcroft has a right to hitch, enclose, or feed any of the lands 
there from the usual time of hayning to the customary time of 
breaking, Rec. Court Leet (1830) in Newbury Wkly. News (Feb. 16, 
1888) ; Brks. 1 

Hence (i) Haining-ground, sb. an outlet for cattle; (2) 
time, sb. cropping-time, while the fields or crops are en- 
closed in order to keep out cattle. 

(i) Lan. 1 (a) Ayr. Vnles the samyn guddis be sufficientlie 
tedderit in hanyng tyme, Burgh Rec. Prestwick (Oct. 2, 1605) 
OAM. Suppl.). 

HAINING, adj. Obs. Yks. Of the weather : cold, 

w.Yks. In 1871 I was just able to rescue the word from oblivion. 
. . . Since then I have not found anyone who knows it, LUCAS 
Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) Gl. 

HAINISH, adj. 1 Hrt. Ess. Also in form ainish Hrt. 
[e-nij.] 1. Unpleasant, used esp. of the weather, showery, 
rainy. Cf. hayness. 

Ess. Monthly Mag. (1814) I. 498 ; Trans. Arch. Soc. (1863) II. 
185; Gl. (1851); Ess. 1 
2. Awkward, ill-tempered. 

Hrt. He was such an ainish old man (G.H.). 

[1. Prob. a form of lit. E. heinous.} 

HAINISH, adj. 2 Pern. Also written haynish. [e'nij.] 
Greedy, ravenous ; craving for a thing. 

s.Pem. LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 420; So, man, yea'l be very 
haynish, yea'l get the whole haws (W.M.M.). 

HAINRIDGE, see Henridge. 

HAJPS, sb. Sc. Yks. Lan. Also in form haip Fif. 
A sloven. 

Fif. She jaw'd them, misca'd them For clashin' claikin' haips, 
DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 125. w.Yks. (HALL.), w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

HAIR, sb. and v. Var. dial, forms and uses in Sc. 
Irel. and Eng. I. Dial, forms : (i) Haar, (2) Har, (3) 
Hear(r, (4) Heear, (5) Heer, (6) Heere, (7) Hewr, (8) 
Huer, (9) Hure, (10) Ure, (n) Yar, (12) Yare, (13) Year, 
(14) Yor, (15) Yur, (16) Yure. 

(i) S. & Ork. 1 w.Yks. His haar he ne'er puts comb in.TwiSLETON 
Poems (c. 1867) I. 6. Glo. Horae Subsecivae (1777) 197. (2) Oxf. 1 
(3) Cum. It wad ha keep't me a noor lang to swort up me hearr, 
Willy Wattle (1870) 7 ; Cum. 1 (4) Wm. T'heeara mi heead steead 
an end, Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 3. (5) Der. 1 , nw.Der. 1 Lin. Long 
and black ma heer was then, Monthly Pckt. (Apr. 1862)377. (6) Ken. 
(G.B.) (7)Lan. Mehhewr war clottertwi' gore, AINSWORTH Witches 
(ed. 1849) Introd. iii. (8) w.Yks. 1 (9) n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Lan. 
Till it come to meh hure, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1740) 17 ; Lan. 1 , 
Chs. 12 , nw.Der. 1 (10) Lan. Noane hauve us mich ure oppo his 
faze us sum o yo chaps ban, ORMEROD Felleyfro Rachde (1864) ii. 
(n) Cum. 1 ; Cum. 3 A scwore of as bonnie Galloway Scots as iver 
bed yar o' t'ootside on them, 32. Wm. T'red en yalla tale wi' o 
t'yar ont, ROBISON Aald Tales (1882) 9. n.Lan. 1 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 
The child mun'ave'eryar cut short, I doubt. Hrf. 2 ,Oxf. (i2)Brks. 
His yead did graw above his yare, HUGHES Scour. White Horse 
(1859) vii. (13) n-Wil. Yer year uz lik a vlock o' gwoats, KITE 
Sng. Sol. (1860) iv. i. (14) Wor. ALLIES Antiq. Flk-Lore (1840) 
366, ed. 1852. (15) Cum. 1 Glo. Hev thi yur cut, Roger Plowman, 
29. (16) Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 , Chs. 128 , s.Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 

II. Dial. uses. 1. sb. In comb, (i) Hair-beard, the 
field woodrush, Luzula campestris ; (2) -bell, the foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea; (3) -breed, a hair-breadth, a very 
narrow margin ; (4) -breeds, little by little, by slow de- 
grees ; (5) -charm, see below; (6) -hung or -hanged, 
hanging by the hair ; (7) -kaimer, a hairdresser ; (8) 
knife, a knife used in freeing butter from hairs ; (9) -line, 
(a) a fishing-line made of hair ; (b) a kind of cloth with 
very fine stripes ; (10) -pitched, (a) bald ; (b) having 
rough, unbrushed hair or coat ; (n) -scaup, the crown of 
the head ; (12) -shagh, -shard, or -shaw,( 13) -shorn-lip, a cleft 
lip ; a hare-lip ; ( 14) -sit, a scented mucilaginous prepara- 
tion for keeping the hair in place ; (15) -sore, (a) when 
the skin of the head is sore from any cause, as from 
a cold ; (b) fig. touchy, ready to take offence ; (16) 
-teemsey, a fine sieve, with a grating of hair-cloth, used 
for sifting fine flour, &c. ; (17) -tether, a tether made of 
hair; (18) -weed, the greater dodder, Cuscuta europaea, 
or the lesser dodder, C. Epithymum. 

(i) Nhp. 1 This plant, being one of the harbingers of spring, and 
gen. making its appearance in mild, genial weather, has originated 
the following prophetic adage : 'When the hair-beard appear The 
shepherd need not fear.' (2) Ir. Science Gossip (1870) 135. (3) 
n.Yks. 2 ; n.Yks. 4 He 'scaped wiv his leyfe, bud it war nobbut byv 
a hair-breed. m.Yks. 1 , n.Lin. 1 (4) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 4 Wa're bod- 
duming what tha did byv hair-breeds. Willie mends, bud it's 
nobbut byv hair-breeds. (.5) Sh.I. Peggy still breathingthreatenings 
and slaughter against Sarah o' Northouse for abstracting her butter 
profit, and against himself for not being more expert in obtaining 
the hair-charm from the said Sarah's cow ; for in this important 
enterprise he had failed, owing to that wide-awake individual 
coming upon him just at the moment he was in the act of applying 
the shears to Crummie's side, STEWART Tales (1892) 54. (6) Lnk. 
Absalom's lyfe, hayre-hung, betwene two trees, LITHGOW Poet. 
Rent. (ed. 1863) Si: Welcome ; Proud Absalom was hair-hangd on 
a tree, ib. Gushing Teares. (7) Edb. Hair-kaimers, crieshy gizy- 
makers, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 174, ed. 1785. (8) Sc. (JAM.) 
(9, a) Sc. Wi' hair-lines, and lang wands whuppin the burns, 
LEIGHTON Words (1869) 17. Lnk. There's a haill saxpince worth 
o' hair-line and gut, GORDON Pyotshaw (1885) 116. (6) w.Yks. 
(J.M.) (10, a) Cor. 1 ' Hair-pitched ould hermit,' term of reproach ; 
Cor. 2 (b] Cor. The cow would go round the fields bleating and 
crying as if she had lost her calf; she became hair-pitched, 
and pined away to skin and bone, HUNT Pop. Rom. ui.Eng. 
(1865) 109, ed. 1896; THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) Gl. ; 
A person covered with loose hairs shed by a horse, &c. is 
said to be hair-pitched (M.A.C.) ; Cor. 3 It indicates the state of 
the hair when from the over-dryness of the skin it sticks up 
irregularly and cannot be smoothed, (n) n.Yks. 2 (12) Sc. A 
hair-shagh urisum and grim, DRUMMOND Muckomachy (1846) 7. 
Abd. He has a hairshard (G.W.). Per. He has a hairshaw (ib!). 
Gall. (A.W.) (13) s.Chs. 1 (14) n.Yks. 2 (15, a) Chs. 1 It may 
sometimes be naturally tender ; at any rate yure-sore is looked 
upon as a real and almost incurable disease ; Chs. 2 (A) Chs. 1 (16) 
Nhb. 1 (17) Sc. Supposed to be employed in witch-craft (JAM.). 
(18 Bdf. Dodder,hell-weed, or devil's-guts(CKscto'<>'o/>ra) is called 
hale-weed, hair-weed, and beggar-weed in this neighbourhood, 
BATCHELOR Agric. (1813) 325. Hrt. ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) IV. 
ii. Nrf. We could never cut the hair-weed, EMERSON 5o of Fens 
(1892) 103. 

2. Phr. (i) hair and head, an' that's all, said of one with- 
out brains or sense ; (2) and lime, see below ; (3) 
about, an expression used to describe the hair when it is 
changing to grey ; (4) of the head clock, a clock hanging 
to the wall, with weights and pendulum exposed ; (5) 
in her hair, in full dress ; (6) a dog of a different hair, 
a person or thing of a different kind ; (7) to a hair, 
exactly; (8) to find or have a hair in the neck, (a) to find 
fault with ; (b) to experience a difficulty or annoyance ; 
(9) to have hair on one's head, to be clever, cautious, or 
wise; (10) to lug the hair, to pull the hair; (n) to miss 
every hair of his head, to miss any one very much ; (12) to 
stand upon a hair, to be within a very little, to be ' touch 
and go ' with ; (13) to take one's hair off, to surprise 
greatly ; (14) a hair needed to make a cable or a tether, to 
exaggerate greatly, make much of a trifle ; (15) hilt or 
hair, absolutely nothing ; used with a neg. 

(i) n.Yks. 2 (s.v. Heead). (2) n.Yks. At old farm houses, when 




saltfish was eaten to dinner, they took what was spared, picked out 
the bones, and hashed it up for supper with potatoes, and pepper 
and salt. This was called hair and lime (I.W.) . (3) Ant. (W.H.P.) 
(4) w.Yki. (S.P.U.) (5) Wxf. They speak of a lady going to an 
evening party ' in her hair,' meaning ' in full dress" I.J.S.). (6) 
Lan. Nawe Bright's a dog of a different yure, BRIERLEY Old 
Radicals, n. (7) s.Sc. It's nowther birsslet by the sun owr sair, 
Nor starv't aneath a winter sky, But right t' a hair, T. SCOTT Poems 
('793'' 349- Dmb. I've seen a place that'll fit us to a vera hair, 
CROSS Disruption (1844) vi. Edb. Whate'er disease he didna care, 
J could cure them to a hair, FORBES Poems (i8ia) 85. n.Cy. 
(J.W.) Lan. Hoo [she] knows th' temper o' my inside to a yure, 
WAUGH Snowed-up, i ; Lan. 1 Nhp. 1 To suit you to a hair. (8, a) 
Sc. To hold another under restraint by having the power of 
saying or doing something that would give pain (JAM.). s.Sc. 
Your husband was a maist worthy man. Though a barber, nae 
man ever fand a hair i' his neck, WILSON Tales (1836) III. 67. (A) 
Per. ' That's a hair in yer neck." Something to make you think 
about, a difficult point for you (G.W.). Lnk. It wad hae been a 
gey sair hair i' her neck for mony, mony a lang day, GORDON 
Pyotshaw (1885) 40. (9) Fit (JAM.) (10) Chs.i Aw'll lug thy 
yure for thee. (n) s.Wor. 1 35. (13) Sh.I. Hit juist stQde apon 
a hair 'at wir coortin' didna caese dair an' dan, Sh. News (Nov. 26, 
1898). (13) e.Suf. That takes my hair off (F.H.). (14) Sc. A' he 
wanted was a hair To mak' a tether, FORD Thistledown (1891) 205. 
Sh.I. Der among wis 'at only need a hair ta mak' a tedder, Sh. 
News (May 7, 1898). Abd. Imagined by folk that ken't nae better, 
an' when they got a hair would mak' a tether o't, Deeside Tales 
(1873) 141. Per. Clear of all this clachan rabble Who with one 
hair can make a cable, SPENCE Poems (1898) 168. Dmb. Rummaged 
through the hoose for a hair to mak' a tether o't, CROSS Disruption 
(1844) xxviii. Rnf. Just gie him a hair to mak a tether, He needs 
nae mair, WEBSTER Rhymes (1835) 107. Ayr. When once she 
found a hair, She soon a tether made, WHITE Joltings '1879) 178. 
Edb. You only wanted but a hair As a pretext to mak a tether, 
LIDDLE Poems (1831) 134. (15) Dmb. If never hilt or hair o't had 
been seen or heard tell o' wha wad ha'e been to blame but yoursel ? 
CROSS Disruption (1844) xxviii. 

8. A filament of flax or hemp ; a sixth of a hank of yarn. 
S.&Ork. 1 Ayr. A hesp o' seven heere yarn,GALT Entail (1823) 

4. A very small portion or quantity of anything; a trifle, 
the smallest possible amount. 

Sc. A hair of meal, a few grains (JAM.) ; They seemed all a hair 
set back and gave various answers, STEVENSON Catriona (1893) 
xvii. Sh.I. Some got a hair o 'oo', an' som' got what he ca'd sax- 
penny rivlins, Sh. News (Mar. 4, 1899). Frf. An elder o' the 
kirk, an' ... Cent a hair the waur o' that, WILLOCK Rosetty Ends 
(1886) 25, ed. 1889. Per. There wasna the hair o' a stroke on it, 
Sandy Scott (1897) 65. Rnf. I proffer'd a hair o' my sneeshin, 
WEBSTER Rhymes ( 1835) 8a. Edb. N' excrescence left t' improve 't 
a hair, Sae weel's ye've done it, LIDDLE Poems (1821) 136. Gall. 
MACTAGGART Encycl. (1834) 251, ed. 1876. NJ. 1 ' No a hair 
feared,' not a bit afraid. N.Cy. 1 A hair of salt. A hair of meal. 
Nhb. 1 Snr. 1 I've never been a hair's malice with him. 

5. The cprn-spurrey, Spergula aruensis. Cum. 1 

6. A hair-cloth used in the cider-press. Gen. in pi. 
s.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 , Hrf. 2 , Glo. (A.B.) 7. The cloth on the 
oast above the fire, upon which the hops are dried. Ken ' 
Sur. 1 

8. v. Phr. to hair butter, to free butter of hairs, &c. by 
passing a knife through it in all directions. 

Peb. A large knife . . . was repeatedly passed through it [butter] 
in all directions, that hairs and other impurities might be removed. 
. . . This practice, then universal, was called hairing the butter, 
Agric. Surv. Si (JAM.)- 

HAIRED, pfl. adj. Sc. Having a mixture of white 
and red or white and black hairs. Fif. (JAM.) 

HAIREN, adj. Sc. Also e.An. w.Cy. Dev. Written 
barren e.An. 1 Made of hair. 

S. ft Ork. 1 , Cai. 1 Bnff. They took a hairen tether and hanged 
him, KEITH Leg. Strathisla (1851) 77. Abd. (JAM.) e.An. 1 A 
barren brum/ is a hair broom. w.Cy. (J.W.) Dev. In explaining 
to me the harness of pack-saddles, T. C. said that ' a hairen gease ' 
completely encircled the body of the animal. This peculiar form 
of gease [girth] was made partly of hair webbing and partly of 
rope, the two parts respectively passing under the belly and over 
the saddle on the back, Reports Provinc. (1893). 

HAIRIF, sb. In gen. dial, use in Eng. Also in forms 
airess w.Yks. ; aireve Midi. ; airif Lin. ; airup Yks. ; 

aress w.Yks. ; eerif s.Chs. 1 ; eriff, erith s.Not. 1 ; errif(f 
Chs. 18 Stf. 2 Not. 1 Rut. 1 Lei. 1 ; haireve Glo. 1 ; hairough 
e-Yks. 1 Midi. Lei. 1 ; hairrough n.Yks. 2 ; hairup e.Yks. 1 ; 
harif(f N.Cy. 2 n. Yks. 2 e. Yks. 1 Not. sw.Lin. 1 Glo. 1 ; hariffe 
Shr. 1 ; ban-up Yks. ; hayriff sw.Lin. 1 War. 2 s.Wor. 1 
se.Wor. 1 Rdn. Dev. 4 ; heiriff(e Nhp. 1 ; herif(f Chs. 1 Midi. 
Stf. 2 War. 8 Hmp. 1 ; herrif Not. [h)a-rif, e'rif, e'rif.] 

1. The goose-grass, Galium Aparine. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 2 , Yks. (B. & H.), n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788) ; e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. (B. & H.), Chs. 13 , 
s.Chs. 1 Midi. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796) II; Science Gossip 
(1869) 26. Stf. Reports Agric. (1793-1813) 95 ; Stf. 2 Not. YOUNG 
Annals Agric. (1784-1815) XXIII. 151; (W.H.S.) ; Not. 1 , s.Not. 
(J.P.K.), n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 We call that hariff; when we were 
childer, we used to flog our tongues wi' it, to make them bleed. 
Rut 1 The crop wur half erriff. Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 23 , s.Wor. 1 , 
se.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 , Hrf. (B. & H.), Rdn. (B. & H.) Glo. MARSHALL 
Rur. Econ. (1789) I ; Science Gossip (1876) 167 ; Glo. 1 , Hmp. 1 

2. The meadow-sweet, Spiraea Ulmaria. Dev. 4 

[L Rubea minor, hayrive, Sin. Barth. (c. 1350) 37. OE. 
hegerife (Leechdoms).} 

HAIRLY, HAIRM, see Hardleys, Harm, v. 

HAIR-MOULD, sb. Sc. Mouldiness which appears 
on bread, &c., caused by dampness. Also used attrib. 

Sc. (JAM. ' Bnff. On hair-mould bannocks fed, TAYLOR Poems 
( I l^l} 3. Edb. I vow my hair-mould milk would poison dogs, 
FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 108, ed. 1785. 

[Mucor, hery mowldnes : vitium pants, acorpotus, rancor 
carnis, DUNCAN Etym. (1595).] 

see Harden, v., Hairif, Hearse, Hership. 

HAIRY, adj. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Written harey N.I. 1 1. Comp. (i) Hairy-bind, the 
greater dodder, Cuscuta europaea ; (2) -brotag, any very 
large, hairy caterpillar ; (3) -bummler, a name given to 
several kinds of crabs ; (4) -granfer, (5) -hoobit, -Hubert, 
or -oobit, see (2) ; (6) -hutcheon, a sea-urchin ; (7) -man, 
the larva of the tiger-moth ; (8) -milner, see (2) ; (9) 
moggans, hose without feet ; (10) -palmer, (n) -tailor, 
see (2) ; (12) -wig, the earwig ; (13) -worm, see (2). 

(i) Hrt. ELLIS Mod. Husb. (1750) IV. ii. (2) Cai. 1 (3! Bnff. 1 
(4) Cor. (M.A.C.) (5) Bnff. He lifted up his hand to wipe some- 
thing off his cheek. It was a hairy oobit, SMILES Natur. (ed. 1893) 
191 ; The hairy-oubits hid frae view, SHELLEY Flowers (1868) 56. 
Nhb. If you throw a hairy worm, in the North called Hairy-Hubert, 
over your head, and take care not to look to see where it alights, 
you are sure to get something new before long, BROCKIE Leg. 
140 ; Nub. 1 Sometimes applied to a showy, helpless character. 
(6) Rxb. (JAM.) (7) e.Yks. Nature Notes, No. 4. w.Yks. 
(.W.M.E.F.) (8) w.Wor. 1 (9) Fif. (JAM.) (10) w.Som. 1 Ae'uree 
paarmur. (n) Shr.< (12) Ken. (G.B.) (13) Nhb. 1 , Cum.", 
n.Ykg. (I.W.), n.Yks." e.Yks. 1 MS. add. V T.H.) 

2. Clever, sharp, capable ; cunning. 

N.I. 1 Wmh. If it is proposed to send a boy on business to a 
fair, &c. it will be said, ' O, he is not hairy enough for that ' (E.M ) 
You'd want to be very hairy to catch fish (M.S.M.). 

3. Flighty, light-headed. 

Nhb. In my recollection every one shaved some part of his face, 
except imbeciles or lunatics. Hence probably the term (M.H.D.). 

HAISER, v. Sc. Irel. Also written haisre, haizre Sc. 
(JAM. Suppl.) ; haizer Sc. (JAM.) ; and in formhazerd N.I. 1 
[he-zar] To dry clothes in the open air. See Haze, v.\ 
Hazle, v. 

Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Abd. Our clothes are out 'haiserin.' Fresh 
air and sunlight are required to haiser recently-washed clothes 

Hence Haizert or Hazerded, ppl. adj. half-dried, sur- 

Ayr. (JAM.) NX 1 Them clothes are not dry at all : they're only 

HAISK, HAISLE, see Hask, adj., Hazle, v. 

HAISS, adj. Sc. Also written hess GAM.), [hes.l 
Hoarse. (JAM.), Cai. 1 Cf. hose, adj. 

[OE. has, hoarse ; cp. OHG. heis, ' raucus ' (GRAFF).! 

HAIST, see Harvest. 

HAISTER, v. and sb. Sc. Cum. Wm. Also written 
hasterCum.Wm. ; haysterCum. 1 [he-star.] 1. v. To 




do anything hurriedly or in a slovenly manner ; to act or 
speak without consideration. 

Rxb. Applied to bread, when ill-toasted. Any work ill done, 
and in a hurried way, is also said to be haister'd (JAM.). Cum. 4 
Food put into a quick oven may be overcooked and spoiled ; it is 
then haister't. 

Hence Haistering, ppl. adj. careless, slovenly. 

Rxb. ' A haisterin" hallock,' a careless or slovenly gillflirt (JAM.). 

2. To fatigue with hard work ; to pull about roughly ; to 

Cum. Young Martha Todd was haister't sair By rammish Wully 
Barr'as, GILPIN Sngs. (1866) 281 ; Cum. 24 

Hence Haister'd, pp. roughly treated, harassed by cold ; 
of the skin : roughened, chapped. 

Cnm. 1 ; Cum. 4 An animal severely pinched by hunger and cold 
is haister't. ' Yon nag's o' hastered.' Wm. Mi feeace is o' hestsr'd 
wi' t'helm wind (B.K.). 

3. sb. One who speaks or acts confusedly. In pi. form. 
Rxb. QAM.) 

4. A slovenly woman ; confusion, hodge-podge. 

Slk. (i'6.) Rxb. Sometimes applied to a great dinner confusedly 
set down (ik.). 

5. A surfeit. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 305; Cum. 4 
HAISTER, sb. Shr. (HALL.) The same as Astre (q.v.). 
HAIT, int. and v. In gen. dial, use in Sc. and Eng. 

Also written hayt n.Yks. 1 Not. 1 Lei. 1 War. 3 Wil. ; and in 
forms ait Chs. ; ate, hate Chs. 1 ; heet Shr. 1 ; height 
n.Yks. e.Yks. 1 s.Lan. nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. 1 Shr. Hrf. Suf. 1 ; 
heit n.Cy. s.Chs: 1 nw.Der. 1 Rut. 1 Nhp. 12 Shr. 1 Suf. 1 Dev. ; 
het s.Wor. Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 ; hett w.Yks. 1 ; hite Nhb. 1 Wm. 
Yks. ; hout Glo. ; huyt s.Dur. ; hyte Lth. n.Yks. 1 ; yate 
w.Yks. 2 Nhp. 2 [h)et, eat, eit, it.] 1. int. A call to urge 
horses or other animals to go on. 

Wm. A sheep dog is urged to the furthermost point of the field 
by the shepherd calling out to it, ' Hite away ! Hite away roond ! ' 
(B.K.) s.Lan. (W.H.T.) Rnt. 1 Heit ! Jack ! s.Pem. Used fifty 
years ago in urging the bullocks (W.M.M.). Glo. A carter's phrase 
to encourage his horse, Horae Subsecivae (1777) 179. Dev. ib. 

2. A call to the horse to go to the left. 

Nhb. 1 Yks. For ' gee ' and ' 06,' the carters say ' hite ' and ' ree ' 
(K.). n.Yks. 1 The old word of command to the horses in a team 
or the plough to turn towards the driver, or to the left. w.Yks. 12 , 
Sus. 1 , Ess. (H.H.M.) 

Hence (i) Haito or Hayto, sb. a child's name for a 
horse ; (2) Hait-wo, int. a call to horses to go to the left ; 
(3) Heighty-oss, sb., see (i) ; (4) Highty, int., see (2). 

(i) Wil. 1 n.WU. Look at the haitos then ! (E.H.G.) (2) e.An. 1 , 
Wil. 1 (3) e.Yks. 1 (4) n.Cy. DARTNELL& GODDARD Wds. (1893). 

3. A call to the horse to go to the right or off-side, away 
from the carter. 

Chs. (E.M.G.), Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 Heit off. nw.Der. 1 Not. Height 
agean (E.P.) ; Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 Obsol. Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 A command to 
the filler, or shaft-horse, to go from the driver; Nhp. 2 A word 
addressed to the second horse in a team. War. 3 , s.Wor. (H.K.) 
Shr. 1 (s.v. Waggoner's Words). Shr., Hrf. BOUND Provinc. (1876). 
Glo. 1 Het off! Oxf. 1 Het up. e.Suf. (F.H.) Hmp. Formerly at 
harvest suppers, a song was sung in praise of the head carter, the 
chorus of which was, ' With a heit, with a ree, with a who, with 
a gee,' HOLLOWAY. 

4. Phr. (i) neither hait nor ree, neither one side nor the 
other ; used fig. of a wilful person who will go his own 
way ; (2) always of hite or of shite, said of a person with 
an uncertain, uneven temper. 

(i^ n.Cy. He will neither heit nor ree, GROSE (1790). Nhb. 1 She 
wou'd neither hyte nor ree. n.Yks. Thou'l neither height nor 
ree, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 415. (2) Wm. (B.K.) 

5. v. To urge or egg on ; to urge on a horse. 

Lth. He hyted, he huppit in vain, O ! He ferlied what gaured 
his horse stand like a stock, BALLANTINE Poems (1856) 114. s.Dur. 
He-was always huyten' me on (J.E.D.). 

[1. His thought said haight, his sillie speache cryed ho, 
GASCOIGNE Dan Bartholmew (1576), ed. Hazlitt, I. 136 ; 
The carter smoot, and cryde, as he were wood, Hayt, 
Brok ! hayt, Scot ! what spare ye for the stones ? CHAUCER 
C. T. D. 1543. 2. Cp. Sw. dial, hajt, a cry to the ox or 
horse to turn to the left (RiETZ, s.v. hit).} 

HAIT, see Haet. 

HAITCH, sb. Ken. Sus. [etj.] A slight, passing 
shower. Sus. 1 2 

Hence Haitchy, adj. misty. Ken. (HOLLOWAY), Sus. 12 

[A form and special use of ache, sb. 1 , used in the sense 
of a sudden and intermittent attack.] 

HAITH, int. Sc. Irel. Also in form heth. [he>,heb.] 
An exclamation of surprise, &c., 'faith.' Cf. hegs. 

Sc. Heth she's o'er gently brought up to be a poor man's penny 
worth, GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 55. Sh.I. True in heth ! Sh. 
News (Nov. 19, 1898); As for paecable neebors, guid heth, I link 
we're no been sae ill dat wy ava, BURGESS Sketches (and ed.) ii. 
n.Sc. Haith, an' if she's guid eneuch for Andrew, she's guid eneuch 
for the likes o' us, GORDON Carglen (1891) 127. Cai. 1 Abd. 
Haith ! Cordy slunk awa", CADENHEAD Bon Accord (1853) 248 ; 
Heth that's capital, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) xxxix. Frf. 
Heth, I mind she was a rael bad yin when I wis a wee lassie, 
INGLIS Ain Flk. (1895) xii. Per. Haith I am doild, because 'tis 
so, That she is high and I am mean, NICOL Poems (1766) 34. 
Fif. Haith, I'd gang mysel' if he would dae that, ROBERTSON 
Provost (1894) 23; Heth! I'm sair eneuch fashed wi' police tax 
. . . withoot haeing mair rent to pey, M C LAREN Tibbie (1894) 17. 
s.Sc. Haith, we'll be as merry as we can, WILSON Tales (1836) II. 
214. Rnf. Till, haith ! the younker courage took, YOUNG Pictures 
(1865) 10. Ayr. Haith, lad, ye little ken about it, BURNS Tuia 
Dogs (1786) 1. 149. Lnk. But haith I'll cheat my joe in that, 
LEMON St. Mungo (1844) 37. Lth. Haith, mony a tryst I've seen 
us hae, SMITH Meriy Bridal (1866) 40. Edb. Haith, you mith do 
meikle ill, CRAWFORD Poems (1798) 89. Feb. Haith, our wives 
will a' be here, AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (1836) 123. Dmf. An', haith ! 
wi' me she's kindlie grown, CROMEK Remains (1810) 37. Gall. If 
a minister thinks na muckle o' himself haith, they will e'en 
jaloose that he kens best, CROCKETT Standard Bearer ( 1898) 119. 
N.I. 1 ' Heth no.' ' Heth aye.' ' Heth an' soul, but you won't.' 
' Heth i,' faith yes. Ant. Heth I won't (S.A.B.). 

HAITSUM, HAIVER, see Hatesum, adj., Haver, v> 

HAIVER, sb. Sc. Cmb. Also written hever Cmb. ; 
and in forms aiver Lth. ; haivrel, haverel Sc. (JAM.) ; 
haveron Gall. A he-goat, after he has been gelded. 

Lnk., Lth., e.Lth. (JAM.) Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824). 
Cmb. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) 

[ON. hafr, a buck, he-goat, OE. hcefer (Leechdoms).] 

HAIVER, HAIVEREL, see Haver, v. 1 , Haverel. 

HAIVERY, tf<#. Cor. [e'y(a)ri.] 1. Miserly, greedy 
of money. Cor. 12 2. Envious. Cor. 2 

HAIVES, sb. pi. Sc. ? Hoofs. 

If ye look yoursel', ye'll see she's fair into the haives, OCHILTREE 
Redburn (1895) v. 

HALVING, prp. Cor. 2 The same as Eving, s. v. Eve, v. 

Haiser, Hazard. 

HAIZY, adj. Nhb. [he'zi.] Hasty, excitable. 

She's a kind o' haizy body (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 

HAKE, sb. 1 Bdf. Nrf. Ken. Cor. [ek.] Phr. (i) as dry 
as a hake, very thirsty ; (2) a hake-shaped cloud, a cloud in 
shape like the fish hake ; (3) who whipped the hake ? prov. 
saying ; see below. 

(i) Nrf. (E.M.) Ken. KENNETT Par. Antiq. (1695). (2) Bdf. 
The hake-shaped cloud, if pointing east and west, indicates rain : 
if north and south, more fine weather, SWAINSON Weather Flk-Lore 
(1873) 204. (3) Cor. It is not improbable that the saying applied 
to the people of one of the Cornish fishing- towns, of 'Who 
whipped the hake ? ' may be explained by the following : ' Lastly, 
they are persecuted by the hakes, who (not long sithence) haunted 
the coast in great abundance ; but now being deprived of their 
wonted bait, are much diminished, verifying the proverb, " What 
we lose in hake we shall have in herring,"' CAREW Survey, 34 ; 
Annoyed with the hakes, the seiners may, in their ignorance, have 
actually served one of those fish as indicated, HUNT Pop. Rom. 
w.Eng. (1865) 370, ed. 1896. 

HAKE, sb* Dur. Wm. Yks. Nhp_. War. e.An. Also in 
forms heaik Dur. ; heeak Wm. [h)ek, h)iak.] I. A hook 
of any kind. 

Dnr. Heaicks V creaiks 're as rank ez pint pots in a public 
house, EGGLESTONE Betty Podkins' Lett. (1877) 9. Wm. She meead 
ersel saartan a gittan haald a Bobby Beetham, aedther be heeak 
er creeak, Spec. Dial. (1880) pt. ii. 19. n.Yks. 2 , e-An. 1 Nrf. RYE 
Hist. Nrf. (1885) xv. 




2. A pot-hook ; a hook built into the chimney to hang a 
pot or ' boiler ' on. 

Nhp. 1 Not freq. War. 8 An adjustable hook and rack; through 
the holes of the latter the hook could be hung at a higher or lower 
position over the fire, as desired. e.An. 1 ; e.An. 2 Now chiefly 
used for a kind of gate which swings over the kitchen fire, or 
another utensil which hangs down the chimney, both used for 
suspending pots and boilers. Nrf. 'As black as a hake,' very 
black (E.M.); COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf . (1893) 17. w.Nrf. I'd 
ha put the hakes on her, if she'd ben my missus, ORTON Beeston 
Ghost (1884) 4. Snf. On went the boilers till the hake Had much 
ado to bear 'em, Suf. Carl. (1818) 339 ; CULLUM Hist. Hawsttd 
(1813). e.Snf. A dentated iron bar, suspended in a chimney, on 
which pots or kettles are hung. Another kind has, instead of 
teeth, holes. A pin, projecting from another piece of iron, fits 
into any of these holes. This second piece of iron has a hook at 
the bottom, from which a kettle or pot is suspended over the fire. 
' As black as the hake up of the chimney.' Said of anything very 
black or dirty (F.H.). 

3. The dentated iron head of a plough. 

Nrf. GROSE (1790) ; The iron on a plough to which the ' pundle 
tree' is attached, Arch. (1879) VIII. 170. e.Nrf. MARSHALL Rur. 
Econ. (1787). Suf. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863); RAINBIRD Agric. 
(1819) 294, ed. 1849; Suf.'.e.Suf. (.F.H.) 

[1. Norw. dial, hake, a hook (AASEN) ; so ON. haki 

HAKE, sb. a Cum. Wm. Lan. Also in forms aik Wm. 1 ; 
hack Wm. ; haike Wm. & Cum. 1 [h)ek.] 1. A merry 
meeting ; a rustic dance or gathering. 

Lakel. 2 Com. We agreed amang oorsels to stop an' see t'end 
o' t'hake, RICHARDSON Talk (1876) 5 ; The arrival of the young 
hopeful was, in former times, duly celebrated by a series of 
' hakes,' of a highly amusing and jovial character, Lnnsdale Mag. 
(July 1866) 23; Cnm. 18 Wm. A'll tell yu some o' t'haeks an' 
stirs, WILSON Kitty Kirkie, 102 ; It hap'n'd ta be ther Auld-wife- 
Hayke. BLEZARD Sngs. (1848) 17; Wm. 1 Village dances in the 
Lake District were formerly often called Auld-wife aiks, being 
frequently got up by some elderly female in order to raise a small 
fund, &c. 
2. A stir, turmoil, tumult. 

Wm. & Cum. 1 Wi' nowther haike nor quarrel, 207. n.Lan. They 
. . . feight an' fratch, an' meakk cruel hakes, PIKETAH Forness Flk. 
(1870) 23. 

HAKE, sb* Cum. 12 * [hek.] A lean horse or cow. 

HAKE, s6. 8 Cor. Also in form ache. A large comfort- 
less room or place. Cf. ache, sb. 2 

A great hake of a house, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) Gl. ; 
How can you sit in such a great ache of a room ? (M.A.C.) 

HAKE, v. and sb. e Sc. and n. counties to Lin. Nhp. 
Also Hrf. e.An. Also in forms ache m.Yks. 1 Hrf. ; aik 
e.Yks. ; ake e.Yks. 1 ; haak n.Lin. 1 ; haig Ayr. (JAM.) ; 
haik Sc. GAM.) Sh.I. Bnff. 1 Abd. Cum. w.Yks.; heeak 
n.Yks. 24 [h)ek, iak.] 1. v. To wander about aimlessly 
and idly ; to loiter, lounge ; to hang about with intent to 
eavesdrop ; to sneak. Also with about. 

Sc. Haikin throw the country QAM.). Bnff. 1 To roam in an 
unsettled manner over the pasture ; as, ' That coo winna sattle : 
she haiks on.' N.Cy. 1 2 , Nhb. 1 Wm. Maunders abaut fra hause to 
hause, baking and slinging, HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 1. 461 ; 
Ise net gaan ta hev ya gaan gadden off tat fairs an haken aboot it 
rowads et neets an sec like, TAYLOR Sketches (1882) 17. n.Yks. 1 
To hang about pryingly, to sneak, or aim at getting at information, 
&c., in an underhand way ; n.Yks. 4 e.Yks. He was akin aboot 
all day lang ; an all fo nowt, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 50 ; Thoo's 
allus ganning aiking about (R.M.) ; e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 He 
leeads a filthy peyl . . . wi' his prancin an hakin about, ii. 305. Lan. 
HARLAND & WILKINSON Fit-Lore (1867) 216. ne.Lan. 1 n.Lin. 
SUTTON Wdx. 1881 . sw.Lin. 1 She'd as well been at school as 
haking about I don't like my bairns baking about. 

Hence (i) Haikan, vbl. sb. continued wandering about 
in an idle manner ; (2) Haiker. sb. an animal that has 
a habit of wandering over the pasture or of straying from 
it ; (3) Haiking or Haking, (a) ppl. adj. wandering, 
loitering; idle, lounging; worthless; (b) see (i); (4) 
Haiking about, phr. having the habit of wandering in 
an idle manner or of roaming over pasture. 

(i, 2) Bnff. ' (3, a) .Sc. Can Lizzy hae gane oot wi' that haikin' 
callant, Jamie Ribt WILSON Tales (1836) IV. 356. w.Yki. 'A 
haking fellow,' an idle loiterer, THORESBY Lilt. (.1703) ; HUTTON 

Tour to Caves (1781); w.Yks. 4 Lin. THOMPSON Hist. Boston 
(1856)708. n.Lin.' (A) Sc. He gaed awa gey wearied wi' haikin, 
EDWARDS Mod. Poets, ?th S. 53. (4) Bnff. 1 He'll niverget on ; he's 
sic a haikin'-aboot hypal. 

2. To hanker or gape after. n.Cy. BAILEY (1721). 

3. To drag or carry from one place to another with 
little purpose ; to tramp, trudge ; esp. with about or up 
and down. 

ShJ. Shu wid hae wiz gaun haikin' as muckle hay i' da bul o' a 
maishie as ye wid fling in a kishie for a hen ta lae in, Sh. News 
(Sept. 3, 1898). Abd. Haikin' thro' the feedles the tae time, an' 
in'o the byres the neist, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 151. s.Sc. 
' To haik up and down, to haik about,' to drag from one place to 
another to little purpose, conveying the idea of fatigue caused to 
the person who is thus carried about, or produced by the thing 
that one carries. ' What needs ye haik her up and down throw 
the haill town \ ' ' What needs you weary yoursell, haiking about 
that heavy big-coat whare'er ye gang? ' (JAM.) Lakel. 2 Ah's fair 
doon sto'ed wi' haken aboot efter yon ducks an' things. Ye wad 
hake yan aboot wi' ye as lang as ivver yan could trail. e.Yks. 1 
To do anything unnecessarily or with more labour than is requisite. 
e.An. 1 Often joined with 'hatter.' 'He has been haking and 
haltering all day long.' Nrf. I am that tired, I don't know what 
to do with myself. I've been haking about all day (W.R.E.). 

4. To tease, worry, importune ; to pester or worry with 
questions, c. ; to persecute, hurry on. 

Wm. Such as he would hake the life out of a toad (B.K.). 
n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 They hake my very heart out ; n.Yks. 4 ne.Yks. 1 
Hake 'em away [urge them on almost faster than they can go]. 
nuYkB. 1 c.Hrf. Ther bent no boy or girl either as aches I, but'l 
be the worse for't, Why John (Coll. L.L.B.) 

5. To tire, distress, applied to land. 

Cum. 1 It indicates exhaustion from over-cropping ; Cum. 2 ; 
Cnm. 4 T'field hes been fairly haket ta deeth ; what can it grow ? 

6. To beat, batter, drive or knock out of one's way ; to 
butt with the horns or head. 

Sc. He swore he wad lay my back laigh on the plain, But I 
h.aikit him weel, BALLANTINE Whistle Binkie (1878) II. 3 ;JAM. 
Suppl.) Cum. 12 ; Cnm.* T'cows used to hake yan anudder till 
t'beals were summat awful to hear. 

7. To kidnap, carry off by force. 

Sc. They'll haik yc up and settle ye bye, SCOTT Minstrelsy (1802) 
III. 127, ed. 1848. Edb. Still used in the same sense by the boys 
of the High School of Edinburgh (JAM.). 

8. sb. An idle, lounging fellow ; an animal that wanders 
in an unsettled manner over the pasture, or strays from 
it. Gen. in pi. form. 

Bnff. 1 , Abd. (G. W.\ Cld. (JAM.), w.Yks. 1 Lin. Always associated 
with the idea of idleness, STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 334. 
.Lin. What a gre't hulkin'haakes the feller is i^T.H.R. ). sw.Lin. 1 
Nhp. 1 The use of this word is confined to the >. part of the county. 

Hence Hakesing, ppl. adj. tramping idly about. sw.Lin. 1 

9. A greedy, grasping person ; a miser ; a pertinacious 
asker or beggar. 

Wm. (B.K.) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 ' A mischievous heeak/ an 
annoyer. 'A greedy hake,' a grasper ; n.Yks. 4 , m.Yks. 1 

10. A forward, tattling woman. 

Abd. (JAM.) Ayr. A female, whose chief delight is to fly from 
place to place, telling tales concerning her neighbours (iB.). 

[2. Du. haken, to long for (HEXHAM). 3. He haikit to 
that hall. For to wit gif Wymondis wynnyng was thair, 
RaufCoil)ear (c. 1475) 642, in Sc. Allit. Poems (1897) 103.] 

HAKE, int. n.Cy. Cum. Written haike n.Cy. (HALL.) 
[hek.] An expression of defiance. 

n.Cy. (HALL.) Cum. 2 Hake for a fight ! Cum. 4 

HAKE, see Hack, sb.', Hawk, v. 1 

HAKED, sb. Obs. Hnt. Cmb. w.Cy. A large pike, 
Esox Indus 

Hnt. Pikes of a great bigness taken in Ramsey Mere, BLOUNT 
(i68i\ Cmb.(HALL.) w.Cy. SKINNER (1671). [SATCHELL(i879) 4 ] 

[OE. hacod, a pike (./ELFRIC) ; cp. G. hecht.} 

HAKEL, HAKUSSING, see Hickwall, Hackasing. 

HAL, sb. and v. Yks. Lan. Also in form al Lan. [al.] 
1. sb. A fool, a jester; a silly person. 

m.Yka. 1 w.Yks. Sum drucken owd hals at hed been on t'spree 
Com singin like mad up t'street, PRESTON Poems (1864) 31 ; 
Standin at house ends makin hals o' thersenns, Saunteret's 
Satchel (1877) 23 ; w.Yks. 3 He's acting the hal agean ; w.Yks. 5 




Gurt idle hal ! Lan. Mak a hal o' somebory else ; for yo sha'not 
make one o' him no moor, WAUGH Besom Ben, 192 ; Troyin to 
may a hal on im, SCHOLES Tim Gamwattle (1857) 4. 
2. v. To banter ; to worry or bother. 

w.Yks. (S.W.) Lan. Let's ha noane o' thy allin', BRIERLEY 
Adventures (1881) 39. e.Lan. She keeps allin her to go (H.M.). 
sw.Lan. What's thaa allin abaat ? (6.) 

[1. The same word as Hal, the familiar form for Henry 

HAL, HALA, see Hale, sb. 2 , Hallow, sb. 1 

HALA, adv. Lan. [Not known to our correspondents.] 
Pretty well. THORNBER Hist. Blackpool (1837) 108. 

HALAH, see Heloe. 

HAL-AN-TOW, sb. Cor. Also written ha-lan-tow. 
A pleasure party on May 8. 

The Hal-an-toware privileged to levy contributions on strangers 
coming into the town, Flk-Lore Jrn. (1886) IV. 231 ; The Hal-an- 
tow, or party of servants and their friends, go on 8th of May 
(Flora-day or Faddy) to breakfast in the country and return laden 
with boughs J.W.^ ; With ha-lan-tow, rumble, O! Helstone 
Furry-Day Sng. in DIXON Sngs. Eng. Peas. (1846) 168, ed. 1857. 

HALBERDIER, sb. Sc. A person armed with a 
halberd, esp. a member of a civic guard carrying a halberd 
as a badge of office ; a Town's Sergeant. 

Escorted by Donald, our stout halberdier, In solemn procession, 
owerbye to the kirk, VEDDER Poems (1842) 302. 

HALBERT, sb. Sh.I. A tall, thin person. S. & Ork. 1 

HALCH, see Halsh. 

HALCUP, sb. Hmp. The marsh-marigold or kingcup, 
Caltha palustris ; gen. in pi. (J.R.W.), Hmp. 1 

HALD, see HOLD, v. 

HALE, sb. 1 Yks. Not. Lin. Suf. Ess. s.Cy. Dev. Cor. 
Also written hail w.Yks. 2 ; haile e.Yks. Lir^. 1 sw.Lin. 1 ; 
and in forms hal nw.Dev. 1 ; hall Suf. Dev. [el, eal.] 

1. One of the two handles of a plough or wheelbarrow ; 
gen. in pi. 

n.Yks. 1 Usually in the form Plough-hales ; n.Yks. 4 , ne.Yks. 1 
e.Yks. The things . . . ommast throppled thersens ower hales ov a 
hickin-barra, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 34 ; e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 , 
w.Yks. 2 , Not. 2 , s.Not. (J.P.K.) Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes 
(1884) 335 ; Lin. 1 The hailes flew up and caught me on the gob. 
n.Lin. 1 To be sold by auction. . .30 plough hales, Stamford Merc. 
(Sept. 20, 1867). s.Lin. Lay ho'd o' th' plough haals and let's see 
what soort o' a furrer yah can cut (T.H.R.). sw.Lin. 1 Dev. The 
sole-piece or chip, showing the splay of the two halls or handles, 
together with the share and cradle-pins, MOORE Hist. Dev. 11829^ 
I. 296; Horae Subsecivae (1777) 199. nw.Dev. 1 The left-hand or 
stouter handle of a timbern zole. Cor. The part of a wooden 
plough, to which the handles, beam and foot are attached, THOMAS 
Randigal Rhymes (1895) Gl. 

2. An instrument for hanging a pot over a fire ; a 
' trammel.' 

Suf. RAY (1691) ; (K.) Ess. BAILEY (1721) ; Gl. (1851) ; Ess. 1 
s.Cy. GROSE (1790). 

3. A rake used for raking loose stones or pebbles from 
a brook. 

Dev. Like a dung rake, with several strong teeth, Horae Sub- 
secivae (1777) 199; GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) 

[1. Le manche d'ttne charrue, a plough-tail, or handle ; 
the plough-hale, COTGR. Norw. dial, and Dan. hale, the 
tail ; ON. halt, the tail of cattle (VIGFUSSON).] 
_HALE, sb. 2 Lan. Lin. Mid. Also in form hal Lan. 
[el.] 1. A piece of flat alluvial land by the side of a 
river ; a sand-bank. See Haugh. Cf. eale. 

Lan. N. & Q. (1870) 4th S. v. 570. n.Lin.' An angular pasture 
in the township of East Butterwick, adjoining Bottesford Beck on 
the North, is called Butterwick Hale. It has been used from an 
early period as a rest for the high-land water in flood time, until 
it could flow into the Trent. 

2. A triangular corner of land, a ' gair ' ; a bank or strip 
of grass, separating lands in an open field. 

Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 335. nXin. 1 Mid. 
There is a piece of low land in Tottenham between the High Cross 
and the railway station called Tottenham Hale, or more commonly 
the Hale, AT. & Q. (1868) 4th S. ii. 405. 

HALE, sb. 3 e.An. [el.] A heap of anything, a man- 
gold clamp ; a long range or pile of bricks set out to dry 
in the open air before being burned. 


e.An. 1 Nrf. A mangold hale (E.M.) ; Potatoes, roots, &c. buried 
in heaps are said to be in hales (U.W.). 

HALE, v. 1 Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lin. Dor. Also written 
hail Sc. Nhb. 1 sw.Lin. 1 [h)el, h)eal.] 1. To pour or 
empty out, as water from a vessel by inclining it to one 
side ; to bale. Cf. heel, v. 2 

n.Yks. Thah neeam is as ointment haled out, ROBINSON Sng. 
Sol. (1860) i. 3; n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Hale me out another cup; 
n.Yks. 4 , ne.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 Lin. Hale out the water, THOMPSON 
Hist. Boston (1856) 708 ; Lin. 1 Dor. Gl. (1851). 
2. To flow, run down in a large stream ; to pour. 

Sc. Drops of blude frae Rose the Red Came hailing to the groun', 
CHILD Ballads (1886) 11.418; 'It's hailinon' or 'down' is commonly 
used with respect to a heavy rain (JAM.). Abd. They are posting 
on whate'er they may Baith het and meeth, till they are haling 
down, Ross Helenore (1768} 79, ed. 1812. Lnk. Facht when they 
were kiss'd or huggit, Till the sweat cam' hailin' doon, NICHOLSON 
Kilwuddie (ed. 1895) a6 - Nhb. 1 Aa rout [wrought] till the sweet 
hailed off us. Cum. 2 Lin. The sweat hales of'n me o' nights, 
STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 335. sw.Lin. 1 The sweat 
hailed offen him. 

[1. Norw. dial, halla, to incline or tilt a vessel (AASEN) ; 
so Icel. (ZOEGA) ; ON. Italia, to lean or turn sideways. 
2. The teris began fast to hale owre hir chekis, BELLENDEN 
Livy (1533), ed. 1822, 101.] 

HALE, v. 2 and s6." Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. Won Shr- 
Hrt. e.An. Hmp. w.Cy. Wil. Som. Cor. Also written hail 
S. & Ork. 1 Cum. 3 e.Yks. ; haill Abd. ; hayl Lan. ; and in 
form ally Won [h)el, h)eal.] 1. v. To haul ; to draw 
forcibly, pull ; to drag along ; to load. 

Sh.I. Hails wi' an easy tow, an' comes ashore wi' forty wys o' 
white fish, STEWART Tales (1892) 14. Abd. There blind zeall to 
the Couenant did so haill them on to their own destruction, 
TURKEFF Antiq. Gleanings (1859) 57. Per. That stead Where yee 
did hail your shaft unto the head, FORD Harp (1893) 3. Gall. As 
the Dominie and I were haled away, CROCKETT Grey Man (1896) 
305. n.Cy. (J.L.) (1783). Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 ; Cum. 3 I hail't Jonathan 
out fray amangthem. e.Yks. Soe need they not to trouble them- 
selves with hailinge on soe much att once, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 
50. Shr. 2 Confined to the river side and chiefly to men or horses 
drawing small or large craft on the Severn against the stream. 
Hmp. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) Wil. (K.M.G.) Som. Plough- 
men have been haleing bells, HERVEY Wedmore Chron, (1887) 
I. 79. w.Cor. ' I can neither hale them nor have [heave] them.' 
Said by an old woman with rheumatism in her feet (M.A.C.). 

Hence (i) Haler or Hayler, sb. one who works or does 
anything energetically and effectively ; (2) Hale-to, sb. the 
movement of a rake in raking up grain, &c. ; (3) Haling- 
muff, sb. a mitten used by fishermen to protect their 
hands when hauling the lines into the boat ; (4) -way, sb. 
a towing-path ; cf. hauling-path, s.v. Haul, v. 1 ; (5) Halster, 
sb. one who tows a barge alongside a river by means of 
a rope. 

(i) Cum. 12 Lan. He is a hayler at it, R. PIKETAH Forness Flk. 
(1870) 38. (2) Hrt. A man with one motion or hale-to on each 
side of him will rake up a parcel of grain in a trice, ELLIS Mod. 
Hush. (1750) V. ii. (3)8. & Ork. 1 (4) Cmb. N. & Q. (1860) 2nd 
S. ix. 51. (5) w.Cy. (HALL.) 

2. To carry on the trade of a carrier, to cart, carry. 
Wor. E've got a 'oss an' cart ... an' does allyin', Vig. Man. in 

Berrow's Jrn. (Mar. 9, 1895) 4, col. 3 ; It's him as bin allying on 
this road (H.K.). Wil. (K.M.G.) 

3. To breathe heavily, pant ; to inhale ; also in phr. to 
hale for breath. 

Suf. e.An. Dy. Times (1892) ; (C.T.) e.Snf. (F.H.) 

4. sb. A haul of fish. 

Sh.I. I can mind wis takin' forty o' him [turbot], grit an' sma', 
apo' ae hail i' da deep water, Sh. News (July 10, 1897) ; Efter we 
set aff fir a mornin' hail, I lays me doon i' da fore-head i' da bight 
o' da sail, STEWART Tales (1892) 243. 

[1. Halyn or drawyn, traho, Prompt. ; What that on 
may hale, that other let, CHAUCER Parl. Foules, 151. OFn 
haler, ' tirer ' (LA CURNE).] 

HALE, adj. and sb. s Sc. Nhb. Dun Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Lan. Also ?Ken. ? Dor. ?Som. Also written hail Sc. 
Bnff. 1 Nhb. 1 Dor. ; haill Sc. ; hayl Wm. ; and in forms 
haal w.Yks. 1 ; hael Sh.I. Nhb. 1 ; heaal Cum.; heal Sc. 
w.Yks. 1 ; heale Cum. Wm. ; heall Cum. 1 ; heeal(l Wm. 




n.Yks."* ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 ; heyel Nhb. 1 ; hiyal Wm. ; 
hyal Dur. 1 n.Lan. ; hyel(l N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 ; yal n.Yks." 
ne.Yks. 1 [h)el, h)eal, hil, hial.] 1. adj. Free from injury ; 
safe, sound, unhurt. 

Sc. It's good sleeping in a haill skin, SCOTT Bride of Lant. (1819) 
vi. Sh.I. Get me ... my sea-breeks, An' see dey're hale afore, 
STEWART Tales ( 1893") 93. Bch. Paris . . . gart me wish I were awa' 
While I had a hale skin, FORBES Ulysses (1785) ai. Kcd. Panta- 
loons and guid black breeks, If they be hale and hae the sleeks, 
JAMIE Muse (1844) 45. Frf. His hyde, they said, was heal an' 
sound, Piper of Peebles (1794) 16. Rnf. Ye [a pair of shoes] did 
right weel whan ye war hale, PICKEN Poems (1813) I. 33. Ayr. 
Lord, remember singing Sannock, Wi' hale-breeks, saxpence, an' 
a bannock, BURNS Lett, to J. Tennant, 1. 47. Dmf. Routh o' 
potatoes champit an' hale I' their ragged jackets, THOM Jock o' 
Knowe (1878) 39. Feb. With bonnet black, too. old, but hale, 
Lintoun Green (1685) 37, ed. 1817. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L. L.B.) 

Hence (i) Hale-headit, adj. unhurt ; whole and entire; 

(2) -hearted, adj. of unbroken spirit; (3) -hide, see (i); 
(4) -scart, adj. without a scratch, unhurt, wholly safe ; 
also usedyfc. ; (5) -skinnt, adj. having a whole skin with- 
out sores or disease. 

(i) Sc.. Abd. (JAM.) (a) Edb. Bronze-browed, ruddy-cheeked, 
and hale-hearted as I am, BALLANTINE Gaberlunzie (ed. 1875) 12. 

(3) Bch. But he gaed affhale-hide frae you For a' your windy voust, 
FORBES Ajax (1785) 38. (4) Sc. Symon and Janet his dame, 
Halescart frae the wars without skaithing, CHAMBERS Sngs. (1829) 
II. 347. Ayr. Lord, let us a' aff haill-scart at the last if aiblins 
it be within t'e compass o' Thy power! SERVICE Dr. Duguid 
(ed. 1887) 21. Rxb. In spite o' dool, haith here we're hale-scart 
yet, A. Scorr Poems (ed. 1808) 159. (5) Buff. 1 We canna be our 
thankfou' it w'ir hail-skinnt, fin we see yon peer thing a' our wee 

2. Healthy, sound, vigorous ; health-giving, wholesome. 
Sc. Broken bread makes hail bairns, RAMSAY Prov. (1737). Sh.I. 

An' you an' I be hael an' weel, STEWART Tales ,1892) 244. Elg. 
Donald's still in Donald's trews, Hale, weel, an' livin', TESTER 
Poems (1865) 97. Abd. Hale be your heart, my canty Cock, COCK 
Strains (1810) I. 125. Kcd. The Piper is dune out, Although he 
be baith hale and stout, JAMIE Muse ( 1844) 104. Frf. Young guid- 
men, fond, stark an' hale, MORISON Poems (1790) 16. Per. As hale 
and hearty as a three-year-auld bairn, Sandy Scoll (1897) 21. 
Fif.Menferdy-limb'd and swank and hale, TENNANT Papistry ( 1827) 
93. Dmb. His thrifty wife, tho' heal and leal, Whiles canna bake 
for want o' meal, TAYLOR Poems 1,1827) 70. Rnf. Ane may be 
hale, an' weel in health the day, PICKEN Poems (1813 I. 21. Ayr. 
We maun hae a little more of your balsamic advice, to make a' 
heal among us, GALT Provost (1822) xlvi. Lnk. Three hale and 
healthy bairnies, WARDROP J. Mathison ,1881) 97. Lth. I ferlie 
gin in palace, or in lordly ha', Their hearts are a' as hale, as in 
our cot sae sma", BALLANTINE Poems (1856) 148. Edb. Whole- 
some, hale, historic food, FORBES Poems (1812) 6. Dmf. Take ye 
a lassie tight and heal, SHENNAN Tales (1831) 61. Nhb. For we 
are hale an' hearty baith, Coqueldale Sngs. (1852) 59. Ken. 2 Hale 
weather. Dor. BARNES Gl. 1^1863). Som. I did nev'r see her look 
more hale an' dapper than her do just now, LEITH Lemon Verbena 
(1895) 6. 

3. Phr. (i) hale an' a-hatne, quite at home, in one s ele- 
ment ; in good spirits; (2) and fere, in perfect health, 
strong, healthy; (3) to be hale d tnair, to recover, to get 
over (an illness, &c.). 

(:) Lnk. He's [Cupid] hale an' a-hamc amang touslin' an' kissin', 
WATSON Poems (1853) 50. (2) Per. Spunky, hale, an' fere, Gleg 
he kens his bis'ness, STEWART Character (1857) 67. Slg. It was 
sturdy, hale, an" fier, Wi' sock an' couter bright an' clear, MUIR 
Poems (1818) 8. Ayr. As lang's we're hale and fier, BURNS Ep. 
to Davit (1784) St. a. Edb. Thinking to ... look baith hail an' fier, 
Till at the tang-run Death dirks in, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 199, 
ed. 1785. Gall. I hae tooted it owre in nogginfus now for mair 
than a hunner year, and am tae fore yet hale and fear, M ACTAGGART 
Eniycl. (1834) 4, ed. 1876. (3) Sh.I. If puir Girzzie is gotten her 
cndin' strake ta day, he's a job 'at A'll no be hale o' mair, ta da 
grave, Sh. News (Aug. 28, 1897). 

4. Whole, entire, complete. Also used advb. 

Sc. However the haill hive was ower mony for me at last, 
SCOTT Nigel (iSaa) iii. Sh.I. We wid a hed da hael trave o' da 
bairns ower, bit da skdlc lay i' da hill, BURGESS Sketches (2nd ed. ) 
in. Cal. 1 Bnff. The bare and simple name of MacGregor made 
that liail clan to presume on their power, GORDON Chron. Keitli(i88o 
36. Abd. I cured the hale complainin' gang For nought ava, 

CADENHEAD Bon Accord (.853) i 5 9- Frf. The hl I night thro 
SANDS Poems (1833) 44- Per. For twa hale hours he preached 
CLEIAND Inchbracken (1883) 11, ed. 1887. Fif. Great baps and 
scones were swallow'd hail, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 53 
Afore the hail assembl'd rout, Wi' scornfu' hiss deride ye, PICKEN 

Afore the 
Poems (1813) 

crszv DQfl YI v*v. *,-*) --.- ----- , , t_ 

NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) 76. Lth. Through a' the hale parish 
BALLANTINE Poems (1856) 2. Edb. The hale house thought she had 
followed my faither, BALLANTINE Gaberlunzie (ed. 1875) 231- 
Tho' ye seek the hale creation, AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (1836) 84. 
Gall. Able in a het contention For to outwit a hale convention, 


(1843) 33 ' Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 Cum. T'wad shem the heale parish, RAY- 
SON Misc. 'Poems (1858) 56; Aa cud trot am about for a heall day, 

DICKINSON Joe and Geol. (1866) 6. Wm. Meh hayl fraym iz 
affected, BLEZARD Sngs. (1848) ; The Armstrongs an Hardens, an 
aw' the heale gang, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 7 ; Thoos geean an 
spilt a heeal meeal a new milk, Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 6. n.Yks.<", 
ne-Yks. 1 e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). w.Yks. 1 Ihank 
God for 'em, wi' or haal heart, ii. 312. n.Lan. There was a hyal 
famaly on urn, Lonsdale Mag. (Jan. 1867) 270. 

Hence (i) Haellens, adv. certainly, completely; (2) 
Hailly or Halelie, adv. wholly, utterly ; (3) Haleumlie or 
Helimly, adv., see (i) ; (4) Yalseeal, adj. wholesale, 

ship hailly, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 12. Slg. A fear to devour 
them halelie at the last, BRUCE Sermons (1631) iv, ed. 1843. 
w.Yks. 1 Gie therscls haally to'th' sarvice, ii. 323. (3) Abd. For fan 
I saw you, I thought haleumlie That ye wad never speak again to 
me, Ross Helcnorc (1768 13, ed. 1812 ; O yon dreadfu' crack I 
haleumlie thought wad ha been our wrack, ib. 81. (4) n.Yks. They 
gat them by yalseeal I.W.). 

5. Comb, (i) Hael-an-hadden, entire, complete; (2) 
Hale-head, in phr. to go hale-head errand, to go on express 
or sole purpose; (3) -lot, a considerable number, a 'whole 
lot ' ; (4) -oot drinks, a toast ; see below ; (5) -ruck, the 
sum total of a person's property ; (6) -water, a heavy fall 
of rain ; (71 -wheel, in wholesale fashion, in quick succes- 
sion ; (8) -wort, the whole number or amount. 

(i) Sh.I. In aess o hael-an-hadden worls, BURGESS Rasmie (1892} 
62. 2) Cai.' 3) e.Yks. 'The' was aheeal-lot o' fooaks there. (4) 
Sc. Here Allan studied and practised Hy-Jinks, and once at least 
fell a victim to the game of ' haill oot drinks,' HALIBURTON Puir 
Auld Scot. (1887) 59. Per. 'Hail oot drinks! come what will 
empty your glasses.' The chairman at a dinner-party gave out 
this toast, and on this account became intoxicated, and fell a victim 
to the game of 'hail oot drinks' (G.W.). (5) Rxb. (JAM.) (6) 
Sc. The rain, which fell almost in hale water, as we say, has washed 
away half the school-master's kail-yard, Glenfergus 1,1820) I. 203 
(JAM. . N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 In a thunder shower the rain is said to be 
comin' doon hail (or hyel) waiter. Cum. Just heaal waiter cumman 
slap doon ontah yan eh gegginfuls, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 
200 ; Cum. 1 Wm. ' Is'l rainen when ye com in ? ' ' Aye, is'l, ebben 
doon hiyal waller, as yan says' (15. K.). (7) Abd. He had been 
sen'in' them to Lunnon b" the dizzen ilka ither ouk, hale-wheel, 
this file, ALEXANDER Ain Fit. (1882) rai. (8) Slk. I wish ye be 
nae the deil's bairns, the halewort o' ye ! HOGG Talcs (1838) 51, ed. 
1866 ; If he made weel through wi' his hides mayhap he wad pay 
the hale wort, ib. Perils of Man (1822) III. 283 (JAM.\ 

6. sb. Health, comfort, welfare. Cf. heal, sb. 1 

Abd. Health and hale, COCK Strains (i8io N , I. 81. Ayr. My hale 
and weal I'll tak a care o't, BURNS To Mitchell (1795) st. 5. 

7. The whole, the whole amount or number ; the sum-total. 
Sc. I adhere to all and haill upon all perils whatsomever, THOM- 
SON Cloud of Witnesses (1714 391, ed. 1871. Ayr. Half o' the hale 
dung aff their feet, Then is a victory complete, BOSWELL Poet. 
Wks. (1816) 166, ed. 1871. Lth. The hale o' his pack he has now 
on his back, MACNEILL Poet. Wks. (1801) 317, ed. 1856. Wgt. The 
ban' cheers the haill o' the streets roun' an 1 roun', FRASER Poems 
(1885) 51. Cnm. I'll try to be happy the hale o' the day, GILPIN 
Ballads (1874) 173. ne.Yks. 1 Ah've deean t'heeal on't. 

8. Phr. in hale, altogether, the whole sum. 

Edb. Gied ye in a shoeing bill, 'Twas twenty shillings sax in hale. 




LIDDI.E Poems (1821) no. Feb. My tocher's fifty pound in hale, 
AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (1836) 81. 

9. Whole coal, as distinguished from coal that has been 
partly worked. 

Nhb. Though still they're i' the hyell a' hewin', WILSON Pitman's 
Pay (1843) 59; Nhb.i 

[1. pou sal ba|> sounde & hale come of J>is ship to lande, 
Cursor M. (c. 1300) 24888. OE. Hal, safe (Matt. x. 22).] 

HALE, see Hal, Hall, sb. 12 , Heal, v. 2 , Hell, sb. 

HALEHEEAM, sb. e.Yks. 1 [e'liam.] An heirloom. 

Awd creddle's [cradle's] beena haleheeami family fo'ginerations. 

HALER, see Heloe. 

HALESOME, adj. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Also in forms 
haalsome w.Yks. 1 ; halsome Sc. ; healesome Cum. ; heal- 
some m.Yks. 1 ; heealsome n.Yks. 2 ; helsum Nhb. 1 [h)e'l-, 
h)ials3m.] Wholesome, healthful, sound. 

Sc. Naebody shall persuade me, that it's either halesome or pru- 
dent, SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xviii. Abd. They now rejoicin' taste 
its halesome bree, STILL Cottar's Sunday (1845) 22 ; Keep her. . . 
as white and clean in thy een, as she is fair and halesome in oors, 
MACDONALD D. Elginbrod (1863) I. 6. Frf. Clean halesome ale, 
tho' sma', MORISON Poems (1790) 46. Per. Get a howp in ilka 
cheek O' halesome livin', HALIBURTON Horace { 1886) 29. Fif. Share 
our halesome country cheer, DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 102. Dmb. 
Thou finds upon the grass Sweet halesome dew, TAYLOR Poems 
(1827; 84. Rnf. Yer lot the Bard envies, Sae halsome near the 
water, PICKEN Poems (1813) II. n. Ayr. Whether it was the 
halsome dreid thereof, or whether it was that I was but wee, 
SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 30. Lnk. A halesome heart and 
guileless mind, HUNTER Poems (1884) 22. Edb. A' the thrang in 
a sang Should join wi' halesome heart, M c DowALL Poems (1839) 
226. Dmf. Help that was halesome slid frae a' han' The ee o' the 
gleggestneversaw,THOM./oc/&o' Knowe ( 1878" 45. Gall. Halesome 
breezes from the thorn Refresh the swain, LAUDERDALE Poems 
(1796; 53. Wgt. Fed on the halesome Scottish fare, FRASER Poems 
(1885) 231. Nhb. 1 Aa leev'd there oney a few weeks, 'cas aa fund 
it not helsum. Cum. An' when the healesome supper's duin' The 
toilin' day his task lies duin, GILPIN Ballads (1874) 152. n.Yks. 2 , 
e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 

HALESTONE, sb. Obs. n.Cy. (HALL.) Wm. (K.) A 
flint or firestone. 

HALEWARE, sb. Sc. Also written hailwair QAM.) ; 
hailwur, halewar. [he'lwer.] The whole, the whole 
number or company ; the whole assortment of things. 

Bch. He ... Gar'd the hale-ware o' us trow That he was gane 
clean wud, FORBES Ajax (1785 5. s.Sc. They'd . . . burn the verra 
earth about their lugs, An' end the haleware and themselves at 
ance, T. SCOTT Poems < ,1793) 367. Gall. The verra last shot that 
was fired . . . carried awa' the halewar o' their steerin' gear, 
CROCKETT Raiders (1894) x ; The haleware o't seemed to be gran 
plowable Ian', MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 307, ed. 1876. Kcb. Aft 
ye kink an' skirl like mad, And laird it owerthe hailwur, ARMSTRONG 
Ingleside (1890) 143. 

HALEWOOD PLUM, phr. Chs. 1 A red plum. 

Formerly much cultivated in nw.Chs. and greatly esteemed for 
preserving. It is becoming more scarce, but may still be bought 
in Warrington market ; and there are several trees of it in the 
neighbourhood of Norton and Frodsham. 

HALF, sb., adj., adv. and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. 
Eng. and Amer. Also in forms aw Hrt. ; awf e.Yks. 1 ; 
haaf Suf. Cor. 2 ; haat Nhp. 1 ; haef Cum. sw.Lin. 1 ; haf 
Sc. Cum. 14 ; hafe Cum. 3 Lan. s.Chs. 1 Not. 3 Brks. 1 ; haff 
Sc. ; hauf Sc. Bnff. 1 Nhb. Lakel. 2 Cum. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 3 
ne.Lan. 1 s.Stf. ; hauv nw.Der. 1 ; hauve Lan. ; hawf Nhb. 
Cum. n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. w.Yks. ; hawve Lan. e.Lan. 1 ; hayf 
Fit.; hef N.I. 1 ; hoaf Cum. 3 w.Yks.; hofe Cum. 14 Wm. 
Yks. Lan. ; hove Lan. ; oaf n.Yks. 1 [h)af, h)9f, h)o3f.] 
1. sb. In phr. (i) by halfs, half, partially; (2) by the 
half, by half, considerably ; (3) the half of, half of. 

(i) Bnff. I see by hafs ye're only wise ; Gang to the ant, an' 
lear some mair, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 32. (2) w.Yks. Ha felt 
mesen bigger be t'hoaf, A Six Days' Aght, 5. Lan. But more by 
the hauve nor these, aw like, HARLAND Lyrics (1866) 88. (3) Yks. 
More than t'hauf on't is nought but idle talk, TAYLOR Miss Miles 
(1890) xviii. w.Yks. 1 Whether thou's ivver doon taa hauf o' what 
our parson hes tell'd the ... to do ? ii. 352. Lan. We'n nobbut 
cleared t'one hafe o' one mough, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale 
(i86o)II. 212; But aw couldn't tell th' hawve 'at aw feel, HARLAND 

Lyrics (1866) 307 ; Nivver med th' hove o' th' noise, DONALDSON 
Lamin to Sing (1886). 

2. A portion, division, piece. 

w.Ir. Dish iv delf . . . bruk in three halves, LOVER Leg. (1848) 
I. 202. 

3. pi. Equal shares, an exclamation used by children 
to claim half of anything found by another ; also used 
advb. in equal shares. 

w.Yks. 1 In order, however, to deprive the other of his supposed 
right the finder will cry out : ' Ricket, racket, finnd it, tackit, And 
niwer give it to the aunder [owner].' sw.Lin. 1 We went haeves 
at it. Oxf. (G.O.), Hnt. (T.P.F.) 

4. Phr. to halves, of animals : to be put out to fold on 
terms of partnership ; see below. Cf. halver, sb. 2. See 
Crease, sb? 

Dev. Ewes to Halves. W. Lewis, Templeton, is prepared to 
put out any number of ewes on the most favourable terms yet 
heard of, Tiverton Gazette (Aug. n, 1896^. The system is for the 
owner, as above, to provide the ewes for another man to keep until 
a certain date, to be agreed on when the ewes return to their owner, 
and the ' crease ' is divided as may be agreed, Reports Provinc. (1897). 

5. pi. The allotments on Corfe Common. Dor. (C.W.) 

6. adj. In comb, (i) Half-acre or Habaker, a small 
field or allotment; also used _/?-., see below; (2) -amon, 
the game of hop, skip, and a jump ; (3) -a-nicker, (4) -a- 
thick-'un, half a sovereign ; (5) -a-tram, one of two men 
that manage a tram in a mine ; (6) -bushel, a measure 
of beer : four gallons ; (7) -clinks, in phr. to go half-clinks, 
to go shares ; (8) -cousin, first cousin once removed ; 
(9) -crease, half the increase in value of stock ; to put out 
bees to feed ; see Crease, sb? ; (10) -dole (-dooal), entitled 
to a part only of the profits of any concern; (n) -draw, 
in digging : half the depth of the tool used ; (12) -fallow, 
light ploughing, not of the usual depth; to plough lightly; 
(13) -fool, stupid, ignorant, half-witted ; (14) -fou, half a 
bushel ; (15) -gable, a gable common to two houses ; used 

fig. in phr. to big half-gable with some one ; (16) -gam, 
assisting to accomplish anything; (17) -groape, a state of 
half-feeling, half-seeing ; (18) -hack or -heck, the lower 
half of a door divided into two parts ; (19) -hammer, see 
(2) ; (20) -hatch nail, a particular kind of nail ; (21) -horn, 
(a) obs., a horn slit lengthways and nailed to the end of 
a staff; see below; (b) a half-pint of ale or beer; 
(22) -knack, partial, half-and-half; half-trained; (23) 
lade, a large straw basket or ' cassie ' ; (24) -laugh, 
any action done by halves, or half-heartedly ; (25) 
loaf, in phr. to leap, or loup, at the half-loaf, a custom 
among reapers ; see below \ng. to snatch at small boons ; 
to be content with a dependent or humble position ; (26) 
manor, having land in partnership between two ; (27) 
mark (or -merk) bridal, in phr. to tye the haf-merk bridal 
band, to be married clandestinely; (28) -mark kirk or 
church, the place where clandestine marriages are cele- 
brated ; (29) -mark (or -merk) marriage, a clandestine 
marriage ; (30) -mark-marriage kirk, see (28) ; (31) 
marrow, (a) a spouse, a husband or wife ; a yoke-fellow, 
mate ; (b) a lad or boy serving his apprenticeship ; one of 
two boys working together ; (32) -moon flask, a flask 
formerly used in smuggling ; (33) -mutchkin, half a pint ; 
(34) -nabs, good-for-nothing, neither one thing nor 
another ; (35) -natural, a fool ; (36) -nothing, (37) -nowt 
or -nought, a very small sum, little or nothing, anything 
beneath consideration ; a worthless person ; also used 
attrib. ; (38) -oaf moulsin, see (35) ; (39) -one or Hef yin, 
(a) a half-glass of whisky ; (b) a term in golfing : see 
below ; (40) -parson, a deacon ; (41) -piece crock, the 
ordinary deep-shaped dairy crock ; (42) -pint, to drink ; 

(43) -reacher, a pitchfork of more than ordinary length ; 

(44) -scale (-skeeal), of manure : half the usual quantity 
spread on the surface of ground ; (45) -sea, tipsy ; (46) 
shaft, obs., the water-shaft in a colliery ; (47) -shoon, old 
shoes with the toes cut off; (48) -sir, a churl, a miser; 
(49) -snacks, in phr. to go half-snacks, see (7) ; (50) -stuff, 
a term of depreciation applied to persons ; (51) -swing 
plough, a plough in which the mould-board is a fixture ; 
(52) -tester, a bed with a canopy ; (53) -timer, a child who 





works half the day at a factory ; (5^) -tiner, in phr. half- 
tiner, half-winner, one who shares half the loss or half the 
gain of anything; (55) -ware, a mixture of peas and beans 
sown together ; (56) -water, half-way between the boat 
and the bottom of the sea ; (57) -wit, an idiot, a natural ; 
(58) -work, the time when the day's work is half done ; 
the middle of a shift ; half-time employment through bad 
trade ; (59) -yard coal, coal of about half a yard in thick- 
ness ; (60) -year meads, meadows of which one person 
has the hay and another the right to ' after-shear.' 

(i) Sc. ' Half acres bears good corn.' Alluding to the half acre 
given to the herd, and commonly spoken in gaming, when we are but 
half as many as our antagonists, KELLY Prov. (1721) 143 ; I ordaine 
my husband to infeft Wm. my eldest sone in the house and Zairdiss 
barne, and twa half aikeris of land, LITHGOW Poet. Rem. (ed. 1863) 
xxxiv. Oxf. ' Habaker' is a term employed in certain fields between 
Oxford and Yarnton, known as the ' Lot Meadows' (G.O.) ; A 
habaker is half a lot : an acre is a lot. An acre or lot is sometimes 
three or four acres : the habaker, two or two and a half, STAPLETON 
FourOxf. Parishes ( 1893) 39- Hrt. CUSSANS Hist. Hrt. (1879-1881) 
III.32I. [Amer. When the score of one side in a game is half that 
of the other, a common remark of encouragement is ' a half acre 
raises good corn if it's hoed well ' ; often merely the phrase half 
acre is used alone, Dial. Notes (1896) I. 397.] (a) Ken. 12 (3) 
w.Yks. 2 Nrf. When I chucks the half-a-nicker in the broad, yer 
should ha' seen him look ! PATTERSON Man and Nat. (1895) 99. 
(4) w.Yks. 2 Lon. I only had ' half a thick 'un' for my trouble, 
The People (Aug. 25, 1889) 13, col. 4. (5) Nhb. Aw neist to half- 
a-tram was bun'. But gat a marrow gruff and sour, WILSON Pitman's 
Pay (1843) 32 ; Nhb. (6) Sur. (T.S.C.) (7) e.Suf. (F.H.) (8) 
Sc. ' Sophy,' an orphan half-cousin . . . was now Alick Welsh's 
good and amiable wife, MRS. CARLYLE Lett. (1883) II. 231. n.Cy. 
(J.W.), e.Suf. (F.H.) (9) Dev. 8 Wanted, a score of sheep to graze. 
Terms, half crease. Cor. 1 Half the increase, when the owner has 
half the honey, and the person who takes care of the bees the 
other half. (10) n.Yks. 2 A hawf-dooal man. (u) Nrf. That 
ain't deep enough. We shall have to get another half-draw out, 
EMERSON Son of Fens ( 1892) 205. (i2)s.Wor.(H.K.) (i 3 )w.Som. 1 
Gen. used with fellow or some word expressing person. ' I never 
widn ha nortto zay to no jis aa-feol fuul-ur-z ee- ' [half-fool fellow 
as he]. (14) Sc. I brought a half-fou of gude red goud Out o'er 
the sea wi' me, SCOTT Minstrelsy (1802) I. 301, ed. 1848. Lnk., 
Rxb. (JAM.) (15) Rnf. The heresy of Arminianism, which he 
described as an attempt ' tae big hauf-gable wi' the Lord,' GILMOUR 
Pen Flk. (1873) 25. (16) Nhb. (R.O.H.) (17) w.Yks. Well, I 
woked on an' on in a soart of a hofe groape. HALLAM Wadsley 
Jack (1866) ix. (18) Nhb. 1 Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864^ 305. 
e.An.', Nrf. (W.W.S.) (19) e.An. 1 One boy challenges another 
to ' go the half-hammer.' Nrf. (W.W.S.) e.Suf. To come or go 
on the half-hammer, with a hop, skip, and jump (F.H.). Sus. 1 
(20) nw.Dev. 1 A rectangular rose-headed hand-made nail 2 ins. 
long. A hatch nail is 3 ins. long. (21, a) Snr. The shepherds of the 
Downs hereabouts use, what they call a half-horn, i. e. a horn slit 
lengthways, and nailed to the end of a staff, as long as the shep- 
herds crooks, with which they can hurl a stone a great way, and 
so keep their sheep within due bounds. This instrument is seen 
in some pictures and hangings, but is not in use anywhere else, 
England's Gazetteer (1778) (s.v. Hedley). (b) Oxf. Let's go in 
and have a half-horn (G.O.). (22) Dev. 'I can't niwer zill 
no butter in town now, there's zo many half-knack farmers 
about ' meaning that there were so many tradesmen and others 
who kept a few cows, but did not make their living out of farming, 
Reports Provinc. ( 1897). (23) Or.I. So called because two of these 
baskets when filled and slung on a pack-saddle form a load for a 
pony (JAM. Suppl.). (34) Nap. 1 None of your half-laughs for me. 

(25) Sc. To live honourably abroade and with credit then to 
encroach ... on their friends at home, as ... leaping at the half 
loafe, while as others through vertue live nobly abroade, MONRO 
Exped. (1637) pt. i. 36 (JAM.). Rxb. Still used. This is half a 
loaf which happens to exceed the number of loaves allotted for 
the reapers; which being divided the one is thrown up for a 
scramble among the women and the other among the men (JAM.). 

(26) Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824). (27) Sc. HERD Coll. Sngs. 
(1776) fit Lnk. Since ye are content to tye The haff mark bridal 
band wi me, RAMSAY Poems 1,1800) I. 309 (JAM.). (28) Sc. To 
gae to the half-mark kirk, to go to be married clandestinely. The 
name seems to have arisen from the price of the ceremony (JAM.). 
(9) Sc. Making a half-merk marriage wi' Simon Mucklebackit 
ScoTT^*iy a ry(,8i6)xxxix. (30) Sc. (JAM.) (31, a) Sc. GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (C.J ; Come awa hame to thy hauf-marrow, 

GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 37. Frf. Provost Binnie has an 'ee 
aifter him as a hauf-marrow tae his bonnie dother, LOWSON John 
Guidfollow (1890) 34 ; Lady Crawford, the wicked Teegur Earl 
Beard ie's half-marrow, ib. 60. Kcb. Plead with your harlot-mother, 
who hath been a treacherous half-marrow to her husband Jesus, 
RUTHERFORD Lett. (1765) pt. i. ep. 123 (JAM.), (b) N.Cy. 1 A 
middle-sized lad, two such being needed in coal pits to ' put' a corf 
of coals equal to a man. Nhb. One of two boys who manage a 
tram, of about equal age, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) Gl. ; Nhb. 1 
Nhb., Dur. One of two boys putting together, NICHOLSON Coal Tr. 
Gl. (1888). n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Two halfmarrows make one whole 
man ; n.Yks. 4 (32) Per. She seldom travelled without a wee 
drap slung about her person, which was often contained in a 
half-moon flask, almost encircling her huge body, MONTEATH Dun- 
blane (1835) 87, ed. 1887. (33) Sc. He might have staid to take 
a half-mutchkin extraordinary with his crony the hostler, SCOTT 
Antiquary (1816) i. e.Fif. Four sooks ! Haigh that wad be ae 
half-mutchkin, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) vii. (34) Nhb. 1 (35) 
N.I. 1 (36* Sc. It sold for half-nothing, Scoticisms 11787) 61. (^37) 
Nhb. Shanks full o' mawks, and half-nowt cheese, WILSON Pitman's 
Pay (1843) IO ! He bowt the cuddy for half-nowt. The farmers 
hes ne crops noo-a-days, an' what they hev they get half-nowt 
for (R.O.H.). n-Yks. 1 Ah'd ding tha' au'd heead aff fur haaf- 
nowght, Ah wad ; n.Yks. 2 I gat it for hawf nowt ; n.Yks. 4 It's 
nobbut a hauf-nowt when it's deean. T'father's i' prison an' t'lad's 
a hauf-nowt. e.Yks. 1 Ah sell'd mi wots for hawf nowt, MS. add. 
(T.H.) w.Yks. (J.W.) (38) Hrf. 2 (39, a) N.I. 1 (i) Sc. A handi- 
cap of a stroke deducted every second hole (JAM. Suppl.]. (40) 
Wor. One of them there half-parsons iH.K.). (41) N.I. 1 (42) 
Cor. Two miners . . . had . . . been . . . ' half-pinting ' in the public- 
house, HUNT Pop. Rom.w.Eng. (1865) 217, ed. 1896. (43) s.Chs. 1 
Used to hand up hay to the top of a stack which is approaching 
completion. (44) n.Yks. 2 We put a hawf-skeeal o' mannishment 
upon t'land. (45) Per. Hoarse elder John sat at his knee, In 
proper trim more than half-sea, SPENCE Poems (1898) 86. (46) 
Nhb. Mr. G. C. Greenwell writes : ' Query; is this not when in an 
inundation the water has risen to half the depth of the shaft?' 
(R.O.H. i ; Nhb. 1 Compleat Collier (1708) 21. (47) Nhb. Wi' half- 
shoon at maw bait poke hung, WILSON Pitman's Pay '^1843) 3 i 
Nhb. 1 Nhb., Dur. There is my hoggars, likewise my half shoon, 
Bishoprick Gar/. v 1 784> 54, ed. 1834. (48; Ir. None of your 
beggarly half-sirs, CARLETON Traits Peas. (ed. 18431 I- J 5- Wxf. 
A big solemn prig of a half-sir of a farmer, KEXNEDY Banks of 
Boro (1867' 159. (49) e.Suf. (F.H.) (50) Dev. Reports Provinc. 
1 1883) 85. (51) Sus. 1 ;s2) Oxf.i MS. add. (53) w.Yks. The 
law fixes a limit of age, and a standard of education below which 
children are not allowed to work all day in factories. A ' half- 
timer' is generally one who has not fulfilled the required conditions 
(F.J.N.) ; A large proportion of these children were under instruc- 
tion as ' half-timers,' CUDWOHTH Worstedopolis (1888) 52. Chs. 1 
(54) Kcb. Be half tincr, half winner with my Master, RUTHERFORD 
Lett. (1660) No. 182. (55) Hrt. If Vale farmers should sow beans 
and pease together (or what the Valemcn call half ware), ELLIS 
Mod. Hiisb.^iiso) I. ii. 156) S. & Ork. 1 (57) Chs. 1 ; Chs. 8 Our 
Raphe's a pratty toidy scollard ; but as for Dick, poor chap, he's 
a hafe-wit. (58) Nhb. But, then, at half wark aw was duin, 
WILSON Pitman's Pay ',1843) 30; Nhb. 1 Nhb., Dur. NICHOLSON 
Coal Tr. Gl. (1888). (59) Nhb. 1 Gen. good coal, and better than 
the three-quarter coal, yet being so low to work in (or but of that 
small thickness), it is scarce worth while to work it, J.C. Compleat 
Collier (1708) 16. (60) Dor. MARSHALL Reviciv (1817) V. 261. 
7. Comb, in names of birds, fishes, or plants : (i) Half- 
bird, (a) the widgeon, Mareca pemlope ; (b) the whimbrel, 
Nutnenius phaeopus ; (2) -callo, see (i, b); (3) -curlew, 
(a) see(i, b); (b} the bar-tailed godwit, Limosa Lapponica; 
(4)-duck,see(i,a); (5) -fish, the salmon-cock or graveling, 
Salmo salar; (6) -fowl, any wild fowl other than the 
mallard, esp. the teal, Querquedula crecca, and the widgeon, 
Mareca penelope; (7) -smart, the yellow bedstraw, Galium 
verum ; (8) -snipe, the jack-snipe, Limnocryptes gallinula ; 
(9) -web, (a) the red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus hyper- 
boreus; (b) the grey phalarope, P. lobatus; (10) -whaup, 
se e (3, *)! (") -wood, (a) the woody nightshade, Solatium 
Dulcamara ; (b) the clematis or honesty, Clematis Vitalba. 
(i, a) Lin. As it only fetches half the price of a mallard or brent 
goose it is known to the fenners as a half bird, SMITH Birds (1887) 
482. (Ai Nrf. SwAiNSpN Birds 1,1885) *99- (2) Nrf. The whimbrel 
or ' half-callo,' in habits, custom, and appearance much resembles 
the curlew, EMERSON Birds (ed. 1895) 305. (3,3) Nrf. SWAINSON ib. 
199. [The whimbrel very closely resembles the curlew, but is ... 




very considerably smaller in size, YARRELL Birds (ed. 1845) II. 
583.] (6) Nrf. SWAINSON ib. 198. (4) ib. 154. (5) Sus. In the 
river Tees we take notice but of two distinctions of size, viz. 
a salmon cock, which some call a half fish, RAY Carres. (1677) 127. 
[SATCHELL (1879).] (6) e.An. 1 Nrf. COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. 
(1893)45. (7) Bck. Science Gossip (1891) 119. (8) SWAINSON (A. 
193. Oxf. API.IN Birds (1889) 214. (9) Or.I. SMITH Birds (1887) 
452. S. & Ork. 1 (10) Frf. SWAINSON ib. 198. (n, a) War. 3 , 
Wor. (B. & H.), s.Wor. (H.K.) (4) Glo. 1 

8. adv. In comb, (i) Half away, mad ; (2) back, 
an exclamation used to direct horses to turn to the 
left; (3) -baked, (a) foolish, silly, weak of intellect; 
raw, inexperienced ; (b) a foolish fellow ; (4) bap- 
tize, to baptize privately ; (5) -baptized, see (3, aj ; 
(6) -char, (a) doing things by halves, slightly or badly 
done ; (b) see (3, b) ; (7) -christened, see (3, a) ; (8) 
cocked, half-drunk ; (9) -cow'd, bent, stooping ; also used 
fig.; (10) enough, ? half as much again; (n) -gaited, 
limping, weak of gait; (12) -gate(s or -gait, half-way; (13) 
going, the right of pasturage upon the Fell for a certain 
number of sheep within defined limits ; (14) -gone, (a) 
see (3, a); (b) about the middle period of pregnancy; (15) 
lang leather, a ladder of medium length; (i6)-lang ploo, 
a plough with medium metals; (17) -middling, in poor 
health, indifferent in health ; (18) -mounted gentleman, 
a yeoman, small proprietor of land ; (19) -named, privately 
baptized ; (20) -nethered, nearly perished with cold ; (21) 
old, middle-aged ; (22) right, see (3, a) ; (23) -roads, 
see (12) ; (24) -rock, a foolish fellow ; half-witted ; (25) 
rocked or -rockton, see (3, a) ; (26) -sarkit, half-clothed ; 
(27) -saved, also in phr. not half-saved, (28) -scraped, (29) 
shaked, (30) -shanny, (31) -shaved, see (3, a) ; (32) 
shaven, ? without ceremony ; (33) -skim, made of milk 
skimmed once only ; (34) -slew'd, see (8) ; (35) -soaked, 
see (3, a) ; (36) -sprung, see (8) ; (37) -strain, (a) see 
(3. ) ! (b) mongrel ; (38) -strained, (a) see (3, a) ; (b) in 
phr. half-strained gentry, ' shabby-genteel ' persons, those 
who have difficulty in keeping up appearances ; (39) - 
there, see (3, a) ; (40) -thick, (a) see (3, a) ; (b) see (3, 6) ; 
(c) half-fat ; a half-fattened animal ; (41) tidy, pretty 
well ; (42) -waxed, half-grown ; (43) -ways, half, partly. 

(i) N.I. 1 (a) Dur. 1 (3, a) n.Cy. (B.K.) Nhb. The proposition 
was a half-baked one, WATSON Hist. Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1897) 
134. n.Yks. 14 , w.Yks. 2 , ne.Lan. 1 , s.Chs. 1 nw.Der. 1 Having had 
only half sleep or rest. n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 He talks like a man 
haef-baked. War. 2 ; War. 4 Yer mount expect too much of him ; 
he were only half-baked when he were born. w.Wor. I warn't 
half-baked, nor borned isterday, S. BEAUCHAMP Grantley Grange 
(1874) I. 76. Oxf. 1 MS. add. Wil. (G.E.D.), (E.H.G.), Wil. 1 , 
Som. (J.S.F.S.) n.Dev. KINGSLEY Westward Ho! (1855) I. 91, in 
PEACOCK Gl. (1889). Cor. A fine, bowerly woman, but a bit 
ha'f-baked in her wits; put in wi' the bread, as they say, an' tuk 
out wi' the cakes, 'Q.' Troy Town (1888) xi ; Cor. 123 (A) Der. 2 
(4) s-Wor. 1 , Hrf. 2 , Glo. (A.B.) Oxf. 1 MS. add. Ken. 1 Ken., Sus. 
N. & Q. (1893) 8th S. iv. 275. Sus. 1 If you please, sir, will you 
be so good as to half-baptize the baby ? (5) Sus. 1 You must have 
been half-baptized to water those flowers when the sun was full 
on them. (6, a) s.Chs. 1 It)s terubl ai'f-chaa'r wuurk tu aa too 
aawts ut gy'et-in u job lahyk dhaal- dim [It's terrible hafe-char 
work to ha' two outs at gettin' a job like that done]. nw.Der. 1 
(b) Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 (7) n.Lin. 1 (8) Nhb. Half-cock'd and canty, 
hyem we gat, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) 54 ; Nhb. 1 I.W. 2 All 
on 'em was about half cocked. (9) n.Yks. 2 ' A poor hawf-cow'd 
fellow,' one whom his wife rules. (10) Dev.They say Bradninch 
bells are half-enough more than Thorverton bells, Reports Provinc. 
(1889). (n) w.Yks. Thear he goaze wi his hauf-gaited legs an 
a smile on his poor thin face, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. 
(1873) 62. i 12) Sc. I wud be verie happy verie weel-pleased to 
meet him half-gates, Glenfergus (1820) III. 231 (JAM.). Sh.I. I'm 
mair as half-gaets up da voe, JUNDA Klingrahobl (1898) 52. Abd. 
When he was about half gates up the wood he had got some plan 
in his head, Deeside Tales (1872) 121. Per. When ance we're in 
the battle's din We'll find we're half gate thro', HALIBURTON Ochil 
Idylls (1891) 44- e.Fif. His coat was o' many colours an' hang 
doon half-gaits till's heels, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xiv. Gall. 
Wi' whiskers half-gate o'er his face, NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 
47, ed. 1897. ^13) Cum. Attached to most of the Fell dale farms 
(J.Ar.). (14, a) w.Yks. He is abaht hauf gooan, Leeds Merc. 

Suppl. (Nov. ii, 1893). (b) Sc. (JAM.), Cai. 1 (15) Nhb. (R.O.H.) 
(16) Nhb. 1 A ' lang-ploo' is a plough with a long mould board. A 
' short-ploo ' is a short metalled one. A half-lang is between the 
two. (17) w.Yks. Ah'm nobbut just abaht hauf-middlin, Yks. 
Wkly. Post (Feb. 15, 1896). (18) Ir. A sturdy half-mounted 
gentleman, BARRINGTON Sketches (1830) I. xii ; In those days the 
common people, ideally separated the gentry . . . into three classes. 
. . i. Half-mounted gentlemen. . . The first-named class formed 
the only species of independent yeomanry then existing in Ireland, 
ib. (19) Hrf. 1 , Glo. 1 (20) n.Yks. 2 (21) Abd. Drink soon wad 
mak" him daz'd and doited ere ha'f auld, SHIRREFS Poems (1790) 
42. (22) Cum. Ye munna trust him, he's nobbet hofe-reet (E. W.P.) ; 
They say he is nobbet hawf reel, GILPIN Sngs. (1866) 310 ; Cnm. 14 
Lan. He wos nobbut hofe reel, R. PIKETAH Fomess Flk. (1870) 34. 
(23) Sc. (JAM.) -,24) n.Yks. 2 Nrf. COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. 
(i 8 93) 58. (25) N.Cy. 1 Half-rocked-innocent. Nhb. The Biship 
o' Jarra is a hawf rockt un, Keelman's Ann. (1869) 23; Nhb. 1 
Cum. They're what ah may co hofe rockt mako' whoke, SARGISSON 
Joe Scoap (1881) 129 ; Cum. 3 He was yan o' t'hafe-rock't mak was 
Wiffy, 27. Wm. Thaer folk browt him up bi cannel-leet ; turned 
him oot a hofe rocked 'un, Spec. Dial. (1880) pt. ii. 42. n.Yks. 1 ; 
n.Yks. 4 It's nobbut a hauf-rocked thing foor onnybody ti deea. 
ne. Yks. 1 , e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. He wor one o' them harmless, gawmless, 
hauf-rockt, sleeveless, dateless creeturs, Yksman, Comic Ann. 
(i&&i) 27; w.Yks. 13 , ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 Lin. 1 Take no 
notice of Aunt, she's half-rocked. n.Lin. 1 , sw.Lin. 1 , e.An. 1 Cmb. 1 
Why he's only a poor half-rocked sort of fellow. Nrf. (E.M.), 
e.Suf. (F.H. j (26; Ayr. While here, half-mad, half-fed, half-sarkit, 
Is a' the amount, BURNS Vision, st. 5. (27) sw-Lin. 1 He's a poor 
half-saved sort of creature. War. 2 Shr., Hrf. BOUND Provinc. 
(1876 . Hrf. DUNCUMB Hist. Hrf. (1804-1812) ; Hrf. 1 , Glo. 1 Mid. 
' When spiders go thrumming, there is wild weather coming,' 
came clumsily into my half-saved mind, BLACKMORE Kit (1890) II. 
iv. Wil. 1 Som. Used as ' not half-saved ' (W.F.R.) ; Monthly 
Mag. (1814) II. 126. w.Som. 1 Poor bwoy, you can't 'spect much 
vrom he he idn 'boo half a-saved. Dev. PULMAN Sketches (1842) 
101, ed. 1871. nw.Dev. 1 Cor. For he was but half-saaved, 
TREGELLAS Tales ,1868, 49; Cor. 12 (28) n.Cy. (B.K.) .29) Chs. 1 
(30) Ess. 1 (31) n.Cy. (B.K.) (32) w.Yks. You're to bring 
Peggy, and come hawf shavven, DIXON Craven Dales (1881) 175. 
(33) Dor. Half-skim cheese, BARNES Gl. (1863". ^34) e.Yks. 1 , 
w.Yks. (J.W.) ^35) s.Chs. 1 s.Stf. He acts soo haulf soaked folks 
never thinkin he's gettin the better on 'em, but he is, PINNOCK 
Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895 . War. NORTHALL Wd. Bk. (1896, (s.v. Half- 
saved i. w.Wor. 1 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 That chap looks as if'ewuz 
on'y 'afe-soaked. (36) Oxf. (G.P.) (37) Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). 
(38, n) s.Chs. 1 Shr. 1 I think the Maister wuz to blame to trust a 
'afe-strained auf like 'im, C6th a sperited 'orse ; Shr. 2 Hrf. 2 She's 
a half-strained donkey, (b) Dev. Reports Provinc. (1877) 131. 
(39; n.Yks. 1 Puir silly gomerill ! He's nobbut hauf-there. n.Lin. 1 
(40, a) e.Cnm. ^C.W.D.), w.Yks. 23 , Fit. (T.K.J.) (b) Nhb. Ah 
larned thee hoo to dae thy reckonin' an' it's mair nor a haufthick 
like thee desarves, 5. Tynedale Stud. (1896) v. Cum. Haufthicks 
leyke his-sell, STAGG Misc. Poems (ed. 1807) 89 ; Cum. 1 ; Cum. 3 
Thou's rayder a hoaf-thick, but m'appen I may, 39. Wm. Enny 
gomeless hofe-thick mae deea ya ill turn fer anudther, Spec. Dial. 
(1880) pt. ii. 8. w.Yks. Does ta meean to tell me 'at tha'd noa 
moor respect for thisen nor to wed a hawfthick like Alick ? 
HARTLEY Clock A Int. (1877) 31. Lan. Waw. hoo says, theaw hawve- 
thick, that's th' angelica percil, STATON Loominary (c. 1861) 31. 
s.Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 (c) Cum. 14 , w.Yks. 13 ne.Lan. 1 ' She's nobbut 
hauf-thick,' not fat enough for a butcher. 1^41) Ess. ' How do you 
like yourself in your new place?' 'Oh, half tidy!' (H.M.M.) 
(42) Nhb. 1 A half-waxed lad. (43) Lnk. I'm half-ways gi'en to 
tak' your part, An' half-ways to abuse ye, MURDOCH Doric Lyre 
(1873) 68. 

9. Phr. (i) half and between, neutral, neither one thing 
nor the other ; (2) and half, (a) see (i) ; (b) half-witted ; 
(c) tipsy, half-intoxicated; (3) after, with numerals: 
half-past such and such an hour ; (4) a-two, almost in 
two pieces, cracked, in half; (5) too much, too much 
by half; (6) not to half do anything, to do anything 
thoroughly or very much ; (7) to be half-past five with 
anything, to be all up with anything, be ' finished,' ' done 
for ' ; (8) to kill half a beast a week, see below ; (9) to lose 
half the way of anybody, not to be able to keep up with 
any one, to run or walk half as fast as. 

(i) Rnf. Take the Radical side, And nae mair be a half-and- 
between, MGILVRAY Poems (ed. 1862) 282. (a, a) Cld. (JAM.) 
(6) Not. 3 Nobbut 'afe an' 'afe. (c) Dmf. Big John M'Maff. . . 




Turned, though the chiel was half and half, His head away, MAYNE 
Siller Gun (18081 st. 74. Gall. Our wooer wasna happy, Though 
fully half and half wi' nappy, NICHOLSON Poet. IVks. (1814) 44, ed. 
1897. Wor. ' Were you drunk at the time ? ' ' Well, I'll tell you 
what it is, gentlemen, I was half-an'-half, Evesham Jrn. (Dec. 35, 
1897- (3) Sc. (A.W.) Nhp. 1 'What's o'clock, Bill?' ' Haat 
arter ten.' Nrf. We started to get our dinners at half arter twelve, 
EMERSON Son of fens (1892) 136. Suf. Haaf arter three, e.An. Dy. 
Times (1893). Som. At half-aater zix, AGRIKLER Rhymes (1873) 
106. (4) n.Cy. (J.W.\ War. 2 , Oxf. 1 Brks. 1 The led o' the box 
be hafe-atwo an' wunt stan' no mendin'. Hrt. I'll cut it half in 
two and use one piece here (G.H.G.). (5) Guer. It's half too 
much (G.H.G.). (6) s.Stf. I daint hauf enj'y myself, PINNOCK 
Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). <l) Glo. It was all half-past five with 
the bicycle (S.S.BA (8) w.Yks. (J.W.) Lin. A man said of 
a butcher who had risen in the world, ' He was in a poor way 
when he fo'st corned here, nobbut ewest to kill hauf a beast a 
week." The common and appropriate phr. for a butcher who 
joins weekly with another in purchasing a beast for slaughter 
(E.P.). (9) Nhb. Alice followed as fast as she could, but lost half 
the way of Edward, The Long Pack (c. 1728) in N. & Q. (1888) 
7th S. vi. 148. 

10. Followed by numerals in speaking of the time of 
day : half-past the preceding hour. 

Sc. 'What's o'clock?' 'Half six,' or half-past five, Scolicisms 
(1787) 43; Tell Geordie, wullye, to bid Else come down to the 
byre at half aicht, SWAN Gates of Eden ( 1 8951 i. Sh. & Or. I. Common 
!j.M.). Frf. Jess looked quickly at the clock. ' Half fower! ' she 
said excitedly, BARRIE Thrums (1889) iii. Per. He gaed tae bed 
at half twa and wes oot in the fields by four, IAN MACLAREN K. 
Carnegie (1896) 154. 

11. v. To halve, divide into two equal parts, to share; in 
sheep-marking : to cut off half the ear. 

Bnff. 1 Lth. ' To hauf and snake,' to divide. Esp. applied to a 
tavern bill or lauwin, as ' We'll hauf and snake,' we shall pay equal 
shares (JAM.). Lakel. 2 Hauf a hig off. e.Snf. (F.H.) Cor. And 
haafey with waun, DANIEL Poems. 

12. With down : to half-plough, plough lightly ; also 
called Halfen down. 

w.Som. 1 To make a kind of half ploughing, by which a shallow 
sod is turned upside down upon the adjacent unmoved sod. A 
very common operation, when it is desired only to rot the surface 
growth without burying it deeply. 

HALFENDEAL, sb. Som. Dev. A half part of any- 
thing, a moiety ; also used attrib. 

Som. A halfendeal garment is one composed of two different 
materials, ./V. & Q. (1852) ist S. vi. 184; W. & J. Gl. (1873). 
w.Som. 1 The word rather implies a division by counting, although 
it is used occas. with reference to division by measure only, as of 
liquids, cheese, &c. ' I let'n had a full halfen deal, same's off we 
was to share and share alike.' nw.Dev. 1 Now obs., but common 
in old leases in the phr. ' moiety or halfendeal.' 

[He . . . neme bat halfendele, LAJAMON (c. 1275) 7093. 
OE. (pone) healfan dal, the half part.] 

HALFER, see Halver, Haffer, v? 

HALFING, sb. Dev. The custom of collecting birds' 
eggs to string together for use at the sports held on the 
2Qth of May. 

The children go about in parties, six or seven together, halfing, 
as they call it. This custom is nothing more than to collect as 
many birds' eggs as they can against garland day, BRAY Desc. 
Tamar and Tavy (1836) II. lett. 30; GROSE ^1790) MS. add. (M.) 

HALFLIN, see Hafflin. 

HALFLIN(G, sb. and adj. Sc. Cum. Yks. Lan. Also 
in forms haaflan Cld. ; haaflang Sc. QAM.); hafflin Sc. 
n.Yks. 2 ; haflin Sc. Cum. 1 ; half-lang, hauflin Sc. ; hawflin 
Cum. n.Yks. 2 ; hoafen ne.Lan. 1 ; hoaflin Cum. 1 1. sb. 
A half-grown boy, a stripling, a boy employed upon a 
farm or in a stable ; a hobbledehoy. 

Or.I. An 1 thus unto the halflin' she sed, Oread. J. Gilpin, St. 55, 
in ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 809. Cat 1 Abd. The dress of boys 
or haflins was a leather cap trimmed with cat's fur, a very short 
blue sey coat, and corduroy trousers, ANDERSON Rhymes ( 1867) 
307. Frf. He had ordered the hauflin' to saddle the shilt, WATT 
Poet. Sketches (1880) 81. Per. Send a haflin for some medicine, 
IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1894) 233 Flf. To snotter or to slaver 
was no less objectionable in the callant. the loon, or the haflin, 
COLVILLE Vernacular (1899) 17. rn.Sc. Who was horse-herd, or 
what was in those days called hauflin, upon a neighbouring farm, 

WILSON Tales (1839) V. 340. Drab. Wi' daffin' haflins, gayest o' the 
gay, SALMON Gouiodean (1868) 30. Lnk. I see the coonter-louper 
chiels, The hafflin warehoose clerks, COGHILL Poems (1890) 18. 
e.Lth. Owre the lugs in love, and breesting up like a halflin' to 
Miss Jessie. MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes (1885) 179. 

2. A half-witted person, a fool. 

CaU.Sth. (JAM.) Cum.Tou's nobbet a hawflinbworn, ANDERSON 
Ballads (ed. 1808) 105; Gl. (1851); Cum. 1 , n.Yks. 2 , ne.Lan. 1 

3. adj. Half-grown, youthful. 

Sc. He wears a tousie wig that micht set a haflin laddie, KEITH 
Indian Uncle (1896) 4. Per. Johnny was for speed unmatched, 
An' halflin hares had often catched, SPENCE Poems (1898) 197. 
w.Sc. Amongst the servants of our Scottish farmers, there is the 
'little man,' or hauflin callan, CARRICK Laird of Logan (1835) 83. 
Ayr. Proud o' the height o' some bit half-lang tree, BURNS Brigs 
of Ayr (1787) 1. 43. Lnk. I was but a hauflin' chiel O' seventeen 
simmers, COGHILL Poems (1890) 68. Lth. His minnie in her 
halllin days, Had met his faither's ardent gaze, SMITH Merry 
Bridal (1866) 7. Edb. Some outlandish halflin creatures Nae o' 
God's mak, LEARMONT Poems (1791) i. Dmf. Halflin swankies 
blithely turn Tae sport wi' them they lo'e, REID Poems (1894) 57. 
Gall. More like a halfling lassie than a douce mother, CROCKETT 
Cleg Kelly (1896) 376. 

HALFLINS, adv. and adj. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Also written 
halflens Nhb. ; and in forms haffins Edb. ; hafflins Sc. 
n.Cy. ; haflin Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) ; haflins Sc. Cum. 1 ; 
hallens Abd. ; hallins n.Sc. QAM.) ; hauflins, havlins 
Sc. ; hoaflins Cum. 1 1. adv. Half, partially ; nearly. 

Sc. She haflins showed a rosie cheek, CUNNINGHAM Sngs. (1813) 
52. Elg. ' It's serious,' says I, somehoo halflins winkin, TESTER 
Poems (1865) 133. Abd. I think nae sae, she says and haflins 
leugh, Ross Helenore (1768) 73, ed. 1812. Frf. I'm baith cripple 
an' hafflins blind, BEATTIE Amha (c. 1820) 21. ed. 1882. Fif. A 
show'r o' beams, That halflins blindet, wi' their sheen, TENNANT 
Papistry ^1827) 9. Dmb. Halflins clad He frae their cruel hands 
in anguish flew, SALMON Gouiodean (1868) 27. Rnf. Wi' a face 
haflins wae, haflins glad, WEBSTER Rhymes (1835) 85. Ayr. 
While Jenny hafflins is afraid to speak, BURNS Cottars Sat. Night 
(1785) st. 7. Lnk. Mayhap you'll think I halflins ken You're frae 
the bonnie banks o' Ayr, PARKER Misc. Poems (1859) 51. Lth. In 
a dooer, ha'flings sleeping, Sad he saw, wi' hallow ee, Mally, BRUCE 
Poems (1813) II. 120. Edb. When the company had haffins met, 
MOIR Mansic IVaucli (1828) ix. Slk. I hafflins thought to mysel, 
HOGG Tales (1838) 358, ed. 1866. Rub. They [birds] haflins tame 
do seek for food an' bield, A. SCOTT Poems (ed. 1808) no. Dmf. 
Halflins droon The laich seep-sabbin' o' the burn doon by, REID 
Poems (1894 29. Gall. He hurkled ben and hauflins fell asleep, 
MACTAGGART Em yd. (1824) 116, ed. 1876. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. 
L.L.B.) Nhb. I've haflens rued o' Mr. Bell ! GRAHAM Maori. Dial. 
(1826) 8. Cum. 1 When 'tis carded, row'd and spun, Then the 
work is haflins done, Sng. of Tarry Woo. 

Hence Hafflin(s)-wise, adv. partly, in a slight measure ; 
reluctantly, half-heartedly. 

Sc. She hafiin-wise consented (JAM. SK/>/>/.). Ayr. Altho' his 
carnal wit an' sense Like hafflins-wise o'ercomes him At times 
that day, BURNS Holy Fair (1785) st. 17. 

2. Half-way ; mid-way ; in equal shares. 

Sc. West the gate To auld Kilmeny it slants hafflins hame, 
LEIGHTON Wds. (1869) 19. Abd. Hallens to anything, near by it, 
SHIRREFS Poems (1790) Gl. Frf. Ha'flins has life's pirnie reeled, 
an' something mair, MORISON Poems (1790) 117. Rnf. Though 
haflins backward, thus I must commence, WEBSTER Rhymes (,1835) 
198. Ayr. An' win' o' doctrine hafflins mixt, SILLAR Poems ( 1 789) 
59. Edb. Patricks [partridges] skiming o'er the mead, And haflins 
rintomeettheirbride,LiDDLEPo5(i82i) 170. Gall. MACTAGGART 
Encycl. (1824). Cum. 1 

3. adj. Half, partial. 

Rnf. For me, I hae a halflins swither, Howe'er Sectarians girn 
at ither, FINLAYSON Rhymes (18151 98. Lnk. A hafflins thaw is 
come at last, HAMILTON Poems (1865) 103. Edb. Wi' Habby 
Graeme, the haflins fool, Tint Quey (1796) 17. 

4. Half-grown, young. 

Sc. My father was then a hafflins callant, SCOTT Redg. (1824) 
Lett. xi. Lnk. The hafflins man himself is likely to be in a state 
of discontent, FRASER Whaups (1895) ix. Edb A touzy ragged 
halflins callant of thirteen, MOIR Mansie Wauch 1828) x. 

[1. Than vp I lenyt, halflingis in affrey, DUNBAR Thistle 
attd Rose (c. 1510) 187.] 

HALFPENNY, sb. Sc. Cum. Yks. Lan. ?Nrf. Dev. 
Cor. Also in forms awpenny Yks. ; awpney w.Yks. ; 



ha'penny Fif. Cor. ; hapmy Dev. ; happenny Cor. ; hau- 
penny w.Yks. 1 ; hawpney w.Yks. 1 ; hawpny w.Yks. 1 
Lan. 1 ; ho'penny Cum. 1 1. In comp. (i) Halfpenny-bit, 
a halfpenny ; (2) -deevils, a kind of sweetmeat or cake ; 
(3) -piece, see (i) ; (4) -slit, an ear-mark given to pigs or 
sheep [not known to our other correspondents]. 

ii) Dev. Canst gie me til hapmy bits vur a penny? HEWETT 
Peas. Sp. (1892). (2) Fif. There were such special aids to friend- 
ship as ' clack "... the ' gundy ' of Edinburgh youth, ' pawrlies,' 
and ' ha'penny deevils,' COLVILLE Vernacular (1899) 14. (3) 
w.Yks. He owes ma ivvery awpney piece Fur twenty pund a 
tripe, PRESTON Poems (1864) 16 ; w.Yks. 1 He cares nut a haupenny 
piece what expense an trouble he puts other foak lull, ii. 298. 
Lan.Aw'll lend 'em nowt, not a hawp'ny piece, DOHERTY.W. Barlow 
(1884) 38. (4) ? Nrf. (W.W.S.) 

2. Phr. (i) halfpenny head and a fardin tail, applied to 
anything of which the parts do not correspond, one being 
much better than another. Cum. 1 ; (2) to have, or keep, 
one's hand on ones halfpenny, to be mean, stingy ; to look 
after one's own interests. w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

3. pi. Savings, a fortune. 

w.Cor. ' She has bra' happunce, I can tell ee.' Small savings are 
often spoken of as ' little ha'pence.' ' I should like to have her 
little ha'pence' (M.A.C.). 

HALFPENNY-WORTH, sb. Sc. Irel. Yks. Lin. Brks. 
I.W. Also in forms aapoth Lin. ; hapeth I.W. 1 ; ha- 
porth Ir. ; happorth Lnk. ; hauaporth w.Yks. 5 ; hawporth 
w.Yks. 1 ; hawpworth n.Yks. ; yeppath Brks. 1 [h^a'pab, 
9'pab.j 1. In phr. to lose a hog, or ewe, for a halfpenny- 
worth of tar, to be penny wise and pound foolish, to be so 
saving in little things as to risk things of value. 

n.Yks. Let's nut loase an hogg for a hawpworth of tarr, MERITON 
Praise Ale (1684) 1. 125. w.Yks. 1 Dunnot loaz t'yow for a haw- 
porth o' tar. 

2. A very small quantity. 

Lnk. Not a wan in Towe-Rowe knows a happorth about me, 
MURDOCH Readings (ed. 1895) I. 32. Ir. A grand baste but no 
ha'porth o' use, BAH LOW Bogland\ 1892) 7,ed. 1893. Lin.Amowta 
taae'n owd Joanes, as 'ant nor a 'aapoth o' sense, TENNYSON N. Far- 
mer, Old Style (1864) st. 13. Brks. 1 A yent got a yeppath o' zense. 

3. An article of little value ; a bargain ; a good-for- 
nothing or clownish fellow. 

w.Yks. 5 A clownish, ridiculous person, is ' nobbut a hauaporth ! ' 
One who commits a great mistake is stigmatized as being ' a gurt 
hauaporth ! ' A newly-bought joint of meat turning out to be 
magotty, is ' a rum hauaporth ! ' An eccentric-spoken man who 
has occupied a pulpit, is ' a queer hauaporth ! ' to the listener. 
I.W. 1 That chap's a bad hapeth. 

HALFY, sb. nw.Dev. 1 [ae'fi.] A fool, a half-witted 
person. Cf. halflin(g, 2. 

HALGAVER COURT, phr. Cor. See below. 

The people of Bodmin had an old custom of assembling ... on 
Halgaver Moor in ... July, and electing a ' Mayor of Misrule,' 
for the punishment of petty offenders. . . . When these mates meet 
with any raw serving-man or other young master, who may serve 
and deserve to make pastime, they cause him to be solemnly 
arrested for his appearance before the Mayor of Halgaver, where 
he is charged with wearing one spur, or wanting a girdle, or some 
such like felony, and . . . judgment is given in formal terms, and 
executed in some one ungracious prank or other. Hence is sprung 
the proverb, when we see one slovenly apparelled, to say ' He 
shall be presented in Halgaver Court,' HUNT Pop. Rom. w.Eng. 
(1865) 402-3, ed. 1896. 

HALGH, HALIDAY, HALIER, see Haugh, Holiday, 

HALIFAX, sb. Yks. Lin. Oxf. Cor. Amer. In phr. go to 
Halifax, a mild substitute for a direction to go to a place 
not to be named to ears polite. Cf. Hecklebirnie, Hexham, 

w.Yks. (J.W.) n.Lin. Well known in these parts, A'. & Q. 
(1875) 5th S. iv. 154 ; n-Lin. 1 , Oxf. (G.O.) e.Cor. Very common 
about Looe, fifty years ago, N. (f Q. (1. c. ) [Amer. Common, 
Dial. Notes (1896) I. 382.] 

HALIKELD, sb. Obs. Yks. A holy well. See Keld. 

n.Yks. The pins cast into the halikeld, ATKINSON Maori. Parish 
(1891) 132. 

HALINAS, sb. pi. w.Yks. In the rag-trade : coarse 
white blankets from Hungary, Roumania, &c. (M.F.) 

HALISH, adj. Cor. Also in form allish. Pale, sickly 
in appearance, weak, ailing. 

THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) Gl. Cor. 1 She's a poor halish 
creetur; Cor. 2 

HALISON, sb. Sc. ? A saying. 

Abd. Sweeter bliss Than faith in this glad Halison, 'Thee'enin' 
brings a' Hame/ EDWARDS Mod. Poets, ist S. 66. 

HALIWERK-FOLK, sb. Obs. Dur. Also written 
Halywerc folk. People who held their lands by the 
service of defending the body, relics, and territory of St. 

SURTEES Hist. Dur. I. xv, xvi, in BROCKETT Gl. (1846) ; They 
pleaded . . . that they were Haliwerke folkes, and held their lands 
to defend the Corps of Saint Cuthbert, CAMDEN Brit. (1610) 736 ; 
Halyworkfolk, BAILEY (1721). 

[A contam. form of the older Haliwares folc, the people 
of the holy man (Cuthbert) ; see Feodarium Prioratus 
Dunelm. (Surtees) (passim) (N.E.D.).] 

HALL, sb. 1 and int. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Lan. Stf. Suf. 
Ken. Sus. Cor. Also in forms ha' Sc. ; haa Nhb. 1 ; haal 
Cor. 3 ; hal- N.Cy. 1 Ken. 1 ; hale Cor.; haw Sc. Stf.; ho' 
Lan. [ha, 1, 93!.] 1. sb. A house, home ; a farm-house 
or cottage. 

Cai. 1 The chief farm in a township. Elg. The calves prance 
round the ha', COUPER Poetry 11804) I. 113. Abd. My wee bit 
cantie ha' Peeps out frae "mid a wreath o" snaw, STILL Cottar's 
Sunday (1845) 144. Kcd. To see ... His father's ha' and youthful 
hame, JAMIE Muse (1844) 14. Frf. Her smile was the sunshine 
that lichtit oor ha', WATT Poet. Sketches (1880) 81. Rnf. Nae mair 
I'll see my faither's ha', BARR Poems (1861) 99. Ayr. Noo 1 am 
moor'd in my ain cosie ha', WHITE Jottings (1879) I l&- Lth. 
She's the star o' his heart an' his ha', man, BALLANTINE Poems 
11856) 86. Bwk. Monthly Mag. (1814) I. 31. Edb. Lang mat 
your ha' be stow'd wi' blessin'srife ! LEARMONT Poems (1791) 194. 
Lan. I' th' ho an' cottage ingill, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale 
(1860; II. 215. 

2. The principal room of a house, the parlour ; also in 
comp. Hall-chamber. 

Sc. A' that's said in the kitchen shou'd na be tauld in the ha', 
RAMSAY Prov. (17371. Cor. I knawed un by Mally,Phelleps' 
pictur ofun in her hall, TREGELLAS Tales (1865) 33; Ai wud'nt 
. . . tres'n in aur eel tjeenrba bai asel'f [I wouldn't trust him in 
our hall-chamber by himself], ELLIS Prommc. V i889) V. 172 ; Cor. 3 
w.Cor. They cal'n a pare-lar, forsuth ; why a es but a good hale 
and make the most of 'n, BOTTRELL Trad. 3rd S. 60. 

Hence not to remember from the haal to the heic/i, phr. to 
have a bad memory. Cor. 3 

3. The kitchen of a farm-house, the principal living- 
room ; also called Farmer's ha'. 

Abd. In winter's nights, whae'er has seen The farmer's Ha" 
convene Finds a' thing there to please his een, KEITH Farmer's 
Ha' U774) s '- I - s.Sc. Blithe at night was ilka one In the 
auld snug ha' o' Little Billy, WATSON Border Bards (1859) 7. 
Lnk. Glad tidings in the Farmer's ha' Is terror to the weavers, 
WATSON Poems (1853) 3. 

4. The country justices' room where they hold their 
court. e.Suf. (F.H.) 

5. Comb, (i) Hall-bible, a large family-bible ; (2) -clay, 
potter's earth ; (3) -corn beer, a certain quantity of barley 
paid by the tenants of Amble to the lord of the manor; 
(4) -en', the end or side of a house ; (5) -farm, a farm 
specially attached to a manor-house and not rented to 
a tenant ; (6) -farmer, one who works a farm for the 
lord of the manor [not known to our correspondents] ; 
(7) -folk, servants ; kitchen-folk ; (8) -garth, a hall-yard, 
an open enclosure pertaining to a hall ; (9) -house, (a) a 
manor-house, the residence of the landed proprietor ; (b) 
a large house, a farmer's house in contradistinction to 
that of a cottar ; (10) -maiden, a maidservant in a farmer's 
house ; (n) -neuk, a corner in a hall or large living-room ; 
(12) -rig, the first ridge in a field cut in harvest. 

(i) Sc. The large Bible, formerly appropriated for family-wor- 
ship and which lay in the Ha' or principal apartment (JAM.). 
Ayr. The big ha' bible was accordingly removed by Mrs. Walkin- 
shaw from the shelf, GALT Entail (1823) xix. Lnk. The muckle 
ha' -bible was brocht frae the bole, NICHOLSON Kilwuddie (ed. 1895) 
144. Gall. It's in your hand o' write that the name o' Janet 
Geddes stands in the big ha' Bible, CROCKETT Raiders ( 1894) xxxiii. 




(a) lUb. A tough blue clay, so called because used by the peasantry 
to whiten the walls of their houses (JAM.)- (3) Nhb. 1 Formerly 
for the use of the monastic cell there. (4) Draf. What step is that by 
our ha" en'? CROMEK Remains (1810) 75. (5) Lan. If yo'n tae me 
on booard at t'Ho fearm, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) II. 
215; The hall- farm is almost invariably farmed by the owner or 
the tenant of the hall, retained for the use of the household. In 
cases where the tenant of the hall does not require it, the hall- 
farm is sometimes let to an adjoining farm-tenant on the estate. 
Usually it is principally grazing ground (S.W.). e.Suf. (F.H.) 
(6) Snf. Even this happened in the practice of a hall-farmer, MAR- 
SHALL Review (1811) III. 449. (7) Ayr. Tho' the gentry first are 
stechin Yet ev'n the ha' folk fill their pechan, BURNS Twa Dogs 
(1786) 1. 61, 6a. (8) m.Yks. 1 (s.v. Garth). (9, a) Sh.I. I was just 
seeking you that you may gang after him to the hall-house, for, 
to my thought, he is far frae weel, SCOTT Pirate (1822) vii. Twd. 
They shall pay a plack yearly, if demanded from the hole in the back 
wall of the Hall-house, Notes to Pennecuik's Desc. Twd. (1815) 161 
(JAM.). Edb. Rinning about the Laird's ha' house, MACNEILL 
Bygone Times (iSn'i 43. Dmf. The talk in the ha' hoose, the talk 
in the manse, THOM Jock o' Knowe (1878) 32. Dur. 1 , Stf. (K.) 
(6) Sc. I've a ha'-house, I hae baith goods an' gear, Shepherd's 
Wedding (1789) n ; A house large enough to possess a dining- 
room (H.W.). Abd. The cottage built on an inferior scale differed 
in no other respect from the farmer's or ha'-house, Statist. Ace. 
XXI. 242 (JAM.). Gall. In yon ha' house, ayont the fell, Whar 
rural peace and pleasure dwell, NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 39, 
ed. 1897. Kcb. The halloo rais'd forth frae the ha'-house swarm, 
DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 27 GAM.). Nhb. 1 It is always distin- 
guished from the ' hinds' hooses,' as the hinds' cottages are called. 
(.10) Nhb. 1 In contradistinction to a hind's maiden. ( 1 1 ) Sc. A leddy 
sits in our hall-neuk, SCOTT Bride of Lam. (1819) xiv. (12) Lth. 
Thus denominated, because it is cut down by the domestics on 
the farm, i.e. the members of the farmer's family. It is deemed 
the post of honour and given to them, as they are gen. the most 
expert and careful reapers. The other reapers are understood to 
keep always a little behind those who have this honourable station, 
which is therefore also called the foremost rig (JAM.). Edb. The 
ha-rig rins fu' fast awa,Har'stKig(I^g4) n,ed. 1801. Rxb. JAM.) 
6. inf. An exclamation used by the master or mistress 
of a house to keep order at an entertainment. w.Yks. 2 

[6. A hall, a hall ! give room ! and foot it, girls ! SHAKS. 
R.S*J. i. v.28.] 

HALL, sb. 2 Som. Cor. Also written haul Som. ; and 
in form hale Cor. The fruit and tree of the hazel, Corylus 
Avellana ; gen. in comp. Hall-nut. Som., Cor. (B. & H.), 
Cor. 12 See Halse, s*. 2 

HALL, sb. a Dev. Cor. Also written hawl Dev. (HALL.) 
In comp. (i) Hall-eve, the eve of Ash Wednesday ; (2) 
-Monday, the day before Shrove Tuesday ; (3) -night, see 
(i) ; (4) -Sunday, the Sunday before Shrove-tide ; (5) 
Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday. Cf. hallow, sb. 1 

(I N I Dev. ' His nose smells of Hall Eve,' i.e. has the smell of 
good meat yet in it, Horae Subsecivae (1777) 199. (2) Cor. On the 
day termed ' Hall ' Monday, which precedes Shrove Tuesday, 
about the dusk of the evening it is the custom for boys ... to prowl 
about the streets with short clubs, and to knock loudly at every 
door, running off to escape detection on the slightest sign of 
a motion within. If, however, no attention be excited, and 
especially if any article be discovered negligently exposed, or 
carelessly guarded, then the things are carried away ; and on the 
following morning are seen displayed in some conspicuous place, 
to expose the disgraceful want of vigilance supposed to charac- 
terise the owner, Reports R. Instit. (1842) in QuiLLER-CoucH 
Hist. Polperro (1871) 151 ; Cor. 1 * e.Cor. Fit-Lore Jm. (1886) IV. 
129. (3, 4) Dev. Horae Subsecivae (1777) 199. (5) Dev. ;HALL.) 

HALL, v. Yks. [al.] To shout, halloo. 

w.Yks. When fowk o' ivry side on him is hallin an' shaatin, 
Yksman. (1880) 214 ; In ordinary use about Bradford (S.P.U.). 

HALL, HALLA, see Hale, sb. 1 , Hallow, sb. 1 

HALLAK, sb. Sc. A hillock. 

Per. Frae hallak to hallak I haapit, My heart was as light as a 
strae, DUFF Poems 133 (JAM.). 

HALLAN, sb. 1 Obsot. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. 
Lan. Also written hallen Sc. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Cum. Wm. ; 
ballon Sc. n.Cy. ; and in forms halland Sc. ; hollan 
Sc. N.I. 1 ; hollen N.Cy. 1 ; hollin N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 [ha'lan, 
ho'lan.] 1. A partition-wall in a cottage between 
the door and the fire to keep off draughts, a screen ; 

the space within the partition, a porch, lobby, .or passage ; 
also used attrib. Cf. haddin. 

Sc. In old cottages, an inner wall built between the fire-place 
and the door, and extending backwards as far as is necessary to 
shelter the inner part of the house from the air of the door, when 
it is opened. It is gen. composed of stone and clay to the height 
of the side walls and brace. At this height the mud or cat and 
clay wall begins and is carried up to the chimney top. The term 
is sometimes applied to a partition of this kind extending to the 
opposite wall, but the first seems to be the original sense (JAM.): 
When we had passed the hallan we entered a well-sized apart- 
ment, SCOTT Rcdg. (1824) Lett. iv. ne.Sc. Matthew got up an' 
slept out to the hallan to put on his big coat, GRANT Keckleton, 41. 
Elg. Hawky ahint the hallan main't And routed aft and sair, 
COUPER Poetry \ 1804 ^ II. 57. Bnff. I hat the hallen A thump fu' 
sicker, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 6a. Frf. The usual hallan, or 
passage, divided the but from the ben, BARRIE Tommy (1896) xi. 
Per. The latch o' the hallan was lifted in haste, STEWART Character 
(1857") 23. s.Sc. Auld barn-man Davie sang wi' glee, And canty 
by the hallan was he, WATSON Bards (1859) 9- Dmb - If death 
cam' tirlin' at the hallan door, SALMON Gowodean (1868) 34. Rnf. 
An' jinken 'bout the hallan wa', ALLAN Poems (1836) 14. Ayr. 
Thou need na jouk behint the hallan, A chiel sae clever, BURNS 
Past. Poetry, st. 6. Lnk. Your niece . . . was laid Down at your 
hallon-side, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (1725) 66, ed. 1783. Lth. Lassie 
steek the hallan door, BRUCE Poems (1813) II. 177. Edb. He out 
o'er the halland flings his een, FEKGUSSON Poems (1773) 161, 
ed. 1785. Bwk. Honest Tibby, at whose fireside, inside her hollan 
wa', we sat, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 91. Slk. I got the 
back o' the hallan to keep, HOGG Tales (1838) 362, ed. 1866. 
Dmf. Ance poortith came in 'yont our hallan to keek, CROMEK 
Remains (1810) 51. Gall. Mid-walls through cottages, composed 
of cross-bars, and overlaid with straw plastered with clay, called 
cat clay, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 251, ed. 1876. Kcb. Draw 
doon the blind, An' steek to the hallan door, ARMSTRONG Ingleside 
(1890) 78. N.I. 1 In cottages a wall called the ' hollan ' is built to 
screen the hearth from the observation of any one standing at the 
threshold, but in order to allow a person within to see who 
approaches the door, a small hole, usually triangular, . . is made 
in the hollan (s.v. Spy-hole). Uls. Sit down on that furm by the 
hollan' An' I'll brisk up the fire in a jiffey, Uls. Jrn. Arch. (1858) 
45. n.Cy. GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 1 Often made of wickerwork, 
plastered with clay, running from front door of cottage to within 
the width of a door of the back wall ; N.Cy. 2 A wall about 2| yds. 
high. To this wall on the side next to the hearth is annexed a 
sconce or screen of wood or stone. Nhb. Rouse, leave your lanely 
hallens, PROUDLOCK Borderland Muse (1896) 262 ; Nhb. 1 Against 
this hallen it was common for the cow to stand. Dur. 1 Cum. Sae 
by the hallan softly creep, ANDERSON Ballads (ed. 1808) 49 ; 
Some o' th' hallan, or th' mell deers, Their geylefat guts war 
clearan, STAGG Misc. Poems (ed. 1805) 138. Cum., Wm. A parti- 
tion, from the cross passage of old farm or country houses, which 
formed a screen for some distance, to the fireside of the chief 
family room. The hallan was usually finished with stone coins, 
or with wood if not altogether of stone. The master's seat was 
often within the hallan, and bright things hung upon its wall 
(M. P.). Wm. A passage nearly four feet broad led to the other side 
of the building, where, in front was the back, on the left the down 
house door, and on the right the mell door, Lonsdale Mag. (1822) 
III. 348. ne.Lan. 1 

2. Comp. (i) Hallan-drop, a mixture of soot and water 
falling from the sides of a chimney ; (2) -pin, a pin fixed 
upon the hallan for the purpose of hanging game or hats, 
&c., upon ; (3) -post, the post at the extremity of the 
sconce ; (4) -stone, the threshold, doorstep. 

(i) Cum. They bed to watch for t'hallen drops, RICHARDSON 
Talk (1871) 57, ed. 1876 ; Cnm. 4 Wm. Manners of Wm. (1847) 
13 ; Under this smoky dome, which in moist weather was con- 
tinually shedding a black sooty lee, called the hallan drop, sat the 
family, Lonsdale Mag. (1822) III. 249 ; Black sooty lye rising in 
damp weather from joints of meat hung up to dry in the chimney, 
BROCKETT Gl. (1846^. (2) n.Cy. (J.L.) (1783). ne.Lan. (3) 
ne.Lan. 1 (4) Kcb. The ducks had drate Upo' the hallan-stane, 
DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 7. 

3. A house, dwelling, cottage. 

Sc. The Lord himsel ever-mair ettles it for his hallan, WADDELL 
Psalms (1871) Ixviii. 16. Abd. See ye yon bit canty hallan 
Jam'd against the broomy brae? STILL Cottar' s Sunday (1845) 39. 
Kcd. There was yet the drouthy callan, That wadna leave the 
vintner's hallan Ava that day, JAMII Muse (1844) 113. Fif. Hinds, 




plewmen, lairds, and cottar callans, That frae their spences, ha's, 
and hallans, Did congregate, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 71. Rnf. 
A dark smeeky hallan was ance a' our dwallin', YOUNG Pictures 
(1865) 125. Lnk. Aye the first to greet the mornin', In the hallan 
first asteer, NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) 29. 

4. The division between two horse or cow stalls. Cum. 14 

5. A buttress built against a weak wall to prevent it 
from falling. Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 251. 

6. The space above the cross-beams of the couples of 
a house. Or.I. (S.A.S.) 7. A seat of turf at the outside 
of a cottage. Ayr. BURNS Gl. QAM.) 

HALLAN, sb? Won I.W. Cor. Also written allan- j 
Cor. 3 ; and in forms aliens- Cor. ; hollan I.W. 1 ; hollon 
s.Wor. [ae'lan.] 1. In comp. (i) Hallan-apple, a large 
apple given to each member of the family at All-Hallows- 
tide ; also called Hallan ; (2) -cakes, cakes baked for All 
Hallows Day ; (3) -day, All Hallows Day ; (4) -market, 
the market held on All Hallows Eve; (5) -night, All 
Hallows Eve ; (6) -summer, St. Luke's summer or an 
Indian summer, a spell of fine weather about All Hallows 

(I) Cor. Fruiterers of Penzance display large apples, known 
locally as 'Aliens 'apples, Fit-Lore Jrn. (1886; IV. no; Cor. 13 
(2) I.W. 1 (3, 4, 5) Cor. 3 At St. Ives the custom is still kept up 
of providing children with a large apple ("Allan apple) on Allan- 
night ' x the eve of Allhallows day called Allan day). The market 
held on Allan-night is called Allan-market. (6) s.Wor. (H.K.) 
\HaIlan- is for Hallantide (q.v.).] 

HALLAN, sb? N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 [ha'lan.] The young of 
the coal-fish when about five inches long. 
HALLAND, see Hallow, sb. 1 

HALLANSHAKER, sb. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Also written 
halan-, halin- Sc. ; hallen- Sc. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 ; and in form 
hellenshaker Sc. [ha'lanjakar.] A ragged fellow, 
a vagabond or beggar ; a knave, rascal ; also used attrib. 
Sc. I, and a wheen hallenshakers like myscll . . . built this bit 
thing here, SCOTT Antiquary (1816) iv. Sh.I. A very hallanshaker 
loon, ib. Pirate (1822) v. Bch. Staakin about like a hallen-shaker, 
FORBES Jrn. (1742 15. Frf. 'Only a puir gypsy your honour.' 
. . . ' Only a wandering hallenshaker,' BARRIE Minister (1891) xiii. 
Rnf. Tho' something halanshaker-like, Ye'll may be own that I 
Some feelings hae, WEBSTER Rhymes (1835) 207. Ayr. Some 
hallen-shakers nearer hame, THOM Amusements (1812) 17. Lnk. 
Nodding to Jouks of Hallenshaker, RAMSAY Poems (1721) an. 
Lth. Ye fell clootyraker ! ye vile halanshaker, SMITH Merry 
Bridal (1866) 10. Edb. It sets him weel, the bloodthirsty Gehazi, 
the halinshaker ne'er-do-weel ! MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) xxvii. 
Slk. Great muckle hallanshaker cuff, HOGG Tales (1838) 78, ed. 1866. 
Feb. You. ye hellenshaker villain! AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (1836) 127. 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Obs. Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 304 ; Cum. 4 

Hence Hallanshaker-looking, adj. ragged, unkempt, 
like a tramp. 

Edb. He was a wauf, hallanshaker-looking chield, MOIR Mansie 
Wauch (1828) xiv. 

[Sic knavis and crakkaris. Sic halland schekkaris, 
DUNBAR Poems (c. 1510), ed. Small, II. 83.] 

HALLANTIDE, sb. Irel. I.Ma. Lin. Nhp. Wor. Shr. 
Glo. Bck. Hrt. I.W. Wil. Som. Cor. Also in forms 
ballon- n.Lin. 1 Nhp. 2 ; hollan- I.Ma. I.W. 1 ; Holland- Ir. 
Glo. Bck. Hrt. The season of All Saints, the first week of 
November. See All-hallow(s. 

Ir. Holland-tide at the Big House, KENNEDY Evenings Duffrey 
(1869) 91. I.Ma. I have not seen her since hollantide (S.M.) ; 
I don't think it's ten years since he died ten would it be, for 
hollantide ? BROWN Doctor (1887) 130. n.Lin. 1 Obs. Nhp. 2 From 
Michaelmas to Hallon-tide was the old rule for the period of 
sowing wheat. s.Wor. (H.K.) Shr. 1 Obsol. Glo. Last night 
were Hollantide eve, and where the wind is at Hollandtide it will 
stick best part of the winter, GIBBS Cotswold Vill. (1898) 388; 
Glo. 1 Bck. If ducks do slide at Hollandtide, At Christmas they 
will swim ; If ducks do swim at Hollandtide, At Christmas they 
will slide, Flk-Lore Rec. (.1881) IV. 128; N. V Q. (1874) sth S. i. 
383. Hrt. Reports Agric. (1793-1813) 28. I.W. 1 Wil. BRITTON 
Beauties (1825) ; Wil. 1 Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; 
W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 'Twas a ter'ble hard winter tho 
I mind 'twas nort but vrost and snow vrom Hallantide [aa-luntuyd] 
gin Can'lmas. Cor. 12 [ Set trees at All Hallo'ntide, and command 
them'to prosper, SWAINSON Weather Flk-Lore (1873) 143.] 

[At Hallontide, slaughter time entereth in, and then 
doth the husbandmans feasting begin, TUSSER Husb. 
(1580) 55-1 

Hallow, sb. 1 , Harriage, Halflins. 

HALLENS, sb. pi. Obs. Abd. In phr. to go by the 
hallens, to go by holds as a child. SHIRREFS Poems ( 1709) 
Gl. Cf. haal. 

HALLI-, see Holy. 

HALLIBLASH, sb. n.Cy. Lan. Der. Also written 
hallyblash Lan. [h)a'liblaj.] A great blaze. See 
Blash, sb. 2 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Lan. I'st ha set th' how leath on a halli- 
blash, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1740) 17 ; Aw'd mak a' hally-blash 
ov every factory i' Englandshire, BRIERLF.Y Irkdale (1865) 7, ed. 
1868; Lan. 1 Der. He and his loike '11 mak a halliblash of us aw 
soon, WARD David Grieve (1892) III. bk. x. 

HALLIDAY, see Holiday. 

HALLIE, sb. Abd. (JAM.) Also in form hallyie. 
Romping diversion. 

HALLIER, see Halyear, Haulier. 

HALLIHOE, sb. Cor. Also written hallyhoe Cor. 2 
The skipper fish, Scotnberesox saurus. Cor. 12 [SATCHELL 
(1879).] Nhb. 1 Also written haliness. [ha'linas.] 
A Sunday holiday walk. 

HALLINS, see Halflins. 

HALLION, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Also in forms 
haalyan Cai. 1 ; million Sc. Ir. [ha'lian.] LA clown, a 
clumsy fellow; a good-for-nothing idle scamp, a sloven, 

a rascal. 

Sc. We're just takin' tern doon to Stirling ta curst hallions tat 
ta are, FORD Thistledown (1891) 319; FRANCISQUE-MICHEL Sc. 
Lang. (1882) 179. e.Fif. Man, ye're a rammelsome hallion, LATTO 
Tarn Bodkin (1864) vi. Ayr. An' tirl the hallions to the birses, 
BURNS Address to Beelzebub, 1. 36. Gall. Brave hallions twa. Laird 
Nurgle and Laird Nabble, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 80, ed. 
1876. Kcb. But should some rustic hallion see thee here In thy 
luxuriant pastime, DAVIDSON Seasons ^i-;8cj; 26. N.I. 1 Ant. 
Ballymcna Obs. (1892) ; A fat, dirty, untidy woman (W.H.P.). 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. No man wou'd have thought any hallion Could ever 
have acted the thing, RITSON Gar/. (1810) 61 ; And byeth tar and 
feather the hallion that dar', WILSON Poems 1 1843) 128 > Nhb. 1 , Cum. 1 

2. A gentleman's servant out of livery; aninferiorservant 
employed to do odd jobs. Abd., Rxb. (JAM.) 

3. An overbearing, quarrelsome woman of vulgar 
manners. Bwk. (ib.) 

HALLIOR, sb. ? Obs. Sc. In phr. the moon is in the 
hallior, the moon is in her last quarter, is much in the wane. 

Abd. It is a saying among our people, whenever they mistake one 
object for two, that the moon is in the hallior, or clouded, and at 
such times they are winnel-skewed, or their eyes deceive them, 
PENROSE /;. (1815) III. 83 (JAM.). 

HALLIRACKIT,rtrf/. Abd.(G.W) Giddy, hare-brained. 

HALLIRAKUS, sb. Sc. A giddy, hare-brained per- 
son ; also used attrib. 

Abd. Fat keeps that hallirakus scum, The tailor, at he winna 
come, BEATTIE Parings (1803) 28, ed. 1873. Abd., Rnf. QAM.) 

HALLOCK, v., sb. and adj. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Der Also written hallok- Sc. ; and in forms allack 
e Yks J w. Yks. ; halic- Sc. ; hallach Sc. Bnff. 1 ; hallack 
Yks w Yks 5 nw.Der. 1 ; hallak- Sc. Wm. w.Yks. ; hal- 
lich Sc. (JAM.) Bnff. 1 ; hallic(k Sc. ; hallik Sc. GAM.) 
m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. ; haluck- Sc. ; bollock w.Yks. 2 ; hollok 
w Yks [h)a'lak.] 1. v. To behave in a foolish, noisy 
way. See Halok. Bnff. 1 , Cld., Lth. GAM.) 

Hence (i) Hallachan, sb. noisy, foolish conduct; (2) 
Hallachin, ppl. adj. noisy, foolish, ib. 
2. To idle away time; to loiter, loaf, play. Gen. with about. 

Cum. 4 Wm. He wad rayder hallak aboot t'public hoose ner 
work (B.K.X n.Yks. 4 If he isn't risting up agaain a wall, he'll be 
hallocking sumwheear. ne.Yks. 1 He gans hallockin' aboot frev 
hoos ti hoos. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. He's holloking abaat, Hlfx. Courier 
(May 15, 1897) ; Two texts, sich as a mannyfactrer wod like to 
see hung up i' t'miln to stare at his hands when they wor allackin 
asteead o' workin', Yksman. (Oct. 1898) 362; w.Yks. 2 He's always 
hollocking about with a parcel of idle fellows ; w.Yks. 5 , nw.Der. 1 





Hence ( i) Hallacker, sb. an idle fellow ; (2) Hallacking, 
(a) sb. a foolish person ; (b) ppl. adj. idle, lazy, trifling, 

(i) w.Yks. He is a hallocker abaht, Leeds Merc. Suppl.fOct. 21, 
1893). (a, a) m/Yks. 1 w.Yks. HAMILTON JVugae Lit. (1841) 354. 
(6) Wm. A gurt hallaken thing she wad gang oot any fashion 
(B.K.). n-Yks. 1 w.Yks. Tha'd turn aght a idle hallockin' haand, 
HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1878) 47; w.Yks. 5 Gen. coupled with'stoit.' 
' A gurt hallacking stoit.' 

3. To tease, worry, bully. 

n.Yks. Thoo'l hallock me to death (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 2 They 
hallock'd me an end [urged me forward]. 

Hence (i )Hallocked, ppl. adj. teased, harassed. n.Yks. 1 ; 
(2) Hallocking, ppl. adj. teasing, bullying ; boisterous, 
rough, rude. n.Yks.', w.Yks. (J.W.) 

4. sb. A tall, lazy, ungainly Fellow ; a rough,, uncouth 
person. Also called Hallacks. 

Cum. 4 w.Yks. 5 Goa wesh thee faace thou gurt hallacks ! 

5. A tiring affair, as a lengthy journey. 
n.Yks.2 It's a lang hallock. 

6. adj. Crazy. Abd. (JAM.) 

HALLOCKIT, ppl. adj. Sc. Nhb. Also in forms 
hal(l)ach'd Abd. ; -aket Edb. ; -egirt Sh.I. ; -icat Frf. ; 
ickit Lth. Gall. ; -icut Per. ; -igateNhb. 1 ; -igitS.&Ork. 1 
Nhb. 1 ; -uckit Sc. Bnff. Rnf. ; hullockit Ayr. [ha'lakit] 
Wild, romping ; light, giddy ; crazy, half-witted ; also as 
sb. a noisy, restless person ; a romp, a hoyden. See 
Hallock, v. 

Sc. And shangy-mou'd halucket Meg, HERD Coll. Sngs. (1776) 
II. 25. Sh.I. Ance upon a day I wis light-hearted an' hallegirt 
enough, STEWART Tales (1892) 52. S. & Ork. 1 Bnff. Let poets 
crack o' fragrant brose, . . . They're halucket, Common' me 
to a haggis, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 144. Abd. Hallach'd and 
damish'd, and scarce at her sell, Ross Helenore ( 1 768) 23, ed. 
1812. Frf. A muckle halicat bruit o' the mastiff breed, WIL- 
LOCK Rosetty Ends (18861 134, ed. 1889. Per. He's hallicut an' 
wild, he's gane ower his mither's thoomb, FORD Harp (1893) 151. 
w.Sc. A hair-brained hallica't hissey, CARRICK Laird of Logan 
(1835) 91. e.Fif. John M c Brian's auldest dochter, a daft ram-stam 
hollokit quean, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xxiv. Rnf. Quo' Lizzy 
to halucket Jannock, WEBSTER Rhymes (1835) 85. Ayr. (J.M.); 
The snash and impiddence of hullockit haverals and thochtless 
fules. SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 114. Lth. Hallickit Meg 
frae Fisherraw, SMITH Merry Bridal (1866) 5. Edb. Wi's reefart- 
nosed, blae-cheeked wife, Hallaket Jess, the tawpy, Carlop Green 
(1793) 128, ed. 1817. Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824). Nhb. 1 
A greet halligit lass. 

HALLOE, HALLON, see Hallow, sb. 2 , Hallan, sb. 1 
HALLOO, see Hallow, adj. 

HALLOP, v. and sb. Sc. [ha'lap.] 1. v. To frisk 
about, to be precipitate in one's movements. Fif. (JAM.) 
Hence (i) Halloper, sb. one who is giddy or precipitate. 
ib. ; (2) Hallopin, ppl. adj. unsteady, unsettled, foolish, ib. 
2. sb. A hasty, precipitate person. 

Gall. Black Jock wad to a neebor farm To get mair aid the 
hallop, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 499, ed. 1876. 

HALLOW, sb. 1 Sc. Irel. n.Cy. Nhb. Lan. Wai. Wor. 
e.An. Som. Also in forms hala- Sh.I.; halla- Sc. 
ne.Lan. 1 ; halle- N.Cy. 1 ; hollow- Ir. Wai. Wor. [Sc. and 
n.Cy. ha'l.i. j In comb, (i) Hallow-day, (a) All Saints' or 
All Hallows Day ; (b) a holiday ; (2) -een or -eve(n, the 
eve of All Saints' Day ; also called Halloween-night ; (3) 
-een bleeze, a bonfire kindled on Halloween ; (4) -fair, 
a fair held in the beginning of November ; (5) -fire, see 
(3) ; (6) -market, a market held on All Saints' Day ; (7) 
mas, All Saints' Day ; the season of All Hallows, the first 
week of November; also used attrib.; (8)-masrade,thename 
given tothegeneral assembly of witchesand ' warlocks ' sup- 
posed to have been held at this time ; (9) -tide night, see (2). 
(i, a) Sc. QAM. i Ayr. There would be ither words amang 
your win' afore auld Halla'-day, AINSLIE Land of Burns (ed. 1892) 
28. Slk. It was on ane hallow-day, HOGG Poems (ed. 1865) 367. 
(b) e-An. 1 , e.Snf. (F.H.) (a Sc. It was believed that if, on 
Hallowe'en, any person should go round one of these [fairy 
hillocks nine times, contrary to the course of the sun, a door 
would open, by which he would be admitted into the realms o 
fairyland, FORD Thistledown (1891) 263; To haud Halloween, to 
observe the childish or superstitious rites appropriated to this 

evening (JAM.). Sh.1. ' Auld Halloween' and taking in the sheep 
rom the fields occurred generally about the same time, STEWART 
Tales (1892) 78. Cai. 1 Abd. It was i' the go-hairst, weel ^on 
to Halloween, Deestde Tales (1872) 91. e.Sc. From Hallowe'en 
to Hogmanay, and the year was at an end, SETOUN Sunshine 
1895) 2. Per. Heath, broom, and dressings of flax are tied upon 
u pole. This faggot is then kindled ; one takes it upon his shoul- 
ders and running bears it round the village ; a crowd attend. 
When the first faggot is burnt out, a second is bound to the pole 
and kindled in the same manner as before. Numbers of these 
jlazing faggots are often carried about together and when the 
night happens to be dark they form a splendid illumination. This 
is Halloween. Statist. Ace. V. 84, 85 (JAM.). w.Sc. For several 
days before Hallowe'en, boys and youths collected wood and 
conveyed it to the most prominent places on the hill sides in their 
neighbourhood. . . After dark on Hallowe'en, these heaps were 
kindled. . . At the beginning of this century men as well as boys 
took part, and when the fire was ablaze, all joined hands and 
danced round the fire ; ... as these gatherings generally ended 
in drunkenness and rough and dangerous fun, the ministers set 
their faces against the observance, and so the practice was dis- 
continued by adults and relegated to school boys, NAPIER Flk-Lore 
(1879' 179-80. Rnf. Whether it was on hallowe'en . . . She 
couldna, 'twas sae lang since syne, Just be exact, WEBSTER 
Rhymes (1835) 23. Ayr. Hallowe'en among us is a dreadfu' night! 
witches and warlocks, and a' lang-nebbit things, hae a power and 
a dominion unspeakable on Hallowe'en, GALT Gilhaize (1823) xvii ; 
It was Halloween : . . the wee callans were at it already, rinning 
aboot wi' their fause-faces on and their bits o' turnip lanthrons in 
their haun, SERVICE Notandums (1890) 40. Lnk. The serio-comic 
drama acted by our peasant fathers on Halloween nicht, with its 
absurd, yet amusing, and sometimes fatal superstitious observances, 
HAMILTON Poems (1865) 184. Dmf. This song was his favourite, 
and he usually sung it at Halloweens, at Kirk-suppers, and other 
trystes, CROMEK Remains (1810) 19. Gall. When those creatures 
called ' Gian Carlins ' wont to meet with any one alone on 
Hallowe'en night, they stuffed it with beer awns and butter. 
MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 58, ed. 1876. s.Ir. Of a Hollow-eve 
night he'd find more gold, CROKER Leg. (1862) 327. n.Cy. Hey 
how for Hallowe'en When all the witches are to be seen, Denhani 
Tracts(ed. 1895) II. 79 ; N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 (3; Sc. In some parts 
of Sc. it is customary on this evening for young people to kindle fires 
on the tops of hills or rising grounds. A fire of this kind they call a 
Halloween blaze (JAM.). (4) Sc. (ib.) Lth. 'Mang Hallowfair's 
wild noisy brattle Thou'st foughten mony a weary battle, BALLAN- 
TINE Poems i 1856) 66. Edb. At Hallow-fair, whare brovvsters 
rare Keep gude ale, FERGUSSON Poems 1773) 131. ed. 1785; The 
bard, wha sang o' Hallow-fair, New Year's Morning fi792) 7. 5) 
Sc. Now the Hallow-fire when kindled is attended by children 
only, Statist. Ace. XXI. 145 (JAM.). 6) Fif. Daddie's gane to 
Hallow-market, DOUGLAS Poems ^1806) 84. ,7) Sh.I. At Hallow- 
mas I commenced my duties as a teacher, STEWART Tales (1892) 
57 ; The Hallowmas roup, or cattle sale, was going to come off 
shortly, NICOLSON Aithstin' Hedder (1898) 9. Cai. 1 Ayr. As 
bleak-faced Hallowmass returns, BURNS Two Dogs (1786) 1. 123. 
Lth. When Hallowmas swept bleak the plain, A fleet of ships stood 
o'er the Forth, LUMSDEN Sheep-head ' 1892) 33. Edb. At Hallow- 
mas, whan nights grow lang, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 131, ed. 
1785. Dmf. Sung the season's dying lay, When hallowmas was 
past, SHENNAN Tales (1837) 149. s.Wor. (H. K.) w.Som. 1 We 
always reckons to pay our Michaelmas rent to Hallowmas 
[t-au-lurmus]. (8) Sc. (JAM.) Dmf. The peasantry . . . were wont 
to date their age from them ; thus : ' I was christened o' the Sun- 
day after Tibbie Fleucher's Hallowmass Rade,' CROMEK Remains 
( 1810) 276. (9) Wai. Pastimes of Hallow Eve are still kept up in 
Wales on ' Hollowtide Night ' the name by which it is there 
known, Monthly Pckt, (Dec. 1863) 678. 

[ For explanation of Hallow see All-hallow(s.] 
HALLOW, sb. 2 Sh.I. Also written halloe. A bunch 
of straw or hay tied round the middle with a rope twisted 
of the same material. Also called Hallow-twist. 

Haes doo plenty o' hallows fir da kye's supper, daa ? S/i. News 
(Mar. n, 1899); Makkin' da strae up in hallows reddy ta lay afore 
da baess, ib. (Nov. 26, 1898) ; Du'll gie dem a halloe tweest every 
twa, JUNDA Klingrahool (1898) 24 ; S. & Ork. 1 

HALLOW, adj., adv., sb. 3 and v. Sc. Yks. Also in 
form halloo n.Yks. 2 1. adj. Hollow, sunken. 

Cai. 1 Abd. Sometimes also the flesh is sunk in and hallow, 
Belfs Trial of Witchcraft in LAW Memor. (1818) Pref. 32 0AM.). 
Rnf. Phoebus, glowin' fallow, Has owre the wastlan' hills shot 
hallow, YOUNG Pictures (1865) 167. 




2. adv. Completely, surpassingly, 'hollow.' n.Yks. 2 
fs.v. Hollow.) 

3. sb. A hollow; valley. 

Sh.I. Snipe call frae the flossy hallow, BURGESS Sketches (anded.) 
80. Cai. 1 Rnf. There was Tarn that wins down in the hallow, 
WEBSTER Rhymes (1835) 4. Lth. O'er green knowe and flowery 
hallow, Till they reached the cot-house door, MACNEILL Poet. Wks. 
(1801) 163, ed. 1856. 

4. v. To make hollow. Cai. 1 , Abd. (JAM.) 

HALL'S DOG, phr. Nrf. In saying as lazy as Hal? s dog. 

' As lazy as Hall's dog ' : he was so lazy he used to lean up against 
the wall to bark (E.M.I. 

HALLUM, sb. Lth. (JAM.) [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] The woody part of flax. 

RALLY, HALLY-LOO, see Holy, Holyrood. 

HALLYOCH, sb. Sc. A strange gabbling noise, esp. 
that heard when listening to a strange tongue. 

Gall. A club of Manxmen together are said to haud an unco 
gabbie labbie o' a hallyoch wi' ither, MACTAGGART Encvd. (1824'} 
252, ed. 1876. 

HALM, see Haulm. 

HALMOT, sb. Obs. n.Cy. Ken. Sus. Also in form 
halimote Sus. The court of the lord of a manor, held in 
the hall, a court-baron ; also called Halmot-court. 

N.Cy. 1 , Ken. 1 Sus. The Court Baron of Brighton manor was 
known by this name in the 171(1 century (F.E.S.). 

fOE. * heall-gemot, a hall-meeting.] 

HALOK, sb. Obs. s.Sc. (JAM.) Also written haloc ; 
and in forms hailick, hallik. A light, thoughtless girl, a 
giddy young woman. 

[Hutit be the halok lase a hunder ;eir of eild ! DUNBAR 
Tua Mariit Went. (1508) 465.] 

HALO(W, see Heloe. 

HALPED, ppl. adj. I.W. Crippled. (HALL.) 

HALPISH,^. Obs. Wxf. 1 Hardship. 

HALSE, sb. 1 and v. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Also written hals Sc. ; and in forms haas Cai. 1 ; hass 
Sc. N.Cy. 2 Nhb. 1 ; hause Sc. N.Cy. 12 Nhb. 1 Lakel. 1 Cum 
Wm. n.Yks. 124 m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Lan. ne.Lan. 1 ; haws(e 
Sc. Cum. 1 Wm. n.Yks. ; hawze n.Cy. ; helse Cum. 1 ; 
hoce Cum. 1 ;_ horse w.Yks. ; hose N.Cy. 2 Cum. w.Yks. 
[has, has, h)9S.] 1. sb. The neck. 

Sc. She bare a horn about her halse, AYTOUN Ballads (ed. 1861') 
I. 29. Sh.I. What the lad has round his halse, SCOTT Pirate (18221 
v. Or.I. Awaa gid Gilpin, has ar nokht [Awa' gied Gilpin, hass 
or naught], Oread. J. Gilpin, st. 25, in ELLIS Pronunc. vi88g) V. 
806. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Denham Tracts (ed. 1892) 288 ; Nhb. 1 Cum. Gl. 
(1851). Vim. Appleby Monthly Messenger (Apr. 1891,; (K.) n.Yks. 14 

Hence Hausin, adj. belonging to the neck. 

Wm. Fine lin' shirt wie a girt hausin ruffel, WHEELER Dial. 
(179) 56. 

2. Comp. (i) Hause-band, a collar, necklace ; (2) -bane, 
the collar-bone ; (3) -lock, the wool growing on the neck 
of a sheep. 

(i) N.Cy. 1 There's silk in your white hause-band, Old Sag. 
Nhb. 1 (a) Sc. Ye'll sit on his white hause-bane, And I'll pick out 
his bonny blue een, SCOTT Minstrelsy (1802) II. 360, ed. 1848. 
Dmf. The wecht o't maun tell on his white hause-bane, REID 
Poems (1894) 97. Gall. That rise beneath the chin and throat, 
MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 257, ed. 1876. (3) Bch. Right weel 
we wat they're hashlock oo, The best 'at e'er was creesh't, TARR AS 
Poems (1804) 94 JAM.). Ayr. I coft a stane o' haslock woo', 
BURNS The cat-din' o't, sL I. Lnk. A tartan plaid spun o' good 
hawslock woo, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (1725) i. i. Edb. Her breasts 
are whiter than the snow, . . Softer than hauss-locks of the ew, 
PENNECUIK Helicon (1720) 160. 

3. The throat, gullet, windpipe. 

Sh.I. (Coll. L.L.B.) Cai. 1 Elg. Shame and despair roar't in his 
hause, COUPER Poetry (1804) 11.88. Bnff. Tell them either to grow 
wise, Or cut their hawses, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 191. Abd. The 
deevil o' drink has me by the hause, MACDONALD Sir Gibbie, vi. 
Rnf. With bread and cheese their bellies cram, And synde their 
hauses with a dram, MGILVRAY Poems (ed. 1862) 39. Ayr. It 
was to be expecket, considering the spark in my hass, that the 
first use I would mak o' the freedom o' the Reformation would be 
to quench it, GALT Gilhaize (1823) v. Lnk. Stoups a Froth aboon 
the hause, RAMSAY Poems (1721) 30. e.Lth. As if a haill regent 
tattie had gotten into and stuck fast in my hause, MUCKLEBACKIT 

Rhymes (1885) 173. Edb. A gill comes in, he weets his hause 
BALLANTINE Gaberlunsie (ed. 1875) 206. Dmf. Nae caller streams 
lo weet their hasses, MAYNE Siller Gun (1808) 32. Gall. If one 
part of the oath fell to hindering the other and fighting in his hass 
it was not his fault, CROCKETT Moss-Hags (1895) xxxiv n Cy' 
GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 =, Nhb. 1 Cum. Twea or three let-downs o' 
yell Suon set their hawses free, STAGG Misc. Poems (ed 1805) 
132 ; Gl. (1851) ; Cum. 1 n. Yks. Sfie'l macke them late their teeth, 
naunt, m their hawse, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 604 ; n.Yks. 1 ; 
n.Yks. 2 ' A brave hause,' a wide gullet or good swallow a loud 
voice ; n.Yks., m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781). 

4. Phr. (i) the pap of the hass, the uvula; cf. hask, sb. 3 
(2) to be butter in the black dog's hause, to be past recovery 
to be no help for anything ; (3) to go down, or into, the 
wrong hause, of food, &c. : to go down the wrong way in 
the throat. 

(i) Sc. Gapin' as if ye had a barley awn sticking in the pap o' 
yerhass, OCHILTREE Redburn (1895) v; I'm fash'd wi' an unco 
kittlin' i' the paup o' my hass, FORD Thistledown (1891) 116 ; It's 
an unco kittlin' in the paup o' the hass, DICKSON Auld Precentor 
(1894) 62. (a) Sc. It wad hae been butter in the black dog's 
hause, SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xxxviii ; (JAM.) Ayr. It was like 
butter in the black dog's hass for Jenny to get haud of a hole in 
my coat like this, SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 103. (3) Sc. 
When a particle of food or drop of liquid goes into the windpipe, 
it is vulgarly said that it has gone into the wrang hause (JAM.). 
Cai. 1 Ayr. Something gaed doon the wrang hass, and sic a fit o' 
hoastin' cam on, SERVICE Notandums (1890) 28. Edb. She was 
suffocated, the foul air having gone down her wrong hause, MOIR 
Mansie Wauch (1828) xix. N.Cy. 1 

5. A rope to tie round a horse's neck in place of 
a halter. Cum. 1 

6. That part of a chimney where the smoke passes out 
of sight. 

Cum. Used by old people, M & Q. (1878) 5th S. x. 273. 

7. A defile, a narrow passage between mountains ; a 
narrow connecting ridge. 

Sc. A storm is coming down from the Cairn-brae-hawse and we 
shall have nothing but a wild night, Lights and Shadows (1822) 114 
(JAM.). Dmf. Atween aud Mennock-hass There is a cosy biel', 
REID Poems (1894) 133. Gall. Over there by the halse of the pass, 
CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle (.1895) 295. Lakel. 1 Used of the passes 
over the lower fells which separate the valleys of Lakeland, as 
Scatoller Hause. Cum. Haws out o' number, nae country can 
bang, ANDERSON Ballads (1805) 106; Cum. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour 
to Caves (1781). ne.Lan. 1 

8. A shallow in a river. Mry. Agric. Surv. Gl. (JAM.) 

9. v. To embrace, hug, take in the arms. 

Sc. He hawsed, he kissed her, And ca'd her his sweet. CHAMBERS 
Sngs. (1829. I. 2. s.Sc. Nae blythsume wean has she To halse 
hir necke, WATSON Bards (1859) in. Ayr. As he halsit her in 
the parks by the Boag, SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 253. Kcb. 
To come nigh . . . and hause him, and embrace him, RUTHERFORD 
Lett. (1660) No. 69. n.Cy. GROSE 1,1790) ; N.Cy. 2 Lan. ' An' arc 
yo hausin' too?" said Sally, BRIERLEY Cast upon World 1^1886) 290. 
Hence Hawse and ney, phr. a nursery term meaning 
' kiss me and I am pleased.' Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. 
(1824) 273, ed. 1876. 

[1. Wi[> a rughe skyn ho heled his hals, Cursor M. (c. 
!3oo) 3677. OE. heals. 3. Hals, throte, gutter,- Prompt. 
9. I halse one, I take hym aboute the necke, j'e accolle, 
PALSGR. (1530) ; Come halse me, the myrth of our morne, 
York Plays (c. 1400) 445.] 

HALSE, sb. z Irel. Som. Dev. Also in forms alls Dev. 4 
n.Dev. ; alse Dev.; hawlse Wxf. 1 [ijils, 51s.] 1. The 
hazel, Corylus Avellana. Also used attrib. Cf. hall, sb? 

Wxf. 1 Som. A halse coppice, W. & J. Gl. (1873); N. & Q. 
( J 877) 5th S. viii. 358. w.Som. 1 Dev. A man said he had put 
'an 'alse 'andle ' into his hammer, Reports Provinc. (1877) 131 ; 
For the bottom of the basket he would lay hands on hedge willow 
or halse, or any other ' old stuff,' Longman's Mag. (Oct. 1897) 
509 ; Dev. 4 

Hence Halsen, adj. made of hazel. 

Som. If they didn' chain thik there poor fakket up under they 
halsen withes so as he couldn' bust, RAYMOND Sam and Sabina 
(1894)25. w.Som. 1 A hazel-rod is always a 'halsen stick.' s.Dev. 
In that part of Devonshire which skirts the south-east of Dartmoor, 
the prevalent equivalent for hazel wood is ' 'alsen 'ood,' ^V. & Q. 
^ 1874) sth S. ii. 204. 

F 2 




2. Comp. (i) Halse-bushes, (a) hazel-bushes; (b) the 
common alder, Alnus glutinosa ; (2) -nut, a hazel-nut. 

(i,a)Dev. 4 (6) n.Dev. (3) n.Dev. 'A did es halse-nits theeve, 
ROCK Jim an Nell (1867) st. na. 

3. The wych-elm, Ulmus montana. w.Som. (B.& H.) 
HALSEN, v. and sb. Hmp. Dor. Som. Dev. Cor. Also 

in forms ausney Dor. Som. n.Dev. ; halzen Dev. ; haw- 
sen Som. ; hazen Dor. 1 ; hilssen s.Hmp. Dor. 1 ; housen 
Som. ; oseny e.Som. ; osney Dur. Som. [alzan, 'z3n.] 

1. v. To predict, divine, conjecture ; to forebode evil, 
anticipate bad news ; to speak evil. 

s.Hmp. Now don't ye hiessenny like that, VERNEY L. Lisle ( 1870) 
xiv. Dor. (W.C.); HAYNES Voc. (c. 1730) in N. & Q. (1883) 6th 
S. vii. 366; Dor. 1 ' Til rain avore night.' ' There, don't ye hies- 
senny,' Gl. Som. Don't 'e houseny (E.N.) ; W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; 
Monthly Mag. (1814) II. 126. e.Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 
You never don't hear her zay no good by nobody, but her'll halseny 
[aa'lznee, rarely pron. oa'znee] all the day long 'bout everybody. 
Dev. 1 As zoon as you halseny I'm about to break my meend whip 
sissa ! you be ago, 34. n.Dev. I ausney zich a' farra', ROCK Jim 
an Nell (1867) st. 60. 

Hence Halsening, vbl. sb. predicting or speaking evil. 

e.Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 Dev. Concerning the 
general morality of [her] conduct no amount of ' halzening ' could 
be considered as an exaggeration, MADOX-BROWN Dwale Bluth 
(1876) bk. i. v. joa. n.Dev. Oil vor . . . halzening, or cuffing a 
tale, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 298; In phr. ' hoaling and halzening,' 
picking holes, and suggesting the worst that can happen, Home 
Subsecivae (1777) 213. Cor. At Little Colan, ... on Palm 
Sunday, Carew says : ' Sought at our Lady Nant's well ... to fore 
knowe . . . fortune . . . resorted with a palme crosse . . . and an 
offring. The offring fell to the priest's share ... a foolish conceite 
of this " halsening,"' Flk-I.oreJrn. (1886) IV. 223. 

2. sb. A guess. n.Dev. Handbk. (ed. 1877) 258. 

[1. Cp. OHG. heilison, ' augurari' heilisdri, ' augur, 
aruspex* (GRAFF), cogn. w. ON. heill, an omen, auspice, 
foreboding (VIGFUSSON). We may also cp. ME. halsien, 
to adjure (CHAUCER C. T. B. 1835).] 

HALSER, sb. Sc. A hawser. 

Fif. Fix'd are the halsers to the folk-clad shores, TENNANT^46'to 
(1812) 40, ed. 1815. 

[Alsantire, a halsier in a ship, FLORID ; With well- 
wreath'd halsers hoisc Their white sails, CHAPMAN 
Odysseys (1615) n. 609.] 

HALSH, v. and sb. Sc. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. War. 
Bdf. Also in forms halch Nhb. w.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 ne.Lan. 1 ; 
hilch War. ; holsh Bdf. [h)al/.] 1. v. To fasten, tie ; 
to knot, noose, loop, twist. 

w.Yks. T'bobbins bin halshed i' t'windin hoile (W.C.S.) ; 
w.Yks. 12 ; w.Yks. 5 Halsh that band up. Lan. A taugh clooas line 
halshed round their throttles, CLEGG Sketches (1895) 398; Halsh 
those two poles t'gether (S.W.). ne.Lan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 To 
tie a rope in a peculiar way round timber or stone which is to be 
hoisted; Chs. 3 Halsh the rope. nw.Der. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Bdf. 
BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809) 135. 

2. To embrace. Cf. halse, sb. 1 9. 

Nhb. He halched him right curteouslie, RICHARDSON Borderer's 
Table-bk. (1846) VI. 51. w.Yks.i 

3. sb. A noose, loop, a slip-knot ; a twist, turn. Also in 
comp. Halsh-knot. 

w.Sc. Margaret Reid, . . suspect of witchcraft, confessed she 
put a woman newlie delivered, thrice through a green halshe, 
NAPIER Flk-Lore (1879) 131. w.Yks. SCATCHERD Hist. Morley 
(1839) Gl.; (J.T.); BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865); w.Yks. 3 , Lan. 1 , 
e.Liin. 1 , m.Lan. ', Chs. 3 

[1. Quat gome so is gorde with bis grene lace, While he 
hit hade hemely halcned aboute her is no habel vnder 
heuen to hewe nym bat my3t, Gawayne (c. 1360) 1852.] 

HALT, sb. 1 Sc. Bck. Dev. 1. A defect. 

Ayr. When he spies in me a halt, Me secretly to tell the fault, 
FISHER Poems (1790) 67. 

2. Rheumatism. 

Dev. HUNT Pop. Rom. tv.Eng. (1865) 413, ed. 1896. 

3. In sheep : the foot-rot. 

Bck. ELLIS Mod. Husb. (1750) IV. i. 

HALT, sb. 2 Som. Animal denosit. (HALL.) 

HALT, v. Yks. Not. [olt] To hesitate. 

w.Yks. Duant olt sa mils (J.W.). s.Not. He halted an' halted ; 

at last he said he'd goo (J.P.K.). [How long halt ye between 
two opinions? BIBLE i Kings xviii. ai.] 

HALTER, sb. and v. Sc. Yks. Chs. Shr. Nrf. Dor. 
Som. Dev. Also in forms auter Shr. 1 ; awter Chs. 1 ; 
hauter s.Chs. 1 ; belter ne.Yks. 1 [-lta(r),-to(r).] 1. sb. 
In phr. (i) as mad as a tup in a halter, (2) to play the 
halter, to inflict punishment ; (3) what the halter, an ex- 
clamation, ' what the deuce.' 

(i) Shr. 1 It is commonly said of a person in impotent rage that 
he is 'as mad as a tup in a 'auter.' (a) Chs. 1 (3) s.Chs. 1 

2. Comp. (i) Halter-path, a bridle-path, horse-road ; (2) 
shank, a cart-rope. 

;'i) Dor. Gl. (1851) ; Dor. 1 w.Som. 1 There are still many of 
these left in the Hill district where, since my recollection, pack- 
horses were the chief mode of transit. Across a farm of my own 
is a very ancient [au'ltur paa'th], called ' Hart's Path,' which was 
never wide enough for two horses to walk abreast. (2) ne.Yks. 1 
A long halter shank or cart rope is attached. 

3. A hair noose for catching trout and eels. nw.Dev. 1 

4. A bridle. Nrf. (F.H.) 

5. v. To bridle ; to bridle a colt for the first time. Also 
used fig. 

Sc. Ony hale-hearted halsome hissie, that wants to halter a good 
husband, GRAHAM Writings (1883, II. 154; He halters the black 
mare, it. 32. w.Som. 1 I had'n a rough colt never haltered. ' I 
bought an Exmoor pony for twenty-three shillings. . . When 
haltered ... for the first time in his life, he proved to be two years 
old,' COLLYNS, 156. 

Hence Heltering, vbl. sb. the act of ' breaking in ' a 
young colt or filly. ne.Yks. 1 

H ALTON SHIELDS, phr. Nhb. In phr. like the man 
at Halton Shields ; see below. 

Nhb. 1 Common a while ago. This celebrated personage set off 
on a journey, and, after travelling laboriously all night, found 
himself at his own back door next morning, BRUCE Handbk. to 
Roman Wall , 1884) 57. 

HALTS, sb. pi. Cum. Wm. Also in form holts Wm. 
Wicker hampers ; see below. 

Cum. Halts, a pair of strong wicker hampers which were joined 
by a pack saddle, and hung across a horse's back, LINTON Lake 
Cy. (1864) 304. Wm. The turf or peat was conveyed from the 
mosses in halts, Manners, &c. of Wm. (1847) 34 ; In the dales 
bordering upon Yorkshire, the women often carried dung in holts 
... on their shoulders to the fields, BRIGGS Remains (1825) 210. 

HALTUGONGA, int. Sh.I. Also written haltagongi ; 
and in form altagongi. An expression used by fisher- 
men to check the running of a halibut that has been 

When the halibut was running with such force, that it was 
feared that it might break the line, the Unst fishermen would cry 
after it : 'Haltagongi,' or 'altagongi,' which means 'stop running.' 
. . Said in English this would have no effect on the fish, but said 
in Norn it was thought to be effectual and to stop the fish, J AKOBSEN 
Dial. ^1897) 29; S.& Ork. 1 

HALUCK, see Hallock. 

HALVANS, sb. pi. Dev. Cor. 1. Half produce of 
labour, given instead of wages. Cor. 1 

Hence Halvaner, sb. one who receives half the produce 
of his labour. 

Cor. Boath tutwork men and tributers And halvaners, I say, 
TREGELLAS Tales (1865) 17; Cor. 12 

2. In mining : refuse of the lode after the ore is separated 
from the rock ; inferior ore. 

Dev., Cor. In constant use (R.O.H.). Cor. 12 [WEALE.] 

Hence Halvanner, sb. a miner whose earnings arc 
gained by dressing or cleaning the refuse or poorest 
quality of tin-stone. Cor. 3 

HALVE, v. 1 Lakel. Also in form hauve Lakel. 2 Of 
sheep : to mark by cutting away half the top of the ear. 

Cum. Every shepherd's flock hes some variety in ear-marking. . . 
We cut one-half of a top of the ear clean away, and we call it 
under or upper halving, Helvellyn in Cornh. Mag. (Oct. 1890) 387. 

Hence Hauved, adj. of a sheep : marked in such a way. 
Lakel. 2 

HALVE, v? Som. Also in form helve. To turn 
over, turn upside down. W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

HALVE, see Haaf, sb. 1 , Haw, sb. 1 




HALVED,/^/- adj. Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Golfing term: 
see below. 

Applied to a match which results in a drawn game. Also applied to 
a hole when each party takes the same number of strokes to play it. 

HALVER, sb., adj. and v. Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Chs. 
Also in forms haaver Sc. S. & Ork. 1 Bnff. 1 ; hafer s.Chs. 1 ; 
haffer Gall. ; halfer Sc. (JAM.) N.Cy. 1 ; haver Sh.I. Abd. 
[h)a'var, 'va(r.] 1. sb. Obs. One who has a moiety 
or half of anything, a sharer, partner. 

Kcb. Christ will have joy and sorrow halvers of the life of the 
saints ... as the night and day are kindly partners and halvers of 
time, RUTHERFORD Lett. < 1660) No. 245. 

2. A half, an equal share or portion ; gen. in pi., esp. in 
phr. to go halvers, to go shares ; in halvers, in partnership. 

Sc. Halvers gang I wi' a' that fear thee, WADDELL Psalms 
(1871) cxi. 63. Sh.I. With this view he gave to them in ' halvers ' 
certain mare ponies. This is in accordance with a custom of the 
county under which the owner of a pony gives to another as 
custodier a pro indiviso right in the animal. . . The custodier is 
bound to keep and feed the animal, and is entitled to receive in 
joint property with the original owner of the pony one-half of 
all stock the produce or descendants of said animal, or one-half of 
the pony or ponies while in his possession, Sh. News (July 16, 
1898) ; They had a considerable number of sheep and ponies 
some of which were held in halvers with the neighbours, CLARK 
Gleams (1898 52; S. & Ork. 1 Cai. 1 'To go haavers.' 'In 
haavers.' Ayr. Will she let me go halver? GALT Entail (1823; 
xxv. Gall. I'll rin haffers wi' the bed O' Wattie the killman, 
MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 297, ed. 1876. w.Yks. Let's go 
halvers wi' tha (S.K.C.). 

3. pi. An exclamation used by children to claim half the 
value of any treasure found by another ; also in phr. 
haavers and shaivers. 

Sc. The beggar exclaimed, like a Scotch schoolboy, when he 
finds anything. ' Nae halvers and quarters, hale o' mine ain, and 
nane o' my neighbour's,' SCOTT Antiquary >, 1816) xxiii ; Nae 
bunchers, nor halvers, But a' my ain, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes (ed. 
1870 145 ; When one of a party unexpectedly finds a piece of 
money or other article of value, the first in calling halfers is 
supposed to have a right to share to that extent with the finder 
(JAM. Suppl^. Per. (G.W.) Lth. Haavers and shaivers. If one 
who sees another find anything exclaims in this language, he is 
entitled to the moiety of what is found. If he who is finder uses 
these terms before any other, he is viewed as having the sole right 
to the property (JAM.) ; The phr. more fully is ' haavers and 
shaivers, and hale o' mine ain.' This is pronounced indiscriminately 
by the finder and by one who claims a share (ib.). e.Lth. Gin the 
lairds could see an inch afore their nose, they wad be glad to cry 
haavers raither than tine a', HUNTER /. Inwick (1895) 89. N.Cy. 1 
If, however, the finder be quick, he exclaims ' No halfers findee 
keepee, lessee seekee,' which destroys the claim, and gives him 
the sole right to the property. Nhb. 1 Another formula is: ' Ne 
halfers; ne quarters; ne pin points; Nyen o' me neybors ; aall 
me aan.' s.Chs. 1 

4. adj. Of cattle or stock : held in partnership. 

Sh.I. Admits that defender has in his possession the ' halvers ' 
stock specified, Sh. News (July 16, 1898) ; I fan a' 'at we hed comin' 
dat wye aless dy grey ha'vers yow, mam. ib. (Apr. i, 1899). 

5. v. To divide into equal shares, to halve ; to possess 
in partnership with any one. 

S. & Ork. 1 , Cai. 1 , Bnff. 1 Abd. Cut an' ha'ver the roast, ALEXANDER 
Johnny Gibb (1871) xl ; (JAM.) 

Hence Halvert, ppl. adj. cut in two, divided in hall. 

Abd. Nae mair deed nor a halvert worm, MACDONALD Malcolm 
11875) I. 4- 

HALY, see Holy. 

HALY-CALY, v. Cor. 12 To throw things to be 
scrambled for. 

HALYEAR, sb. Obs. Sc. Also written hallier (JAM.) ; 
and in form hellzier Abd. A half-year. 

n.Sc. (JAM.) Abd. Three hellzier [halyear, ed. 1789 (JAM.)] 
younger she than dindy was, Ross Helenore (1768) 14, ed. 1812. 

HAM, sb. 1 and v. 1 Sc. Cum. Yks. Lan. Chs. Lin. 
Som. Dev. Also in forms hame Dmf. ; horn e.Lan. 1 
s.Chs. 1 [h) am, asm.] 1. sb. The thigh ; the part of the 
leg immediately behind the knee. . 

Fif. Roll down the sweaty crowds with wearied legs and hams, 
TENNANT Anster (1812) 32, ed. 1871. Cum. He slap't his ham, 
GILPIN Sngs. (1866) aoa. w.Yks. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , s.Chs. 1 , n.Lin. 1 

Hence Hamkin, sb. the hock of a pig. n.Lin. 1 

2. Comp. Hame-blade, sb. ham-bone. 

Dmf. Sometimes a bane like a hame-bladc. HAWKINS Poems 
(1841) V. 25. 

3. Phr. ham o' pork, the joint, as distinguished from the 

w.Som. 1 It is nearly invariable to speak of ' dressing a ham o' 
pork,' while the same speaker would say, ' Thank 'ee, I'll have a 
little bit o' ham.' Dev. They'd a-dressed a ham o' pork and a gurt 
piece o' beef, Reports Provinc. (1885) 96. 

4. Wrestling term : see below. 

Cum.* The action differs from ' catching the heel ' by the attack 
being made behind the knee of the opponent, instead of behind his 

5. v. To salt the hind-quarters of beef, pork, or mutton, 
and hang them up to be smoked. 

Twd. To ham the leg of a sheep (JAM.). Gall. He's hung upon 
a nag [pin] to be ham'd to the reekiest neuk o' hell, MACTAGGART 
Encycl. < 1824) 175, ed. 1876. 

HAM, sb. 2 Not. Nhp. Glo. Sus. Wil. Dor. Som. PCV. 
Also written hamm ; and in form homm Glo. [am, asm.] 

1. Flat, low-lying pasture land near a stream or river. 
Cf. holm, sb. 1 2. 

Nhp. 1 An inclosed level pasture. Glo. A common or marsh 
land, BAYLIS Illus. Dial. (1870 ; Glo. 1 A considerable tract of 
ground along the Severn, adjoining the City of Gloucester, and 
owned by the Freemen of the City, is known as 'The Ham.' 
Sus. 1 Wil. A narrow strip of ground by the side of a river, DAVIS 
Agric. (1813,; Wil. 1 Dor. The meadow behind East Holme 
Church is called The Hams ' (C.W.). Som. Ave you bin down in 
ham, Thomas, o' late? JENNINGS Dial. ui.Eng. '1869") 141. w.Som. 1 
The word rather implies land subject to be flooded, but yet rich, 
and by no means swampy or wet land. Dev. That ham's a long 
way from the farm, Reports Provinc. (1884 19; The stile of the 
little ham, BLACKMORE Christowell (1881 xxvi ; Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 

Hence Hammings, sb. pi. shallow parts of a river 
broken up by islands where the water flows rapidly. 
Not. (W.J.R.) 

2. A stinted common pasture for cows. 

Glo. GROSE (1790; ; MARSHALL Rur. Econ. ,1789 II ; Gl. ,1851,. 

[1. A hamme or a little plot of ground by the Thames 
side . . . beset with many willow trees or osiers, MINSHELT 
Ditctor (1617). OE. hamtn, a pasture or meadow enclosed 
with a ditch (Eardulf's Charter, 875). Cp. Du. hamme van 
Wilgen, a place planted with willowes (HEXHAM) ; LG. 
ham, ' eine Wiese ' (BERGHAUS).] 

HAM, sb. 3 Obs. Som. Old calamine pits. W. & J. 
Gl. (1873). 

HAM,v. 2 Bdf. [aem.] Tocutandtrimahedge. (J.W.B.) 

HAM, v. 3 Dur. [ham.] To repeat. 

e.Dur. 1 He ham'd it o'er and o'er. 

HAM, see Haulm. 

HAMALD, adj., v. and sb. Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. Also in 
forms haemilt Slk. ; haimald Sc. (JAM.) ; haimelt Sh.I. ; 
hameald Sc. ; hameil Lth. Edb. Slk. n.Cy. : hamel Abd. ; 
hameld Sc. ; hamelt Lnk. Edb. Feb. ; hamhald Sc. QAM.) ; 
hamil Abd. ; hamilt Frf. Per. Lth. ; hammal Cai. 1 ; 
hammel Elg. Per. ; hyemmelt Nhb. 1 [na'ml(d.] 1. adj. 
Homely, domestic, household. Cf. hamert ; see Home. 

Sc. HERD Coll. Sngs. ',1776; Gl. Cai. 1 Hame is hammal [there 
is no place like home]. Elg. Former times, and hammel news 
Steal affthe hour and mair, COUPER Poetry (1804) I. 117 ; A mair 
hammel carl there couldna weel been, Abd. Wkly. Free Press (June 
25, 1898,. Abd. Simple, honest, hamel fowk, ALEXANDER Ain 
Flk. (18821 82. Frf. A hoosie mair hamilt than braw, WATT Poet. 
Sketches (1880) 67. Per. Buckled up their hammell'd gear, 
MONTEATH Dunblane (1835) 116, ed. 1887. Lnk. Our auld hamelt 
tongue ... is deein', HAMILTON Poems (1865) 136. Lth. O ken 
ye auld Janet's bit hamilt made biggin' ? BALLANTINE Poems (1856) 
46. Edb. Nae herds on Yarrow's bonny braes . . . Delight to 
chaunt their hameil lays, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) II. 129, ed. 
1785. Feb. To send some hamelt, rustic lays, To your sweet 
muse, NICOL Poems (1805) I. 93. Slk. The gude auld haemilt 
blude that rins in her veins, HOGG Tales (1838) 80, ed. 1866 ; 
Our grumblin' reachin' some folk's ears Of hameil brulies rais'd 
their fears, ib. Sc. Pastorals (1801) 15 (JAM.). n.Cy. Border Gl. 
(Coll. L.L.B.) 




2. Home-made; home-grown, home-bred as opposed to 

Sc. Haimilt claith is that which has been spOn at home and 
given out to be wrought, as distinguished from what has been 
purchased in the piece, although the latter should be the manu- 
facture of the country. This is also called haimilt-made (JAM.). 
Elg. He wore ... a hammel-spun coat, Abd. Wkly. Free Press 
(June 25, 1898). Edb. I am hameil . . . I'm na frae Turkey, Italy, 
or France, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) i8a, ed. 1785. 

3. Tame, domestic, as opposed to wild. 

Sc. Lang lean makes hameald cattel, RAY Prov. (1678) 383; 
HENDERSON Prov. (.1832) 82, ed. 1881. Abd. Critic or bard or 
hamil kine, SKINNER Poems (1809) 179 (JAM. 1 ). Nhb. 1 

4. v. To domesticate. 

Lth. A beast is said to be haimilt when, after a change, it becomes 
accustomed to the pasture to which it is sent (JAM.). 

5. sb. A ' haaf-word ' for wife. 

Sh.I. The common name for ' wife ' was haimelt or hjaimelt, 
because she sat at home, while her husband was at the haaf, 
JAKOBSEN Dial. (1897) 28 ; SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) lai. 

[1. Cariand to Italy Thair vincust hammald goddis and 
Ilion, DOUGLAS Eneados (1513), ed. 1874, n. 26. Norw. 
dial, heimholl, homely (AASEN) ; ON. heimoll (heimull, 
heimili), also heimhollr (FRITZNER) ; cp. heimold(-ild), right 
of possession (VIGFUSSON) ; see Brogh and Hammer.] 

HAMBLE, v. Sc. Yks. Lan. Der. Nhp. War. Also in 
forms hample w.Yks. ; hamel .w.Yks. 1 ; hamle w.Yks. 1 
Nhp. 1 ; hammle Slk. e.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 ; haumpus nw.Der. 1 ; 
hawmple Lan. 1 ; hawmpo Lan. ; homble w.Yks. Der. 2 ; 
homple w.Yks. e.Lan. 1 ; humple Slk. Rxb. ; oample Lan. 
[a-m(b)l.] To limp, halt, walk feebly or awkwardly ; to 
stumble. Cf. himple. 

Rxb. Then humpled he out in a hurry, A. SCOTT Poems (ed. 
1808) 218. e.Yks. 1 Poor awd fellow ! he can hardly hammle 
alang. w.Yks. I wor as wake as a cheild. I hombled on till 1 got 
to Camblesworth, HALLAM Wadsley Jack < 18661 xvi ; w.Yks. 14 
Lan. He hawmples in his walk, like a lame duck, WAUGH Hermit 
Cobbler (1876) 6 ; I mede o' shift to hawmpo owey ewt o' th' 
huzzy o' bit, PAUL BOBBIN Sequel (1819) 41 ; Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 
s.Lan. BAMFORD Dial. { 18541. Der. 1 ; Der. 2 He goes hombling 
along. nw.Der. 1 . Nhp. 1 . War. (J.R.W. 

Hence Hammlin, ppl. adj. limping, shambling ; feeble. 

Slk. Sir David's trusty hound wi' humpling back, HOGG Poems 
(ed. 1865) 63. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Astride hir homblin mare, 
SENIOR Smithy Rhymes (1882, 35 ; Every bunion hez a tendency 
to stop t'progress o' poor homplin pilgrims, Dewsbre Olm. (1881 
7. Lan. That hawmpoin tyke Hal wur wi' um, TIM BOBBIN View 
Dial. (1740) 14; He wur nobbut a hawmplin' mak of a walker at 
th' best, WAUGH Chim. Corner (1874) 116, ed. 1879. 

HAMBURGH, sb. Irel. Yks. Lan. Lin. Gmg. Pern. Dev. 
Also in forms hamaron Wxf. 1 ; hambrah Pern. ; ham- 
burgher Lin. 1 ; hamrach Gmg. Pern. ; hawmbark Lan. ; 
hanaborough Dev. ; hanniber n.Dev. ; hannibur Dev. 3 ; 
homber w.Yks. 2 1. The collar of a draught-horse, gen. 
made of reed or straw, a ' bargham.' 

Wxf. 1 Obs. w.Yks. 2 Lan. His wig . . . leet like a hawmbark on 
his shilders, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1740, 25; Lan. 1 s.Lan. 
PICTON Dial. (i86s\ Gmg. COLLINS Gower Dial, in Trans. Phil. 
Soc. (1848-50) IV. 222. Pern. JAGO Gl. (1882) 102. Dev. Home 
Subsecivae (1777) 201. n.Dev. Bobby 'th vaught 'e . . . Haimses, a 
hanniber, a veil, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) st, 67. 

2. pi. Fig. Arm-holes. 

Lin. (HALL.) ; Lin. 1 The waistcoat pinches me inthe hamburghers. 

3. A large scarf or comforter. Dev. 8 

4. A straw-mat used in brewing to rest the pan upon. 

s. Pern. Bring 'ere the hambrah, we moost taak off the pan, 'tis 
boilin' (W.M.M.). 

[1. Than muste he haue his horses or mares or both his 
hombers or collers, FITZHERBERT Hush. (1534) 14 ; Epy- 
phium, an hamborwe, Trin. Coll. MS. (c. 1450) in Wright's 
Voc. (1884) 580. Hame, sb. 2 + -borwe (-berwe), OE. -beorg(e, 

HAME, s*. 1 In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also in forms aime Ken. 1 ; ame e.Yks. Not. Suf. Ken. ; 
eame War. 2 s.War. 1 ; eyam Not. s.Hmp. ; haam n.Yks. 2 
OV.Yks. 1 n.Lin. 1 s.Lin. Hmp. Som.; haayme Brks. 1 ; 
haem Sc. (JAM.); haim Inv. Abd. Nhb. 1 e.Yks. 1 ; hairm 
n.Lin. 1 ; ham Lan. Sus. 12 w.Dev. ; hamm n.Yks. ; haum 

e.Lan. 1 w.Wor. 1 ; hawm Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Dev. ; heam N.Cy. 1 
Cum. w.Yks. Der. Dor. ; heeam n.Yks. 4 e.Yks. 1 ; heme 
Chs. 13 ; hem Inv. Elg. N.I. 1 Ken. 1 ; hemm Ant.; heyam 
Dur. 1 Not. Hmp.; heyem Nhb. 1 ; hiam Wm. ; home 
Chs. 1 War. se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Hrf. 2 ; holme w.Wor. 1 ; hyem 
Nhb. 1 ; yam n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 ; pi. aimses Dev. ; hameses 
Hrf. Glo. 12 w.Som. 1 Dev.; hamses nw.Dev. 1 ; heamsies 
i Som. [h)em, h)iam, im.] 1. pi. The two curved pieces 
of wood or metal resting on the collar of a draught- 
horse, to which the traces are attached. Cf. bargham. 

Sc. A pair of names and brechom fine, RAMSAY Tea-Table Misc. 
(1724) I. 175, ed. 1871. Inv. (H.E.F.; Elg. The hems were taen 
aff, an' the halter made fest, Abd. Wkly. Free Press (June 25, 1898;. 
Abd. Gin ye slack the haims . . . the beasts '11 be throu' wi' their 
feed, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882 195. N.I. 1 , Wxf. 1 , N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 
The two pieces of crooked wood or bent iron hinged at the bottom 
and held together with a strap atop. They are passed round the 
collar of a horse, and are furnished with an eye in each side to 
which are attached the chains to draw the load. Dnr. 1 , s.Dur. 
( J.E.D.), Wm. (B.K.) Cum. Rigreape, braugham, pair o' heams, 
GILPIN Sngs. (1866) 201. n.Yks. Neither traces, hames, nor 
baurghwans to finnd, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 93 ; n.Yks. 124 , 
ne.Yks. 1 , e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781 ; w.Yks. 2 
Lan. GROSE (1790^ MS. add. (C. ; e.Lan.', Chs. 1 23 , Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 , 
Not. (L.C.M.), (J.H.B.), Not. 123 , nXln.' s.Lin. What a unheppen 
looby to put that boss's haams on i' that how (T.H.R.). sw.Lin. 1 , 
Rut. 1 , Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 War. Leamington Courier (Mar. 6, 1897) ; 
War. 2 , s.War.', w.Wor. 1 , s.Wor. (H.K.), se.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 , Hrf. 12 , 
Glo. J.S.F.S.1, Glo. 12 , Oxf. 1 , Brks. 1 , Bdf. J.W.B. , w.Mid. 
(W.P.M.) Krf.Arcli. (1879) VIII. 170. Suf. (F.H.X Ken. fH.M.,, 
Ken. 1 , Hmp. 1 , 1.W. 1 , Wil. 1 Dor. BARNES Gl. , 1863). Som. A horse- 
collar and a pair o' hamses, RAYMOND Sam and Sabina (1894) 
107; W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 In the dial, there is no sing. 
To denote one of the separate parts, it is necessary to say, ' one 
o' the zides o' th' hameses,' or ' one o' th' hameses ' [ae'umzez]. 
Dev. The hames is very loose, Reports Provinc. (1884 "i 19 ; Where's 
ta put tha aimses tu ? HEWETT Peas. Sf>. (1892) 46. nw.Dev. 1 

Hence (i) Hame and chain-maker, phr. a maker of 
harness; (a) Hamed, ppl. adj. yoked. 

(i) Lan. 1 Common in Manchester, (a) Glo. The horse being 
harnassed or named, MARSHALL Review (1818) II. 439. 

2. Comb. (\) Hame-blade, the half of a horse-collar; 
(2) -houghed, having houghs shaped like a ' hame ' ; (3) 
rough, (4) -stick, one of a pair of 'hames'; (5) -stick 
ring, a ring attached to the ' hame,' through which the 
rein passes ; (6) -stick strap, the strap which fastens the 
' hame ' ; (7) -tree, (8) -ward, see (4) ; (9) -wood, the 
' hames.' 

(i ) Lth. (JAM.) (a) Sc. A term applied to a horse when it is 
straiter above than below the hough ; from the resemblance of 
its hind legs to a pair of hames jb.) ; She was lang-toothed an' 
blench-lippit, Hacm-houghed an' haggis-fittit, Edb. Monthly Mag. 
(June 1817) 238 (JAM. 1 . (.3) Chs. (K.) (4; Nhb. 1 (5, 6) Nhb. 
(R.O.H.; (7, 8) w.Dev. MARSHALL Rur.Econ. (1796). (9, Ken. 1 , 
Sus. 12 

3. A horse-collar ; a circle of straw rope often used to 
fasten the head of a sheep to its fore-leg to prevent its 
straying. Cor. 12 

[1. LG. ham, ein Joch, Kummet,der Pferde (BERCHAUS) ; 
M Du. hame, a leather or wooden yoke for horses ( VERDAM ).] 

HAME,_s6. 2 and v. 1 Lin. Suf. Also written haim 
se.Lin. [em.] 1. sb. Steam from boiling water ; warm 
vapour as from heated horses, slaked lime, &c. 

Lin. 1 This hame has scauded me. e.Lin. Used also of the damp 
and moist feeling of an empty house opened out again (G.G.W. ). 
se.Lin. In gen. use near the sea-coast. 'The wesh'us is white with 
haim out o' the boiler.' ' Ho'd yer he'd in the haim from a baason 
o' hot waater' (T.H.R.). Suf. The hame is coming out of the 
kettle (F.H.). 
2. v. To steam. 

Suf. If your throat is sore, you can't do better than hame it. The 
kettle begins to hame (F.H.). 

[1, 2. Norw. dial, eim, steam, eimbaat, a steamboat ; eitna, 
to steam (AASEN) ; ON. eimr, reek, vapour (VIGFUSSON).] 

HAME, sb? Hmp. [em.] A small piece, in phr. all 
to hame, all to bits. 

The glass is all to hame, WISE New Forest (1883, 283 ; Hmp. 

[EFris. ham, ' Biss, Bissen, Stuck ' (KooLMANJ.J 




HAME, v? Som. [em.] To have sexual intercourse. 
W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

[OE. /iceman, ' concumbere, coire, nubere ' (B.T.).] 

HAME, see Ham, si. 1 , Haulm, Home. 

HAMEART, adv. Sc. Yks. Also in forms hamewarts 
Fif. ; hamedards w.Yks. [he'mart.] Homeward ; also 
used attrib. Cf. hamert, adj. 

Fif. Hamewarts bairn and wife, and man, Helter-skelter they 
skelpt and ran, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 222. Rnf. Sir Guy is 
forced to ... tak' the hameart gate [way], THOMSON Leddy May 
(1883) 3. Lnk. Hameart he gaed that nicht, COGHILL Poems 
(1890) 78. w.Yks. Breakfast dune, they mud hamedards start, 
DIXON Sluadburn Faar (1871) 16. 

Hamald, Hample-tree. 

HAMEREST, sb. Sh.I. Also in form hamerist. 
[he'mrest.] The commonage adjoining enclosed land. 

Da maist o' wir paets wis apo' da hamerist, Sh. News (May 22, 
1897) ; S. & Ork. 1 

[Norw. dial, heimrast, the nearest grass-land to the en- 
closed land (AASEN) ; ON. heim-rdst.} 

HAMERT, adj. Sc. Nhb. Also written haimart Rnf. ; 
haimert Frf. ; hamart Sc. (JAM.) ; hame'art Dmb. Ayr. ; 
and in forms hame-at Ayr. ; hameit, hamet Per. ; hame- 
ward Fif. Nhb. ; hamewart Ayr. ; hamit Frf. [he'mart.] 

1. Belonging to home, home-grown, home-made, home- 
keeping ; also used advb. Cf. hameart. 

Sc. Cleedin guid o' hamert mak', EDWARDS Mod. Poets, 8th S. 
307. Frf. Weel twisted oot o' haimert woo', BEATTIF. Arnha 
(c. 1820') 15, ed. 1882 ; Nane but hamit linjet [flax-seed] sawn, 
Piper of Peebles (1794). Per. Roll'd up like a witch in a hameit- 
spun plaidie, FORD Harp (1893) 147; The gude auld times O' 
hearty rants and hamet rhymes, HALIBURTON Puir Auld Scotland 
(1887) 164. Fif. It was hameward wisdom, the wisdom that likes to 
brood cure a cog o' guid stiff parritch, ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 
128. e.Flf. On his lower shanks, he had a pair o' coarse ribbit 
hamert-wrocht blue stockins, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) iii. Dmb. 
The yarn in grist is a' alike, Tho" hame'art spun, TAYLOR Poems 
(1827) 58. Rnf. Stegh the loun weel wi' haimart gear, PICKEN 
Poems (1813) I. 129. Ayr. Nane o' our hamewart gentry, GALT 
Lairds (1826) xxii; An auld-fashion'd man, a hame'art gentleman 
who has never seen the world, ib. xxvi; The homespun, or'hame- 
at-made ' articles, were the pride of every housewife, WHITE 
Jottings (1879) 36. Lnk. Scrimp her o' her bit and brat, That 
hameward agriculture May thrive, WATSON Poems (1853) 5. Dmf. 
He's haimert-made and genuine, SHAW Schoolmaster (1899) 334. 
Nhb. Obs. I will no longer submit to his hameward country ways, 
Lett, from Corbridge (1775) (R.O.H.). 

Hence Haimartness, sb. childish attachment to home. 
Sc. (JAM.) 

2. Condescending in manner, not haughty. 

Ags. A person of rank is hameart who is courteous (JAM.). Dmf. 
The hamert heart was donnert dung, REID Poems (1894) 260. 

HAMFLEETS, sb. pi. Obs. Glo. Cloth buskins to 
defend the legs from dirt, ' sheenstrads.' 

Horae Subsecivac (1777) 201 ; Gl. (1851); Glo. 1 Hame-leets[si'c]. 

HAM-GAMS, sb. pi. Lei. 1 [avm-gaemz.] Antics, tricks. 

A's bin at some o' his hamgams agen. 

HAMIE, adj. Obs. Sc. Suggestive of home, domestic. 

Edb. I ... ripet a' my shallow pow For hamie lays, CRAWFORD 
Poems (1798) 47. 

HAMIL, sb. n.Cy. Nhb. Lan. Chs. Sus. Also written 
hamel e.Lan. 1 ; hammil Lan. 1 ; hammill n.Cy. ; and in form 
hemmelNhb. e.Sus. [a'ml, hje'ml.] 1. A hamlet, village. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Nhb. 'Tween Foxstane hemmils an' the 
Peels, PROUDLOCK Borderland Muse (1896) 84. Lan. Aw know o' 
that country-side, . . . hill an' dale, . . . hamil an' road-side heawse, 
WAUGH Yeth-Bobs (1869) i ; Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 e.Sus. HOLLOWAY. 
2. Comp. Hamil-sconce, fig. the light of the village or 
hamlet, the village Solomon. 

Lan. Owd Jeremy at tat time wur look't on as th' hammel's 
skonse amung 'em e Juda, WALKER Plebeian Pol. (1795) 58, ed. 1801 ; 
A schoolmaster, who was looked up to by his neighbours as a kind 
of ' hamel-scoance,' or lanthorn of the village, WAUGH Old Cronies 
(1875) iii ; Lan. 1 , Chs. 13 

[1. The hamell of Aynsworth [in Lan.], Exam. Cokeye 
More (c. 1514) in Chetham Soc. (1855) XXXVII. u. OFr. 
hamel, ' hameau ' (LA CURNE).] 

HAMIL(T, see Hamald. 

HAMLET, sb. Yks. [a'mlit.] Phr. play Hamlet with, 
to play ' the deuce ' with ; to give one a ' good blowing up.' 

w.Yks. Aw cud like to see thee wed ta nobbut one, Shoo'd play 
Hamlet wi' thee, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1874) 43 ; Bai gou lad ! 
wen ta gets uam Sel bi amlit ta plea. Mi muSa plead amlit wi im 
fa stopin at lat at nit (J.W.). 

HAMLIN,s/>. Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Also in form hamlan. 
[Not known to our correspondents.] A cross, wile, trick. 

HAMMAL, HAMMEL, see Hamald, Hemmel, sb. 1 

HAMMER, sb}- and v. 1 Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and 
Eng. Also in forms haumer Abd. ; hawmer Bnff. 1 ; 
hommer Lan. I. Ma. s.Chs. 1 nw.Der. 1 ; bomber Shr. 1 
[h)a'ma(r, arma(r).] 1. sb. In comb, (i) Hammer-axe, 
an implement with a hammer on one side and an axe on 
the other ; (2) -bate, a dappled spot on a horse ; (3) 
-bleat, the snipe, Gallinago caelestis ; (4) -clawed, like the 
claws of a nail-hammer ; (5) -dressed, stone faced with a 
pick or pointed hammer ; (6) -flush, sparks from an 
anvil ; (7) -hay, rough hay as in moors or waste ground ; 
(8) -head, a dull, stupid fellow ; (9) -heel, the portion of the 
face of the hammer next the head ; do) -man, (a) a black- 
smith, a worker in iron, tin, or other metals ; a member 
of the blacksmiths' guild ; (b) in coal-mining : see below ; 
(n) -nose, the portion of the hammer-face opposite the 
' heel ' ; (12) -spots, the dappled appearance of a horse ; 

(13) -tacking, dawdling, working in a half-hearted manner ; 

(14) -thrower, a man who throws the sledge-hammer in 
athletic sports; (15) -toe, a malformation of the toe. 

(i) N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 v 21 Dev - Maister, he's as full of hammerbates 
as can be, Reports Provinc. (1897,. (3) Cum. Na mair you'll hear 
the hammerbleats, DICKINSON Lit. Rent. (1888) 161 ; Cum. 14 , 
m.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 14) Nhb. 1 A tail coat is still called a ' hatnmer- 
claad cwoat.' (5) Nhb. 1 , w.Yks. (J.W.), nw.Der. 1 (6) Fif. Frae 
the blacksmith's study rush Sae thick the sparks and hammer- 
flush, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 205. (7) n.Yks. That's what I 
call hammer hay (I.W. . ;8) w.Yks. 5 (9) Nhb. 1 (10, a) Sc. The 
hammermen of Edinburgh are to my mind afore the warld for 
making stancheons, ring-bolts [&c.], SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xxix. 
Elg. A hammerman's but black at best, TESTER Poems 1865 i. 
Abd. These were the hammermen, headed by Vulcan sitting 
shivering in an iron car, ANDERSON Rhymes (1867) 214. Frf. 
Robert Hepburn, hammerman, LOWSON Guidfollow (18901 265. 
Ayr. One Thomas Sword, the deacon of the hammermen, GALT 
Gilhaize (1823) iv. Gall. He ... was buried there in state by the 
hammer-men, which body would not permit the Earl of Selkirk to 
lay his head in the grave, merely because his Lordship was not 
one of their incorporated tribe, MACTAGGART Encycl. ',1824) 68, ed. 
1876. Dev. The stamping of this impression by a hammer is coining 
the tin, and the man who does it is called the hammer-man, BRAY 
Desc. Tamarand Tavy ^1836) I. 118. ,6) Der. When the holers 
have finished their operations, a new set of men, called hammer- 
men, or drivers, enter the works. These fall, or force down, 
large masses of coal, by means of long and sharp iron wedges, 
GLOVER Hist. Der. (1829) I. 58. (n) Nhb. 1 When a hand hammer 
is held up by the helve, and the flat disc of its ' face ' placed 
opposite to the observer, the upper portion of the disc is the j nose,' 
and the lower, or portion towards the helve, is the ' heel.' (12) 
Nrf. (A.G.) (13) nw.Dev. 1 ' They've bin hammer-tackin' about 
yur all day, but I doan' zim they've got ort to shaw vor't.' ' 'Ot 
b'ee hammer-tackin' about yur vor? ' 1,14) Abd. I have seen him 
do a feat which would put the best hammer-thrower to the blush, 
ANDERSON Rhymes (1867) 194. (15) e.Suf. ^F.H.) 

2. Phr. (i) as dead as a hammer, quite dead ; (2) hammer 
and block, (3) , block, and Bible, (4) , block, and study, 
a boys' game ; see below ; (5) and pincers, (6) and 
pinsons, the noise made by a horse when the hind-leg 
strikes the fore-leg ; (7) and tongs, (a) high words ; also 
in phr. to go at a thing hammer and tongs, to dispute or do 
violently ; (b) curling term ; see below ; (8) the hammer 
of it, the pith of a message ; the principal cause of any- 
thing ; (9) to go at a thing hammer and pinsons, to set 
about a thing with determination and force. 

(i) n.Cy. (J.W.) Lan. As deed as a hommer, LAYCOCK Sngs. 
(1866) 32 Brks. 1 1 chucked my stick at that ther rat an' killed un 
as ' dead as a hammer.' (2) Abd. At the ' Hammer and the Block' 
deal mony a sturdy blow, CADENHEAD Bon Accord (1853) 189; One 
boy had to prostrate himself on his hands and knees, with his pos- 




teriors protruding, while four boys took another boy, one at each 
arm, and one at each leg, and bearing him, with his face upward, 
used him as a battering-ram against the other boy, posteriors to 
posteriors. It was a punishment rather than a game ; but, when 
not carried to an extreme, created a deal of rather cruel fun (W.C.). 
Lan. Another party engaged in the games of ... hop-scotch, 
hammer and block, THORNBER Hist. Blackpool (1837) 90 ; Those 
glorious English games of cricket, ' hammer and block,' BRIERLEY 
Irkdale (1865) 67, ed. 1868. (3) N.I. 1 Each of the three objects is 
represented by a boy. (4) Gall. A fellow lies on all fours, this is 
the block ; one steadies him before, this is the study [anvil] ; a 
third is made a hammer of, and swung by the boys against the 
block, MACTAGGART Encycl. (,1834) 253, ed. 1876. (5) Cum. (M.P.), 
w.Yks. (W.C.S.), w.Yks.', Chs. 13 , Nhp. 1 (6) n-Lln. 1 (7, a) Ayr. 
They would go at it again, hammer and tangs, for anither hour, 
SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) xxii. w.Yks. Hlfx. Courier (May 
8, 1897). Chs. ' 'Falling out hammer and tongs' is a very common 
expression; Chs. 8 Nhp. 1 When a person is relating his falling 
out with some one, it is common to say among the lower orders, 
' Oh, we got up to hammer and tongs.' War. 3 ' They went at it 
hammer and tongs,' they scolded each other unceasingly. Also 
used as equivalent to rough, unscientific fighting. Oxf. 1 MS. add. 
Sus., Hmp. ' To live hammer and tongs ' is said of married people 
who seldom agree, HOLLOWAY. (b) Abd., Per. At curling a common 
order is, ' Come up an' gi'e this stane hammer and tangs' (G.W.). 
(8) Ess. Ay, that's the hammer on't (C.W.D.). (9) Shr. 1 The 
constable parted 'em wunst, but they watchen 'im away, an' then 
wenten 'omber an' pinsons at it again. 

3. A blow with a hammer. 

Frf. I decided to gang oot an' gie't a hammer on, WILLOCK 
Rosetty Ends (1886) 37, ed. 1889. 

4. The fist ; a blow with the fist ; also in phr. the hammer 
o' death. 

w.Yks. 1 When a person is quarrelling with another, whom he 
wishes to intimidate, he will hold up his fist in a menacing attitude, 
and say, ' See, here's t'hammer o'deeoth.' ne.Lan. 1 e.Suf. To 
give one a hammer (F.H.). 

5. Clumsy, noisy walking or working ; a clumsy, noisy 
person or worker. 

Bnff. 1 The hawmer he keeps up an' doon the chaamer's nae 
bearable. Ayr. My bonie maid, before ye wed Sic clumsy- 
wilted hammers, BURNS Willie Chalmers, st. 5. 

6. v. To thrash ; to beat continuously with a stick. 

Sc. (A.W. ) Nhb. Wor sowldiers hammered the beggars. Come 
on, aa'll hammer aall the three on ye (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 n.Yks. Ah 
hammered him weel (T.S.). e.Yks. Next tahm he diz it, Ah'll ham- 
mer him weel, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 26 ; e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. He 
hammered David for long enough, Eng. Illns. Mag. (Mar. 1896) 
592 ; w.Yks. 2 A boy said to his schoolfellow, ' Which o' thee and 
me can hammer? ' i.e. fight best. Lan. They're hardly a lad i' o' 
th' village bur what Bobby had hommert oather at one toime or 
another, MELLOR Mick Owdem (1867"! 8. m.Lan. 1 I.Ma. Had to 
hommer him that was all, BROWN Indiaman (1889) 149. s.Chs. 1 
Ahy)l om-ur yn iv ahy)kn gy'et uwt u yu [Til hommer y6 if I con 
get howl o' yO]. ^ Not.' Lei. 1 ' Did you hear me talk about ham- 
mering anyone t ' asked by a prisoner on trial for shooting a toll- 
keeper. Oxf. (G.O.), Hnt (T.P.F. 

Hence Hammering, sb. a thrashing. 

Sc. Gi'e ower, ye loons, wi' throwin' stanes. Or haith ye's get 
a hammerin', VEDDER Poems (1842) 119. Yks. (J.W.) Lan. Yo 
desarved a good hommerin' . . . for usin" a poor chap so, WOOD 
Hum. Sketches, 6. Midi. Ye'll remember the hammering Exeter 
gev him, BARTRAM People of Clapton (1897) 53. War. 3 He gave 
me such a hammering <,E.S.). Oxf. (G.O.], e.Suf. (F.H.} 

7. Phr. hammered up, at a loss for words. 

w.Ykm. 8 A bashful and very nervous young man gets into a 
bonnet-shop somehow (say during a shower), and is hammer' d 
up clean,' finding himself in that most interesting predicament of 
having nothing to say ! 

8. To practise laboriously ; to labour. 

Nhb. Aw hammer on till efternuin Wi' weary byens and empty 
wyem, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) 9. Lan. Don yo' know the 
time th' owd lad's hommerin' at ? Longman's Mag. 'Apr. 1897)553. 

9. To walk or work in a noisy, clumsy way ; to stumble. 
Cal. 1 Bnff. 1 ' The muckle fabrick o' a cheel cam hawmerin' ben 

the fleer, an' knockit our the bairn.' He wiz hawmerin' wee a 
spawd at the back o' a dyke.' Abd. Aw haumer't into the kitchie 
upp' the mistress an' him spcakin', ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) 
xvL Ayr. Stumpin on his ploughman's shanks, He in the parlour 
haminer'd, BURNS Interview with Dacre st. 4. 

Hence (i) Hawmerer, sb. a big, awkward person, with 
unwieldy feet ; one who is clumsy and noisy at work ; (a) 
Hawmerin, ppl. adj. big and clumsy. 

Bnff. 1 (i) [One] who makes much noise in walking, and is apt 
to trample on what comes in the way. (a) He's a hawmerin' 
cheel. A cudna bide the sicht o' 'im aboot the toon for a servan. 

HAMMER, sb* Sh.I. Also in form haamar. A large 
mass of stone or rock jutting out, gen. from the side 
of a hill. 

There was scarcely a spot that was not called by some appro- 
priate name of Norse origin, such beautifully characteristic names 
as ... Gulla Hammar (the yellow rocks), SPENCE Fit-Lore ( 1 899 ) 
176 : JAKOBSEN Dial. 1897) 80 ; S. & Ork. 1 

[ON. hamarr, a hammer-shaped crag (ViorussoN).] 

HAMMER, v. 3 Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Lin. [h)a-ma(r.] 
To stammer, hesitate in speaking. 

Sc. (.A.W.), N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Aw hammer'd out some lyem excuse, 
WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) 49. n.Yks. 1 The two words hammerand 
stammer are frequently joined together in use; n.Yks. 24 , e.Yks. 1 , 
m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 , aLin. 1 

HAMMER-BAND, sb. Cum. A manner of yoking: 
used attrib. ; also usedyfg'. 

Cum. 1 Uphill work, constant pull on the shoulders. In old 
times the horse was yoked to the cart by ropes from the shoulders 
to iron or willow or hazel rings sliding on the shafts, held by 
a pin. This was hammer-band yoking ; Cum. 4 Obs. Noironstaps, 
nor shoulder links, For all had hammer bands, Carlisle Pair. ( May 
13, 1870). 

HAMMERGAG, v. and sb. Der. Not. Wor. Suf. Also 
in form ammergag s.Not. w.Wor. 1 [a'magag.] 1. v. 
To stammer, speak with difficulty. Der. 2 , Not. 8 

2. To scold ; to argue. 

s.Not. Yer can't get away frum 'im ; 'e'll stand ammergagging 
for a hour (J.P.K.). w.Wor. 1 'Ow 'im an" er do quar'l, to be 
sure. You can "ear 'em thraow the wall, 'ammergaggin' awaay 
from marnin' till night. 

3. sb. A boisterous noise. e.Suf. (F.H.) 
HAMMERGAW, v. Sc. To argue pertinaciously. 
Ayr. Ye may spend the evening o' your days in lown felicity; 

and hammergaw frae morning to night wi' the advocates about 
corn-laws. GALT Lairds ^1826; xxxv. 

HAMMER-SCAPPLE, sb. Obs. n.Cy. Yks. A nig- 
gardly person who attempts to drive a hard bargain. 
n.Cy. HOLLOWAY. w.Yks. 15 

HAMMER Y, sb. Cum. [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] People who live by working with the 
hammer; used attrib. 

Carlisle possesses eight craft guilds, namely, the Weavers, the 
Smiths, &c., or all that live by the Hammery Art, FERGUSON Hisl. 
Cum. 1890; xiii. 

HAMMICK, see Hommock. 

HAMMIL, v. Chs. [a'mil, ami.] To ill-treat, abuse ; 
to overwork. 

s.Chs. God Awmighty 's hammil'd me, DARLINGTON Ruth, i. 21 ; 
s.Chs. 1 A henpecked husband was said to be 'Aanvildwidhizweyf' 
[hammiled with his weife]. 

Hence Hammilled, ppl. adj. ill-treated, abused. 

s.Chs. 1 An overworked servant maid is called ' a poor hammilled 

[OE. hamelian, to maim, mutilate (Chron.).} 

HAMMIL, see Hummel, adj. 

HAMMIT, adj. Sc. (JAM.) Also in form hammot. 
[Not known to our correspondents.] Plentiful ; used of 
corn growing close, but short in the straw ; also applied 
to corn with many grains on one stalk, or of potatoes 
growing thickly on one stem. 

[Dan. dial, hantmel, yielding, productive, fruitful, used 
of corn having many grains; hammelt (adv.) (MOLBECH).] 

HAMMOCK, sb. 1 Sc. [ha'mak.] A bed. Also usedyfc. 

Sc. Mony a crone was laid on her last hammack, For want o' 
eggs, to fill her cravin' stamack, STEWART Character (1857) 188. 
Elg. I'll e'en pop in my hammock, TESTER Poems (1865) 130. 
Abd. She warms them weel, an' pits them to their hammock. 
BEATTIE Parings (1801) 37, ed. 1873. Rnf. Lord . . . bless thee 
. . . Wi' couthy wife and cozie hammock, WEBSTER Rhymes 
(1835) 108. 

HAMMOCK, s6. 2 e.Suf. The fist : a blow with the 
fist. (F.H.) See Hammer, sb. 1 4. 



HAMMOCK, HAMMUT, see Hommock, Emmet. 

HAMMY, sb. n.Cy. Nhb. Also written hammie N.Cy. 1 
[ha'mi.] 1. A sheepish, cowardly person. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Tho' Gurty sairly run her rig, An' shameful used 
her Hammy, ROBSON Evangeline (1870) 353 ; Nhb. 1 
2. A cock that will not fight. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 

HAMP, sb. 1 Obs. Yks. A kind of smock-frock. 

n.Yks. Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardin' hamp, He'll 
coom nae mair, nowther to berry nor stamp. . . Obs. forty years 
ago. . . The hamp was a smockfrock-Hke article of raiment, 
gathered in somewhat about the middle, and coming some little 
way below the knee, ATKINSON Maori. Parish (1891) 56; n.Yks. 1 
A hamp and a hood ! Then Hobbie again '11 dee nae mair good. 

[Dan. dial, hempe, a peasant's frock, ' toga rustica ' 


HAMP, v. and sb. 2 Sc. Lan. Won Also in forms 
haumpe Lan. ; omp Won [hamp.] 1. v. To halt in 
walking ; to limp. Cf. himp, v. 

Twd. (JAM.) Lan. Trans. Phil. Soc. (1858) 160. s.Wor. A cow 
as omped along on three legs, Vig. Man. in Berrow's Jrn. (1896). 

2. To stammer, speak or read hesitatingly. 

Cld., Lth. (JAM.) Rxb. Ye mind auld stories I can hamp but 
at, A. SCOTT Poems (ed. 1808) 31 ; If ye 'bout it hamp and hay . . . 
ye soon will fin' A wilfu' man maun hae his way, RIDDELL Poet. 
Wks. (ed. 1871) I. 5. Gall. How it came, I scarce can tell, I learnt 
a wee to hamp an' spell, LAUDERDALE Poems (1796) 80. 

Hence Hamper, sb. one who cannot read fluently. Cld. 

3. sb. A halt in walking. Twd. (JAM.) 

4. A stutter. 

Slk. He got through the saxteenth o' Romans without a hamp, 
HOGG Tales (1838) 366, ed. 1865. 

HAMPER, sb. Chs. 1 [a'mpa(r).] A measure of six 

Apples, pears, plums, damsons, and gooseberries are generally 
sold wholesale by the hamper. So also are potatoes, especially 
new potatoes, which are always sent to market in these hampers. 
. . . Each hamper holds half a load of potatoes, that is six pecks 
or scores of twenty-one pounds to the score (a long score 1. 

HAMPER, v. 1 Sc. Yks. Chs. Den Not. Lin. Lei. War. 
Shr. Glo. Oxf. Brks. e.An. Ken. Wil. Som. Also in forms 
amper Wil. ; homper Not. 1 War. 2 ; omper Lei. 1 Oxf. 1 
[h)a'mpa(r, se'mpslr).] 1. To hinder, impede ; to em- 
barrass, burden ; to puzzle; frcq. in pp. In gen. colloq. use. 

Gall. For topling clubs, Oh ! let them be, Or Sawny lad, ye'll 
hamper me, LAUDERDALE Poems (1796 82. n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 4 
Ah've been hampered wi' all maks an" manders o' things, in. Yks. 1 
Chs. 1 To burden with debt. Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 She can't go oot taatie 
pickin', she's so hamper'd wi' bairns. I'm well enif if it warn't 
for this here cough that hampers me. Lei. 1 Mr. is a streenge 
person, a doos 'omper one so. Shr. 1 God 'elp the poor 66man 
'er'll be despertly 'ompered 60th them two twins. Glo. BAYLIS 
Illus. Dial. (1870). Oxf. 1 'Er 'usband's dead and left her hampered 
wi' six children, MS. add. e.An. 1 I 'ont be hampered up along o' 
you. Nrf. I'm hampered to get hold of my breath, COZENS-HARDY 
Broad Nrf. (1893) 88. e.Suf. He's hampered to get his breath 
(F.H.). Ess. Who are in the warld well to do, They onny shud 
ha' cubs; Who's nut, lore! how he's hampered up, CLARK J.Noakes 
(1839) st - T 9- Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892). 

Hence (i) Hamper, sb. confusion, entanglement; per- 
plexity ; (2) Hampered, ppl. adj. beset with difficulties ; 
harassed, troubled ; (3) Hamperment, sb., see (i). 

(i) Ess. An entangled skein is said to be ' all in a hamper ' ; as 
'That's in sich a hamper, I shall niver git it out no more' (W.W.S.). 
n.Wil. When the horses in a team get all into confusion, or a ball 
of string is in a harl, this would be a case of ' aal in a hamper ' 
(G.E.D.). (a) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 ' A sair hamper d family,' borne 
down with difficulties, w. Yks. Troubled with (as toothache) (J.T.). 
nw-Der. 1 , War." (3) Glo. 1 , n.Wil. (G.E.D.) 

2. To hesitate. e.Suf. (F.H.) 

3. To infest with vermin ; to choke with dirt. Gen. in pp. 
n.Yks. 12 ; n.Yks. 4 Them to'nips leeak a bit hampered wi' t'fly. 

m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. We're sairly hampered wi' rats, Yks. Wkly. Post 
(1883). Chs. 1 Yo never seed sitch a place i' your loif, it were aw 
hampered up wi dirt. 

4. To injure, disarrange, throw out of gear. 

Oxf. 1 A lock is said to be ' hampered ' when out of repair so 
that the key cannot work it, MS. add. Brks. 1 Ken. (G.B.); 
Ken. 1 The door is hampered. Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892). 

6. To coerce ; to bridle a colt for the first time. 
w.Som. 1 Aay boa-ut dhik poa nee au-1 ruuf, uvoaT u wuz uvur 
u-aam-purd [I bought that pony in a wild state, before he was ever 
bridled]. Ees ! un u puurdee jau-b wee-d u-gau 't vur tu aam -pur-n ! 
[Yes ! and a pretty job we had to bridle him !] 

6. To punish by legal procedure. 

w.Yks. They could be hampered forsellinglottery-tickets(S.K.C.). 

7. Comp. Hamper-logged, overborne, persuaded. 

War. B'ham Wkly. Post (June 10, 1893) ; War. 2 A witness at 
a late assize at Warwick used this word in the sense of being 
overborne or persuaded by his wife, saying that he was ' quite 
hamper-logged by her.' 

HAMPER, v. 2 Yks. Der. [a-mpa(r).] To beat. 

^w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 Bin hampering thuh agean? wah thah sud 
'a' hamper'd him then mun, thah's bigherniff to heit him ! nw.Der. 1 

HAMPER-CLOT, sb. n.Cy. [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] A ploughman. (HALL.) 

HAMPEROR, sb. w.Wor. 1 A hamper. 

HAMPHIS, v. Obs. Sc. To surround ; to hem in, to 

Sc. Agast the Sothroun stood astound, Syne hamphised him, 
pele-mele, ane and a', JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) II. 175. Abd. 
Out gush'd her eyn . . . Sae hamphis'd was she atween glee and 
wae, Ross Helenore (1768) 67, ed. 1812; A band of Keltrin 
hamphis'd all our braes, ib. 109. 

HAMPLE-TREE, sb. Hrt. e.An. Also in form hamel-. 
[ae'mpl-tri.] The bar by which a horse draws a plough 
or carriage. Gen. in pi. 

Hrt. ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) I. 141. e.An. 12 

HAMPOT, sb. Shr. Also in form ampot. [ae'mpst.] 
A hamper. 

Shr. 1 Poor Dick 6od think it a poor Chris'mas if 'e didna 'ave 
'is ampot ; Shr. 2 

HAMRACH, see Hamburgh. 

HAMREL, sb. Sc. An awkward person ; one who 
stumbles often in walking. 

Abd. Ye never saw sic a hamrel as oor laddie is ; yesterday he 
fell owre my honey pig an' brak it a' to smash. Not uncommon 
(G.W.). Slk. (JAM.) 

HAM-SAM, adv. Dun Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Also 
written hamm-samm Wm. & Cum. 1 ; and in forms ham- 
scram Wm. ; him-sani Dur. [h)a'm-sam.] Irregularly, 
confusedly ; hastily ; in confusion or disorder. 

Dur. 'Re mixt up ham-sam wu frosks, dockers 'n' eels, EGGLE- 
STONE Betty Podkin's Lett. (1877)9; GIBSON Up-Weardale Gl. 
(1870). s.Dur. Things was all thrawn in ham-sam (J.E.D.). Cum. 
She'd pack't them [clothes] eh sec a hurry, teuh, at they wur oa 
ham-sam, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) ir; Gl. (1851); Cum. 4 
Wm. & Cum. 1 An" sat hamm-samm togither, 201. Wm. Then 
reayvc their clwoaks to screeds ham-scram, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 
8, ed. 1896 ; He put his tools in his box ham-sam (B.K.). n.Yks. 
He went at t'wark ham-sam (T.W.); n.Yks. 34 m. Yks. 1 To lay 
anything hamsam, is to heap together. n.Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

HAMSH, v. Sc. In form humsh Abd. To eat noisily 
and hastily or in a voracious manner. See Hanch, v. 2. 

Sc. (JAM. ) Abd. Common. ' Ye sudna humsh up yer sweeties 
that wye ; gie them time to melt i' ye mou' ' (G.W.). Ags. (JAM.) 
Per. Well known. ' Hamsh yer apple' (G.W.). 

HAMSHACKLE, v. Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Nhp. War. 
Also in form homschackle e.Lan. 1 [h)a'mjakl.] To 
fasten the head of an animal to one of its fore-legs to pre- 
vent its straying ; also usedyzg-. 

Sc. Some job that would hamshackle him at least until the 
Courts rose, SCOTT Redg. (1824) i. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , n.Yks. 14 , 
ne.Yks. 1 , Lan.', Nhp. 1 , War. 3 

Hence Homshackled, ppl. adj. fettered by having the 
head tied to the fore-leg. e.Lan. 1 

HAMSHOCH, sb. and adj. Sc. Also written ham- 
schoch, -shogh QAM.) ; and in forms hamsheugh, haum- 
shoch Sc. [ha'nifax-] 1- sb. A sprain or contusion in 
the leg; a severe bruise, esp. when accompanied by a 
wound; a severe laceration of the body. Fif., Ayr. QAM.) 
2. A misfortune, an untoward accident ; a disturbance. 
Sc. The hamsheughs were very great until auld uncle Rabby 
came into redd them, GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 16. Knr. Wat 
ye na that we're gaun straught the gate we pactioned about, afore 
thir hamshoghs dang a' our plans heels-o'er-head? St. Patrick 
(1819) II. 77 JAM.). 





8. A harsh and unmannerly intermeddling in any busi- 
ness. Fif. OAM.) 

4. adj. Much bruised, often referring to a contusion 
accompanied with a wound, (ib.) 

5. Severe, censorious, as applied to critics. 

Sc. Thae haumshoch bodies o' critics get up wi' sic lang-nebbit 
gallehooings, Edb. Mag. (Apr. 1821) 351 (JAM.). Ayr. (ib.} 

HAMSTERS, sb. pi. Lan. [a'mstaz.] A kind of knee- 
breeches ; lit. a covering for the ' hams.' 

His hamsters of dark kerseymere, grey at the knees, BAM FORD 
Radical (1840) I. 51 ; Wi' stockins deawn, unteed his shoon, His 
hamsters loosely hung, RIDINGS Muse (1845) 6 ; Lan. 1 

HAMSTRAM, sb. Sc. Difficulty. 

Abd. Wi' great hamstram they thriml'd thro' the thrang, Ross 
Helenore (1768) 94, ed. 1812. 

HAN, sb. Obs. w.Yks. 1 The sound made by men 
while cleaving wood. 

[Fr. han, the groan, or forced, and sigh-like voice, where- 
with wood-cleavers, &c. keep time to their strokes (COTGR.).] 

HANBURY, see Anbury. 

HANBY,aa^'. n.Cy. [Not known to our correspondents.] 
Wanton, unruly. HOLLOWAY. 

HANCE, v. Not. Rut. Lei. Also written hanse Lei. 1 
[ans, sens. | To give one ' handsel ' or earnest-money. 

Not. 1 , Rut. 1 Lei.' I hope, ma'am, you'll hance me. 

HANCER, see Heronsew. 

HANCH, sk 1 Som. Dev. Also written anch Dev. [aenj.] 
The upright part of a gate to which the hinges are attached. 

w.Som. 1 Thick piece'll mak a very good head, but he id'n stiff 
enough for a hanch. We be bound vor to drow another piece o' 
oak vor zome more gate-stuff. There's a plenty o' larras a-cut 
out, but we be short o' heads an' lan'shez] hanches. Dev. Some- 
times called the ' hanging head.' ' Some larch lars and oak anches 
will last as long as anything,' Reports Provinc. (1883) 86. 

Hence Ranching, 56. carpentering term : the part left 
outside the end mortices in the side of a door, sash, or 
other frame. 

w.Som. 1 The sarsh was too long ; vore he'd fit, fo'ced to cut 
away all the hanching. 

HANCH, v. and sb? Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Stf. Nhp. War. Glo. Oxf. Wil. Som. Dev. Also written 
hansh n.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 ; and in forms ansh e.Lan. 1 ; aunch 
Stf. 2 : haunch Nhb. 1 Nhp. 1 Glo. 12 Oxf. 1 ; haunshSc. (JAM.) 
[h)anj, aenj, ijnf.] 1. v. To bite, snap at with the teeth 
as a dog does. Also used fig. 

Sc. Esp. applied to the action of a dog, when seizing anything 
thrown to him, and apparently including the idea of the noise 
made by his jaws when he snaps at it (JAM.) ; A number greedily 
haunsht at the argument, BAILLIE Lett. (,1776^ I. 200 (ib.). Ant. 
Ballymena Obs. (1892). Nhb. (J.M.M.) ; Nhb. 1 He fair (launched 
at me. The dog haunched at me. Cum. T'policeman pot t'beuck 
up lull his gob, an hancht it, as if he was gaan teh tak a lump oot 
on't, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 37 ; Cum. 4 Also to threaten to 
bite as does a really good-natured horse. 'Quiet will ta! hanchin 
on like that.' n.Yks. (I.W.); (T.S.) ne.Yks. 1 That dog o' yours 
hanched at ma when ah tried ti clap him. e.Yks. Dog hansht at 
im, buod e cuodn't ger 'od on im [the dog snatched at him, but he 
could not get hold of him] (Miss A.) ; e.Yks. 1 Lan. No bitin' ! 
Anybody ut hanches shall have a tooth drawn 1 BRIERLEY Cast 
upon World (1886; 36; Yerin 'em hanch an' arre at us, CLEGG 
Sketches (1895) 397 ; At Bolton the word is in common use ; in 
use in Preston and Ashton-under-Lyne, but not so common as it 
was (S.W.) ; DAVIES Races (1856) 275; Lan. 1 , n.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 
Chs. 1 If a dog's mad, he'll hansh at anything that's near him. 
s.Chs. 1 Ahy du)nO lahykith looks fi dhaaf dog ; ey aan-sht aaf 
mi veri saavich jus dhen [I dunna like th' looks o' that dog ; he 
hanshed at me very savage jus' then]. 

Hence (i) Hanch-apple, sb. the game of ' snap-apple ' ; 
see below ; fa) Hanching-night, so. Halloween. 

(i) Lan. DAVIES Races (18561 275; Lan. 1 The game of snap- 
apple, which consists in biting at an apple floating in water or 
suspended by a cord. It is usually played at Halloween, (a) 
Cum.* Hanchin' neet takes its name from the game of ' Bob-apple,' 
when with hands behind the back, the players hanched at an apple 
suspended from the ceiling by a string. 
2. To eat greedily or voraciously as a dog or pig does. 

Slk. (JAM. i Gall. To eat like a swine, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 
252, ed. 1876 ; His sillar up in meat he'd hanch, ib. 135. 

Hence Hanshun, sb. a savage grunt ; a greedy way of 
feeding like a pig. Nhb. 1 

3. To seize, snatch ; to take hold of roughly ; to handle 
roughly or unkindly. 

ne.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 What are ye hanching and clicking at, there? 
If thou hanches in that way, I'll ! Stf. 2 Dunner Onsh dhat babi 
adhatnz ; puor litl thing. 

Hence Aunching, ppl. adj. unkindly treated or handled. 

Stf. 2 Wei, iz weifs betar of na arz jed, far ar ad a Onshin loif 
wi im. 

4. Of a cow or bull : to thrust or gore with the horns. 
e.Yks. 1 Bull hanch'd at ma wiv his hoorns, bud Ah got oot of his 

way. Nhp. 1 When a cow has been tossing a beast, it is said 'she 
has been haunching it.' If a person were gored to death by a beast, 
it would be said, 'He's got haunched.' War. (J.R.W.), Glo. 12 
Oxf. 1 If dhee guost in aa'wuld Dan'l Braa-ynz klaaws iz buol ul 
au'rnch dhu [If thee gu'st in awuld Dan'l Braain's claaos. 'is bull 
'll'aunch tha]. Wil. 1 n. Wil. Common (E.H.G.). Som.W. & J. 
Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 Less commonly used than horch (q.v.). Dev. 3 

5. sb. A voracious snap or snatch ; an attempt to bite 
from behind. 

Sc. (JAM.) N.I. 1 The dog made a hanch at me. n.Yks.* 

[1. Som hanchyd of the heued, Wars Alex. (c. 1450) 774. 
Fr. hancher, to snatch at with the teeth (COTGR.).] 

HANCHMAN, see Henchman. 

HANCHUM-SCRANSHUM, sb. Lin. Also written 
anshum- n.Lin. 1 [a'nfam-skranjam.] Bewilderment, con- 
fusion, disorder. Also used attrib. 

A scramble for food at a table where there is a scarcity ; 
any scene of confusion, THOMPSON Hist. Boston (1856; 698 ; Lin. 1 
Provisions were scarce, and to get at it I never saw such hanchum- 
scranshum work in my life. n.Lin. 1 Ther' was a deal o' anshum- 
scranshum wark at Smith's saale along o' th' auksoneer not causin' 
foSks to stan' e* a ring. 

HANCLE, sb. Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. Also written hankie Sc. 
[ha'rjkl.] A handful ; a great deal, considerable quantity 
or amount. See Hantle. 

Sc. Just like a hankie folks, they think they're right enough if 
they go to kirk on Sunday, CALDER Presbyt. Eloq. (1694) 155, ed. 
1847. n-Cy. (W.T.), N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 

HAND, sb. and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. and 
Amer. Also in forms an- Nhp. 1 Oxf. 1 Dev. ; haand Sh.I. ; 
han Sc. QAM.) Cai. 1 N.I. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Lakel. 12 Cum. 14 e.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. Suf. 1 Dev. ; hant Lan. ; haun Ayr. Lnk. ; hond 
w.Yks. Lan. 1 s.Stf. [h)an(d, aen(d, ond.] 1. sb. In 
comb, (i) Hand-ball, the game of rounders ; (2) -barrow, 
a barrow or kind of large tray on legs, with four projecting 
handles, carried by the hands ; (3) -beast, the horse a 
ploughman directs with his left hand ; (4) -beat, to cut off 
the turf, &c. with a mattock, in order to burn it and so 
render the land arable ; see Burn-beat ; (5) -beating, 
the process of preparing land by ' burn-beating' (q.v.) ; 
(6) -bellows, a small pair of bellows ; (7) -bill, a bill-hook 
or hedging-hook ; (8) -bind, a grip in wrestling ; (9) 
blomary, Obs., a smelting furnace; (10) -board, a tea-tray; 
(n) -bolts, handcuffs; (12) -bound, (a) fully occupied, 
very busy ; (b) hampered, put to inconvenience ; (13) 
-box, the lower handle of a sawyer's long pit-saw ; also 
called Box ; (14) -braid or -breed, a hand's breadth ; (15) 
breadth, a measure of 3 inches, sometimes used loosely 
for ' hand ' ; (16) -brush, a brush used for domestic clean- 
ing purposes ; (17) -burying, a walking funeral, in which 
the body is carried by hand ; (18) -canter, a quick canter; 
(19) -carrying, see (17) ; (20) -'s-chare, light household 
work ; a very small piece of work, an odd job ; (21) -clap, 
a moment, short space of time ; (22) -cled, gloved ; (23) 
cloth, (a) a towel; (b) a pocket-handkerchief; (24) -clout 
or -cloot, see (23, a) ; (25) -cold, cold enough to chill the 
hands ; (26) -croppers, obs., workmen who formerly cropped 
or cut the raised fibres on the face of cloth, by hand; (27) 
darg, handiwork, labour, toil ; what is gained by labour; 
(28) -drist, to separate corn from the chaff, &c., after it is 
threshed, by rubbing it between the hands ; (29) -fast, (a) to 
betroth ; to pledge; to shake hands overabargain ; also used 
attrib. ; (b) able to hold tight; also usedyfc.; (30) -fasting or 
fisting, obs., a betrothal ; see below ; (31) -fill, to separate 
the small from the large coal in a mine ; (32) -flower, the 




wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri; (33) -frandie, a hand-rick 
or small stack of corn, no higher than can be reached with 
the hand ; (34) -ful, (a) a heavy charge or task ; a burden, 
responsibility ; (b) a few ; a small quantity ; (35) -gear, 
any working arrangement of machinery, which is moved 
by hand ; (36) -gloves, gloves ; (37) -going or -gying, re- 
ported from one to another ; (38) -greeping-hook, obs., a 
hook formerly used by women for cutting wheat ; (39) 
grip, a grasp of the hand ; (40) -gun, a pistol ; a pop-gun ; 
(41) -babble, see below ; (42) -hail!, hand-whole, fit for 
all one's work ; (43) -hap, a chance, hazard ; (44) -hats, a 
kind of glove, made of thick felt, covering only the palm 
of the hand and the fingers ; (45) -hawk, a plasterer's tool 
on which he lays the plaster ; (46) -hold, a firm grasp with 
the hand ; anything that may be grasped or taken hold of 
with the hand ; (47) -hollow, a term used in the game of 
' hop-scotch ' or ' hitchy-dabber ' ; see below ; (48) -hook, 
tanning term : a short iron hook, fixed in a cross-handle 
of wood, with which tanners move the wet hides ; (49) 
hoven-bread, oatmeal bread kneaded very stiffly and 
with very little leaven ; (50) -huts, small stacks built by 
hand, by a person standing on the ground ; (51) -idle, idle, 
having nothing to occupy the hands ; (52) -irons, flat-irons 
for laundry work ; (53) -ladder, a light ladder, easily 
carried by hand ; (54) -lass, a windlass ; the handle of a 
windlass ; (55) -leather, a partial leather covering for the 
hands of shoemakers, brick-fillers, &c. ; (56) -led, led by 
the hand ; (57) -less, awkward, clumsy ; awkward in using 
the hands ; (58) -line, (a) a fishing-line for taking fish from 
the bottom of deep water ; also used attrib. ; (b) fishing 
with a hand-line ; (59) -making, making or manufacturing 
by hand as opposed to machinery; (60) -meag, a tool 
used to mow peas, brake, &c. ; (61) -mow, a small stack 
of hay or corn ; (62) -ock, see (45) ; (63) -offer, a gift ; (64) 
pannier, a small hand-basket; (65) -pat, ready at hand, 
convenient ; off-hand, fluent ; (66) -payment, a beating ; 
(67) -picked, used of large coals or coke filled by hand 
without using a shovel ; (68) -pin, a wooden pin used for 
the purpose of wringing hanks ; (69) -pins, the handles of 
a scythe ; (70) -plane, a smoothing-plane ; (71) -promise, a 
betrothal, troth-plight ; (72) -prop, a walking-stick ; (73) 
putter, a person who ' puts ' or pushes a barrow without 
the assistance of a pony, in a coal-mine ; (74) -rackle, 
careless, acting without consideration ; active, ready ; (75) 
raising, the process of raising the surface of cloth, &c. 
by hand-cards ; (76) -reel, an old reel or machine, used 
for winding and numbering the hanks of yarn ; (77) -rest, 
the right-hand or slighter handle of a ' timbern zole ' ; 
(78) -ride or -rode, a term used by shepherds in sheep- 
breeding; see below ; (79) -running, consecutively, con- 
tinuously, in uninterrupted succession ; (80) -saw, in phr. 
to have a voice like the sharpening of a handsaw, to have 
a harsh, disagreeable voice ; (81) -scroo,a rick of sheaves 
such as can be built by hand from the ground : (82) -seller, 
see below ; (83) -shaking, (a) a correction, punishment ; 
a close engagement, grappling ; (6) an interference, inter- 
meddling; (84) -sneakies, see (n); (85) -shoes, gloves; 
(86) -smooth, quite level, as smooth as the palm of the 
hand, without obstacle, uninterruptedly ; (87) -spaik or 
spoke, a handspike, a piece of wood with handles, used 
esp. for carrying the dead to the place of interment ; (88) 
spike, a wooden lever, shod with iron ; (89) -spring, a 
street-arab's acrobatic performance ; (90) -staff or -stave, 

(a) the handle of a flail ; (b) see (72) ; (91) -staff-cap, the 
swivel that joins the handle and swingle of a flail ; (92) 
stick, see (90, a) ; (93) -stir, (a) a very small distance ; 
a slight movement ; (b) the smallest possible amount of 
labour ; (94) -stocking, a mitten ; (95) -stone, a small 
stone, a pebble ; (96) -strike, (a) a blow with the hand ; 

(b) a strong piece of wood used as a lever to a windlass ; 
(97) -stroke, see (93, b); (98) -tethers, (a) see (n) ; (b) 
pursuits requiring constant attention ; (99) -thief, one who 
steals with the hands ; (100) -tied, (a) unable to leave a 
job in which one is engaged ; (b) hand-clasped ; (101) 
ties, (a) see (n) ; (b) see (98, b) ; (102) -tillage, artificial 

manure spread on the land with the hand ; (103) -tree, 
obs., the top piece of the ' going part ' of a hand-loom ; 
(104) -turn or -'s turn, a single act of doing a piece of 
work ; (105) -wailed or -waled, remarkable, distinguished 
in whatever way ; carefully selected ; (106) -wave, to 
| streek ' a measure of grain by striking it with the hand 
in order to give good measure ; (107) -waving, a mode of 
measuring grain by striking it with the hand ; (108) -wed, 
weeded by hand; (109) -('s while, a little while; (no) 
woman, a midwife ; (111) -wrist, the wrist ; (112) -write, 
handwriting, penmanship ; (113) -wrought, fabricated by 

(i) Sc. Ye may walk in't very near three hours a-day, and play 
at pitch-and-toss, and hand-ba', and what not, SCOTT Guy M. (1815) 
xliv. e.Dur. 1 More commonly called ' roondies.' Played by girls 
with shells ('williks') and a ball, whilst these words are recited: 
' Set a cup upon a rock, Chalk me one a pot. One, two, three, 
four, One at a time,' &c. ' One up,' &c. (2) Gall. MACTAGGART 
Encycl. ,1824). se.Wor. 1 A barrow or carriage without a wheel, 
but with a pair of handles at each end, by which to carry it. 
w.Som. 1 In constant use by gardeners for carrying flowers, &c. ; 
also in quarries for carrying stones. 3 Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. 
< 1824). ^4) Dev. To hand-beat, to cut off the surface of the earth 
or spine with a hough, which is otherwise done with a spade, and 
sometimes with a breast plough, and even with a paring-plough, 
drawn with horses, in order for sweating or burning, GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (M.) (5) w.Som. 1 The act of digging up with a mattock 
old weedy and furzy turf (which is too full of roots to be ploughed) 
for the purpose of burning it, and so rendering the land arable. 
n.Dev. Whare they be shooling o' beat, handbeating or angle- 
bowing, Exm. Scold. (1746' 1. 197. w.Dev. Chipping off the sward 
with a beating-axe, MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796) I. 142. (6) Sc. 
I'll bring a pair o' han'-bellows, Sc. Haggis, 60. (7^ n.Cy. (J.W.% 
s.Not. (J.P.K.) Lin. Come out herewith the handbills and brattle 
all the willows anywhere nigh, FENN Dick o the Fens (1888) iv. 
(8) Sh.I. Dey wir nae buttiri i' da haandbind I link, an' hit wis as 
weel for Geordie, Sh. News (May 7, 1898). (9) Hrf. Iron ore was 
discovered in the sandy district of Wormelow hundred as early as 
the time of the Romans in Britain, and many of the hand-blomaries 
used by them have been met with on Peterslow Common, MAR- 
SHALL Review (1818) II. 303. (10) e.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , s.Chs.' (u) 
Hmp. (J.R.W.), Hmp. 1 (12, a) Lth. How may hand-bound 
ininnie get Her tottums clad sae gaily? BALLANTINE Poems (1856) 
276. (b) Nhb. 1 An old bird fancier, when asked how he was 
getting on, replied, ' Middlin ! Aa's fair handbun for the want o' 
a Jack ' [jackdaw], (13) Wil. 1 (14) Frf. He perceived a nitch in 
it, some more than a hand-brode from the hilt, LOWSON Guid- 
follow (1890) 282. e.Fif. Cuttin' the legs o' them a hand-breed 
ower short, LATTO Tarn Bodkin \ 1864) viii. Ayr. Ae limpin leg 
a hand-breed shorter, BURNS Willie's Wife, st. 3 ; I went out from 
his presence a hand-breid heicher in my own estimation, SERVICE 
Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 89. Lnk. Pouther up her hair, An' stick 
her newest kame abune't, A hand-braid high an' mair, MURDOCH 
Doric Lyre { 1873^1 93. Nhb. 1 , Cum. 14 ,e.Yks. 1 ,w.Yks. 1 , e.Lan. ^n.Lin. 1 , 
Nhp. 1 ( 15) Shr. 1 A rather loose expression, signifying approximately 
rather than exactly, Introd. 93. ( 16) w. Mid. They have a handle about 
a foot long, which is cut from the same piece of wood as the back. 
This is about 4 in. square, except that the end farthest away from the 
handle is slightly rounded like a cricket-bat (W.P.M.). (17) n.Yks. 2 
(18) Ayr. They drove at a fine 'han' canter' down the Kyle Stew- 
art, AINSLIE Land of Burns (_ed. 1892) 49. (19) n.Yks. 2 Many of 
the old inhabitants had an aversion to be hearsed, choosing rather 
to be ' carried by hand and sung before,' as it was the mode of 
their families in time past ; and in the suspensary manner of 
'hand-carrying' with the hold of linen towels passing beneath the 
coffin, we still see women borne by women, as men by men, &c., 
Introd. 9. (20) s.Not. Oh, my sister ! she niver does a hand's- 
chare for me (J.P.K.). s.Lin. Obs. (T.H.R.) Lei. 1 I have no one 
to do a hand's-chare for me. Nhp. 1 ' She wont do a hands-chare,' 
is a common mode of complaint against an indolent, inactive person ; 
Nhp. 2 , War. 3 (21 ) Cai. 1 Gall. They would get husbands in a hand- 
clap, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 302, ed. 1876. (22)n.Yks. 2 (23,0) 
Lakel.^Cum. 4 (AlLakel. 2 (24)n.Cy.GROSE(i7go). Dur.'.Lakel. 12 , 
Cum. 14 n.Yks. Muder, ev yo- seen t'hand-clout? A want to wipe 
thees things (W.H.); n.Yks. 124 , ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. 
Econ. (1788). m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Leuk fer t'clean hancloot an' all, 
BLACKAH Poems (1867) 10; w.Yks. 15 , nw.Der. 1 , n.Lin. 1 (25) Ken. 1 
There was a frost down in the bottoms, for I was right-down hand- 
cold as I come up to the great house. (26) w.Yks. The ire of the 
hand-croppersin this district were directed against a machine termed 

G 2 




a frame, PEEL Luddites (iK^ 9. (27) Sc. (JAM. Suppl.] Ayr. 
Nought but his han' darg, to keep Them right an' tight, BURNS 
Twa Dogs (1786) 1. 77. (28) S. & Ork. 1 (39, a) Sc. Endeavour 
to have in mind the love of your espousals, when ye and Christ 
were hand-fasted, THOMSON Cloud of Witnesses (1714) 254, ed. 1871 ; 
This Isobel was but handfast with him, and deceased before the 
marriage, ANDREWS Bygone Ch, Life (1899) 210; That gentle- 
woman had confess'd to himself she was handfast before she came 
out of England, SPOTTISWOODE Miscell. (1844) I. 107. Nhb. 1 Obs. 
Lakel. 2 n.Yks. 2 'A handfast lot,' unionists. Handfasted, pledged. 
(6) Ken. 1 'Old George is middlin' handfast to-day' (said of a good 
catch at cricket). Dev. 1 When a was bad a was zo handyfast that 
a widn't suffer her out o' es sight neart or day, 40. (30) Sc. It 
was not until more than twenty years after the Reformation that 
the custom of handfasting,' which had comedown from old Celtic 
times, fell into disrepute, and consequent disuse. By this term 
was understood cohabitation for a year, the couple being then free 
to separate, unless they agreed to make the union permanent, 
ANDREWS Bygone Ch. Life (1899) 210; Among the various customs 
now ots. the most curious was that of ' handfisting.' . . In the 
upper part of Eskdale . . . was held an annual fair, where multi- 
tudes of each sex repaired. The unmarried looked out for mates, 
made their engagements by joining hands, or by handfisting, went 
off in pairs, cohabited till the next annual return of the fair . . . 
and then were at liberty to declare their approbation or dislike of 
each other. If each party continued constant, the handfisting was 
renewed for life, PENNANT Tour (1772) 91, 92 (JAM.). Slk. We 
hae corned far . . . for a preevat but honest hand-fasting, HOGG 
Tales (1838) 368, ed. 1866. Dmf. At that fair it was the custom 
for the unmarried persons of both sexes to choose a companion . . . 
with whom they were to live till that time next year. This was 
called hand-fasting, Statist. Ace. XII. 615 (JAM.). N.Cy. 2 , Nhb. 
(K.) (31) Nhb. To separate the small from the large coals in the 
mine, the latter being filled by the hand into the tub or corf, 
and the former thrown to the side of the working-place, or filled 
separately as required (R.O.H.X Nhb. ,Dur. GREENWELL CoalTr. 
Gl. (ed. 1888). -32) w.Yks. LEES Flora (1888) 137.' (33) Fif. 
(JAM.) (34, a) Cai 1 Unfeeling or selfish persons who have to 
attend to one in severe or protracted illness, sometimes say that 
' he is a sair hanfuV Sh.I. If he's [it's] no a haandfoo 'at folk haes 
wi'dem fraeda first faelis lifted an' fil < L till] deri' da paet-neuk, dan, 
dan! Sh.Netvs(Aug. 13, 1898). Kcd. Years the bailie lied been dowie, 
Lang an unco han'fu' till her, GRANT Lays (1884) 45. Per. I leave 
ye wi' a heavy handfu', but oh, woman, lean on Him to whom 
naething's a burden. JACQUES Herd Laddie, 24. Lnk. Watty left 
wi' sic a han'fu', What to dae, losh ! couldna see, NICHOLSON 
Idylls (1870) 28. Ayr. He had been long a heavy handful, having 
been for years but, as it were, a breathing lump of mortality, GALT 
Provost (1822) viii. Nhb. 'He has a handful' (of work or anxiety). 
When any person is bedridden and helpless, they are said to be a 
' heavy handfa ' to those in whose care they are i^R.O.H.V Yks. 
(J.W.) sw.Lin. 1 You are well aware I have a handful wi' the boys. 
Rut. 1 He's quite a handful, you're sure ! War. 2 You'll find that lad 
a rare handful. s.Wor. 1 ' Our 'Liza's wonderful took up uv that 
chap o' hern, but if they gets married he'll be a handful, I reckon. 
Glo. (A.B.) Oxf. 1 MS. add. Ken. 1 To have a handful is to have 
as much as a person can do and bear. ' Mrs. S. says she has a sad 
handful with her mother.' Snr. (L.J.Y.) (6) Fif. I stood for a 
handfu' o' minutes afore I steppit aneath the trees, ROBERTSON 
Provost (1894) 22. (35) Nhb. (R.O.H.) (36) Cor. 1 What! begging 
with hand-gloves on ! (37) n.Yks. 2 (38) nw.Dev. 1 It was about 
half the length of an ordinary reap-hook (q.v.\ and was used in 
the right hand whilst the wheat was greeped [gripped] with the 
left. About six greeps or handfuls were made into one sheaf. 
(39) n.Yks. 2 (40) Sc. Jockey and his mither came hame together, 
cheek for chow, cracking like twa hand-guns, GRAHAM Writings 
(1883) II. 31. (41) Rxb. Business that is done quickly, summarily, 
without any previous plan, or without loss of time, is said to be 
done hand-habblc. It often includes the idea of something haughty 
or imperious in the mode of acting (JAM.). (42) Per. The man 
that sits, as I do here, Haund-haill, an' neither slow to steer Nor 
quick to live, HALIBURTON Ochil Idylls (1891) 40. (43) Fif. Athand- 
hap, by chance (JAM.). (44) Nhb. These were formerly made at 
Corbridge for the teazers at glass works, who wore hand-hats to 
protect their hands in holding the hot pokers and tools used in 
their work. Obsol. (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 (45) Nhp. 1 s.v. Hawk. 
e.An. 1 (46) n.Yks. 1 Ah couldn't ho'd mah handho'd, strahve as I 
moud ; n.Yks. 2 ' Tak good hand-hod,' take firm hold ; n.Yks. 4 It 
'ez a good hand-ho'd ti't. e.Yks. 1 Hez tha getten a good hand- 
hod, for if thoo hez'nt it'll slip away frc tha. Lin. STREATFEILD 
Lilt, and Danes (1884) 335. n.Lin. 1 I darn't climb noa higher, 

ther's naather hand-hohd nor foot-hohd for one. Ken. 1 'Tis a 
plaguey queer job to climb up there, there an't no hand-hold. (47) 
e.Dur. 1 Used by girls when playing the game of ' hitchy-dabber ' 
(hopscotch). Often the ' dabber' gets so near the line that a girl 
cannot insert the breadth of her hand between, in which case she 
must give up the ' dabber ' to her opponent to play. (48) Chs. 1 
(49) N.Cy. 2 , Lan. (K.) (50) [A dry moment should be seized to 
put 2 or 3 stocks into what are called hand-huts in the field, that 
is, small stacks built by hand, by a person standing on the ground, 
STEPHENS Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) II. 372.] (51) Sc. I am hand-idle 
like yourself, minister, KEITH Bonnie Lady (1897) 79. Sh.I. A'm 
gaein ta spin a treed o' wirset. I can say A'm haand idle for da 
want o' hit, Sh. News (Feb. 12, 1898). N.I. 1 They're hand idle 
for want o' their tools. (52) e.Yks. (S.K.C.) (53) Wgt. Jamie's 
quarters were in the loft, to which a hand-ladder led, FRASER 
Wigtown (1877) 229. (54; Shr. 12 (55) n.Yks. (I.W.) (56) 
n.Yks. 2 ' A hand-led bairn," a child just beginning to walk. (57) 
Sc. Being a lonely man, and used to fend for himself, . . the 
schoolmaster was not as handless as might be supposed, KEITH 
Bonnie Lady (1897) 69 ; A handless taupie, a woman who exerts 
herself in so slovenly a way, that she still lets her work fall out 
of her hands (JAM.). Cai. 1 Bnff. Hundreds of times we have 
tasted beef tea . . . cooked by handless dawdles, which an Irish 
pig would disgorge, GORDON Citron. Keith (1880) 75. Frf. He is 
most terribly handless, BARRIE M. Ogilvy (1896 128. Rnf. Curse 
her for a hanless gab, YOUNG Pictures (1865) 162. Ayr. Wha wad 
keep thehandless coo f That couldna labour lea? BURNS O can ye labour 
lea ? Lnk. Ane and a' were puir feckless han'less creaturs, their 
fingers were a" thooms as the saying is, FRASER Whaups (1895) 
173. e.Lth. I peety ony man wha gets ane o' the thowless, han'- 
less tawpies, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895) 148. Cum. 14 (58, a) 
Sh.I. Formerly sinkers were made of klamal or soap-stone, instead 
of lead as at present, and to this day fishermen speak of the haand- 
line stane or lead stane, a remnant of the ancient practice, SPENCE 
Fit-Lore (1899) 129. Cai. 1 A hand-line is wrought vertically from 
a boat. The hooks are at the end. It is run to the bottom, and 
then drawn back a fathom or so. (6) Sh.I. They had been off at 
the handline, and on their return one evening after dark were re- 
counting the day's adventures to the old man, SPENCE Flk-Lore 
(1899) 22. (59) Frf. The days o' hand-makin' are aboot past an' 
dune noo, WILLOCK Rosetty Ends (1886; 2, ed. 1889. (60) Nrf. 
I want you to make me a hand-meag, EMERSON Son of Fens (1892; 
96. (61) Som. (W.F.R.) (62) Dev. Reports Pro-vine. (1889). (63) 
n.Yks. 2 (64) Glo. GROSE U79O) MS. add. (M.) (65) Nhp. 1 He 
told it me as hand pat as could be ; Nhp. 2 , War. 3 Wor. Another 
illustration comes hand-pat, Evesham Jrn. (Jan. 30, 1897). Oxf. 1 
Uur'd dhii wul stoo'ri uz an 'pat uz cuod bee ['Er 'd (she had) the 
wul stoory as anpat as could be]. Bdf. BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. 
Lang. (1809! 135. Dor. He had it all handpat, BARNES Gl. (1863). 
Som. I've hitch un upon chimbley-crook, han'pat again he's wanted, 
RAYMOND Men o' Mcndip (1898) i. Dev. Got et han'pat, PULMAN 
Sketches (1842) 102, ed. 1871. (66) Abd. (JAM.) (67) Nhb.. Dur. 
NICHOLSON Coal Tr. Gl. (1888). (68) w.Yks. Usually from 18 to 
24 inches long, and gen. made of lignum vitae (R.S.). (69) 
nw.Dev. 1 (70) Sc. (JAM.) (71) Ir. But Molly says, ' I'd his hand- 
promise, an' shure he'll meet me agin,' TENNYSON To-morrow 
^1885). (72) Sc. Wha negleckit to bring your hand-prap ? O 
whaur i' the warld's your bane-headit staff? STEWART Character 
(1857)27. (73) Nhb. 1 Nhb., Dur. NICHOLSON Coal Tr. Gl. (1888). 
\Reports Mines.] (74) Slk. The hand-rackle Homes, the dorty 
Dumbars, HOGG Perils of Man (1822) III. 12 QAM.). Rxb. He's 
as hand-rackle a fallow as in a' the parish (JAM.X (75) w.Yks. 
(J.M.) (76) Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824). (77) nw.Dev. 1 
(78) Not. A word used by flock-owners or their men when in the 
autumn the ewes are put to the ram ; it really means that instead 
of the ewes running with the ram he is kept up and the ewes 
brought to him and put in stocks, to be served ( W.L.H.) ; Not. 3 (79) 
Lakel. 2 , Cum. 14 n.Yks. (T.S.); n.Yks. 1 Hestoppedaway three weeks 
hand-running and nivver went til his work at all ; n.Yks. 4 He's 
ta'en fowr prizes han'-running. ne.Yks. 1 We've had three deeaths 
i' t'toon three tahms han'-runnin'. w.Yks. Shoo fetched her hus- 
band hooam twenty-one nights, hand-running, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE 
Bairns/a Ann. (1852) 10 ; w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 2 He won six games 
hand-running ; w.Yks. 5 Lan. 1 He'd feight the whole lot on 'em, 
hond-running, as easy as ninepencc. e.Lan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 , Stf. 1 , 
nw.Der. 1 , Not. 1 s.Not. I've hit that post five times hand running 
(J.P.K.). n.Lin. Th' sho't-horn coo lied three roand cauves hand- 
runnin' (M.P.); n.Lin. 1 Ther' was six deaths from that feaver hand- 
running. Let 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 8 Bck., Bdf. I fell down three times, 
hand-running (J.W.B. . Hut. (T.P.F.) (8o1 N.I. 1 (81) Cai. 1 
(8a) Lon. The sellers of tins, who carry them under their arms, or 




in any way on a round, apart from the use of a vehicle, are known 
as hand-sellers, MAYHEW Land. Labour (1851) I. 354. (83, a) 
Slk. Fain wad I hae had a handshaking wi' them, HOGG Brownie 
of Bodsbeck (1818) (JAM.). Nhb. ' Aa gav him a hanshakin,' I 
corrected him severely ( M .H. D. ). (b) Rxb. I wad likenaethingbetter 
than to hae a handshakin' wi' that business (JAM.). (84) Nhb. 1 
(85) s.Sc. The skin of the goat that furnishes soft hand-shoes, as 
they call gloves in the Pictish counties of Scotland, WILSON Tales 
(1836) III. 142. (86) e.An. 1 He ate it up hand-smooth. Suf. 1 , 
e.Suf. (F.H.) (87) Sc. The coffin was carried out on hand-spaiks, 
HUNTER J. Armigers Revenge (1897) xv. Sh.I. Da men wis fix'd 
da twa fowereen staangs 'at Geordie Moad wis taen frae da banks 
fir haandspaiks, Sh. News (Jan. 7, 1899). e.Lth. It took four-an- 
twenty men wi' han'-spaiks to lift him doun the avenue, HUNTER 
/. Inwick (1895) 74. Gall. The old freet . . . that those who fall 
when at the handspake aneath the corpse, will soon be the corpse 
themsell, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 263, ed. 1876. Nhb. 1 , n.Lin. 1 , 
Suf. 1 (88) w.Yks. 1 Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892). (89) Lon. I'd even 
begin tumbling when I went out on errands, doing hand-spring, 
and starts-up (that's laying on your back and throwing yourself 
up), MAYHEW Land. Labour (ed. 1861) III. 104. (9O,)Sc. (JAM.\ 
Cai. 1 Gall. The swoople on the end of the handstaff being whirled 
round on the barn-floor by the barnman, MACTAGGART Encycl. 
(1824) 49, ed. 1876. N.I. 1 (s.v. Flail.) Nhb. 1 Cum. We fit up a 
flail Wi' handstaff, and soople, and cappin, DICKINSON Cumbr. 
(1875) 230; Cum. 14 Wm. I brokken mi handstaff (B.K.). 
n.Yks. 124 , ne.Yks. 1 . w.Yks. 1 , Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 , s.Not. 
(J.P.K.), n.Lin. 1 Nhp. 1 Anstiff, a corruption of handstaff; the 
handle of a flail. Shr. 2 , Hrf. 2 Glo. The labourer held the hand- 
staff in both hands, swung it over his head, and brought the swingle 
down horizontally, GIBBS Cotswold Vill. (1898) 385. Bdf. BATCHE- 
LOR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809^ 135. e.An. 1 Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. 
(1819) 294, ed. 1849 ; Suf. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H;), Ken. 1 , Wil. 1 , Som. 
(W.F.R.) Dev. Ansteeve, the handle of a flail, HEWETT Peas. Sp. 
(1892)46. nw.Dev. 1 (b) Per. Hoastin' on their haund-staffs, And 
crynin' wi' the cauld, HALIBURTON Ochil Idylls (1891) 59. (91) 
e.An. 1 (92) War. 3 , s.Wor.' w.Som. 1 It is a round, straight piece 
of very tough ash, so shaped as to leave a projecting ring of wood 
at the top. Over this comes the capel (q.v.), which is hollowed 
out to fit this ring, and turns easily upon it without coming off 
from the handstick. 193, a) w.Yks. Nay lass, ah'm noan gooin ta 
move a hand stir, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Baimsla Ann. (1896) 4. 
n.Lin. 1 I've heard them saay as hes been e' Lunnun, that th' roak's 
ofens soa thick theare 'at you can't sea a handstir afoore you, 
reight e' th' middle o' th' daay. (b) w.Yks. 5 ' Come, come, my 
lass, we've nivver done a hand-stir yet get t'shool an' be cindering 
t'hearth up ! ' ' Hands-turn ' implies less of action than ' hands- 
stir.' n.Lin. 1 Here you are clartin' aboot an" not a handstir of 
wark dun yet. (94) [Poetry Provinc. in Cornh. Mag. (1865) XII. 
40.] (95) Sc. Formerly used for a small stone or one that could 
be easily lifted and thrown by the hand, in contradistinction from 
one which required much greater exertion (JAM.). Wgt. In this 
moor, and not far from the tomb, are great heaps of small hand- 
stones, which the country people call Cairnes, FRASER Wigtown 
(1877) 196. (96, a) Sc. Flycht is called flyting, in French 'mellc,' 
quhilk sumtimes is conjoined with hand-streikes, SKENE Difficult 
Wds. (1681) 87. (b) Shr. 2 (97) Yks. (J.W.'i n.Lin. 1 ' I'd hardly 
struck a hand-stroak when doon she cums.' Said by a man who 
had felled a rotten tree. (98) n.Yks. 2 (99) Sh.I. Of slanderers 
it is said : 'Ye may lock afore a haand t'ief, but no afore a tongue 
t'ief,' SPENCE Fit-Lore (1899^ 229. (100, a) Nhb. 1 (b) Som. From 
the balconies above did hand-tied lovers lean and sigh, RAYMOND 
Tryphena (1895) 23. (101) n.Yks. 2 (102) w.Yks. Bone-dust, or 
as it is called, hand-tillage, is used to a great extent for twenty 
miles around Sheffield, MARSHALL Review (1808) I. 386. (103) 
w.Yks. The weaver's left hand rested on this for the purpose of 
giving the necessary backward and forward motion to the sley 
(J.T.); (S.P.U.) (104) Sc. I would do a hand's-turn myself, and 
blithely, KEITH Bonnie Lady (1897) 67. Sh.I. Du ye link "at we'd 
grudged your maet if ye'd niver be duin' a haand's turn? Sh.News 
(Oct. 30, 1897). Per. A useless body, hardly able to do a hand's 
turn, FERGUSSON Vill. Poet (1897) 62. Dmb. Keep baith yoursel 
and me without doin a han's turn of wark, CROSS Disruption (1844) 
ix. Lnk. She's a rale wee leddy yon, and canna dae a han's turn, 
FRASER Whaups (1895) 94. Gall. The shilpit pulin' brat that 
never did a hand's turn in her life, CROCKETT Standard Bearer 
(1898) 200. N.I. 1 He hasn't done a hand's turn these six months. 
Nhb. Aa henna dyun a hands-turn thi day (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 , e.Dur. 1 
Cum. 1 He will n't set to ya hand's turn ; Cum. 4 n.Yks. I haint 
duan a single hand's tonn fora fotnith (T.S.); n.Yks. 1 ' Ah's nivver 
deean a hand-to'n sen Marti'mas ' ; spoken by a person incapaci- 

tated by illness ; n.Yks. 4 Sha's that lazy 'at sha wean't deea a 
hand-to'n foor hersen let alean foor onnybody else. ne.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 ' Come, gi'e us a hand-turn wi't lad ! ' lend us 
your assistance here. Lan. 1 , Nhp. 1 War. 2 Not a hand's-turn 
would be put for'ad to help anybody ; War. 3 Nrf. She niver 
offered to dew a hand's tu'n, but stood garpin an starin just like 
numb chance (E.M.\ Suf. 'He gave her a hand's turn,' a help 
with hand labour (e.g. in digging) (C.L.F.). (105) Sc. Often used 
in a bad sense ; as 'a hand-wail'd waster,' a mere prodigal QAM.). 
Ayr. My hand-waled curse keep hard in chase, BURNS Ep. to Maj. 
Logan (Oct. 30, 1786) st. 7. Lnk. Sic wordy, wanton, hand-wail'd 
ware, RAMSAY Poems (ed. 1733) 112. (106) Nhb. 1 To streek a 
measure of corn with the hand by waving or passing the fingers 
over it to leave good measure. e.Yks. When they hand-wave (the 
come), they drawe (it) lightly aboute in the bushell with theire 
hand, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 104. [Not striked, but heaped, or 
at least hand-waved, so that the full allowance will weigh even 
more than this, STEPHENS Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) I. 311.] (107) 
Abd. They are measured by hand-waving, i.e. they are stroked by 
the hand about 4 inches above the top of the firlot, Statist. Ace. 
H- 533 GAM.). (108) Not. You'll have to get all them nettles 
hand-wed, afore you can make a job of it (L.C.M.). sw.Lin. 1 It'll 
be sooner all hacked up than hand-wed. (109) Slk., Feb. (JAM.), 
Nhp. 1 (no) Dev. (HALL.) (in) Glo. 1 , Sus. (F.A.A.) w.Hmp. 
I sprained my hand-wrist (H.C.M.B.). Wil. 1 , n.Dor. (S.S.B.) 
Som. He dragged me all up the court by the hand-wristes (S.K.L.) ; 
(W.F.R.) w.Som. 1 Aay-vu-kuuf mce aivrus [I have cut my wrist]. 
Dev. Poor little Clara West 'ath a-valled down pin tap tha ice an' 
brawked 'er 'and-wrist, HEWETT Peas. Sp, (1892). (112) Sc. 
Albeit it wanted a subscription, yet by the handwrite, and the style, 
and thepurpose,! knewit tobe yours, WoDKOwSoc.Se/.B/o c g'.(i847) 
1.95. Cai. 1 Lnk. Adhered to your preaching book, and declared 
the same to be your own hand-write, WODROW Ch. Hist. (1721) 
IV. 448, ed. 1828. Kcb. His hand-write and his seal, RUTHERFORD 
Lett. (i66o)No. 284. N.I. 1 Whose hand-write is that? (ii3)n.Yks. 2 
2. Phr. (a) sing, (i) Hand and hail, a game; see below; 
(2) awhile, now and then ; (3) for nieve, side by side, 
cheek by jowl ; abreast ; also used fig. ; (4) in gully, a 
small half-circle just within a large ring, from which 
a boy, in a game of marbles, shoots or ' lobs ' until he 
knocks one out ; (5) in the pie, concern or interference 
in a matter ; (6) of writ or write, handwriting, penman- 
ship ; (7) over fist, with all possible haste or speed, 
hand over hand ; (8) over head, (a) indiscriminately, in- 
considerately, without calculating consequences ; (b) in 
confusion or disorder, pell-mell, confusedly ; (c) used of 
hemp-dressing when the coarse is not separated from the 
fine part ; (9) to nieve, hand to hand, singly opposed ; 
(10) ahin the hand, in arrears, in debt; (n) ahint the, 
after the event; (12) at no, on no account; (13) at 
one , at one time ; (14) behind or behint , (a) see (10) ; 
(b) in secret, in an underhand way; (15) by , (a) past, 
done with ; (b) out of the way; (i6J/ae , not at hand; 
(17) in , in charge ; going on ; (18) off , at once, without 
deliberation; (19) off one's , of one's own accord ; (20) 
off the , fed by the hand; (21) out of, (a) forthwith, 
immediately; without delay ; (b) reckless, oft-hand, rough 
and ready; (c) applied to a child when first able to walk 
alone ; (d) finished, completed ; (22) with the , easily 
done ; (23) any hand afore, ready and prepared for any 
undertaking; (24) the back of my hand to, an ungracious 
farewell ; a mild rejection or repulse ; (25) at every hand's 
turn, every moment, on every occasion ; (26) there's my 
hand, an expression of sincere conviction ; (27) to bear 
hand at, (a) to blame, hold one guilty of a thing ; (b) to 
owe a grudge to, bear malice against ; (28) to be on the 
mending hand, to improve in health, be convalescent ; (29) 
to buy by hand, to estimate the value of anything without 
weighing it; (30) to give a hand, to help, assist ; (31) to 
give in hand, to give into a person's hand ; (32) to have a 
full hand, to have plenty of work ; (33) to hold the hand, 
to keep in a state of expectation ; to carry on correspond- 
ence with opposite parties in a clandestine manner ; (34) 
to keep in hand, to keep in reserve; to be tedious in 
executing; (35) to lend a hand, see (30); (36) to make 
a hand of, (a) to spoil, waste, destroy ; (b) to make a good 
business or profit out of; (c) to impose upon, make a 



profit out of a person ; (d) to make a handle out of, fig. to 
make a cause of quarrel ; (37) to make the safest hand of it, 
to make a sure job of it ; (38) to put hand to paper, to write ; 
to commit oneself by writing ; (39) to put anything by hand, 
to go through with it ; (40) to put hand in or to oneself, to 
commit suicide ; (41) to put in hand, (42) to put to the 
hand, to begin work, commence a job ; (43) to take a hand 
at, to make fun of; to mislead purposely ; (44) to take by 
the hand, to marry ; (45) to take through hand, to take to 
task ; (46) one's own hand, one's own doing, of one's own 

(l) Dmf. Two goals, called ' hails ' or ' dules,' are fixed on : . . 
the two parties then place themselves between the goals or ' dules.' 
and one of the persons, taking a soft elastic ball, about the size of 
a man's fist, tosses it into the air. and as it falls strikes it with his 
palm towards his antagonists. . . As soon as the ball is gowft,' 
that is struck away, the opposite party attempt to intercept it in its 
fall. This is called ' keppan' the ba'.' If they succeed in this 
attempt, the person who does so is entitled to throw the ball with 
all his might towards his antagonists (JAM.). (2) Nhb. 1 (3) Cai. 1 
Rnf. Han'-tbr-nieve, the hawkies Stan'. PICKEN Poems (1788) 53 
(JAM.). Lnk. Haun for nieve awa' fu' proud They tak the road 
thegither, WATSON Poems (1853) 42. e.Ltb. No' a frien' to lippen 
to, an' the Irish han'-for-nieve wi' oor enemies, HUNTER J. Inwick 
(1895)77. (4) Oxf. 1 MS. add. (5) Edb. Has our folk nae hand i' 
the pye, Like the ither lads that bides o'er by? LIDDLE Poems 
(1821)205. n.Cy. (J.W.) (6) Sc. Div ye think naebody can read 
hand o' writ but yoursell ? SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xv. Abd. Ken 
ye that nan' o' wreet ? MACDONALD Malcolm (1875' III. 250. Dmh. I 
. ..soon learn 'da han'some hand o' write. TAYLOR Pomts i 1827) 102. 
Ayr. A well-written letter in a fair hand of write, GALT Ann. 
Parish (1821) i. Gall. It's in your hand o' write that the name o' 
Janet Geddes stands in the big ha' Bible, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) 
xxxiii. (7) Gall. Tossing it ower their thrapples hand ower fist, 
ib. Standard Bearer (18981 118. Cor. Watty pulled in hand over 
fist ; and in came the lead sinker over the notch, ' Q.' Wandering 
Heath (1895) 82. (8, a] Gall. Drovers in purchasing [large 
herds] will sometimes take the good, and leave the bad ; this is 
called 'shooting' : others will take the lot as it is; this is buying 
them hand owre head, MACTAGGART Encycl. 1^1824) 252, ed. 1876. 
N.I. 1 One with another, an expression used in selling, and meaning 
the putting an average value on a number of things that differ in 
value. ' Now how much a piece will you say for them, if I take the 
whole lot hand over head ? ' n.Cy. (J. W.), Lakel. 2 , Not. 1 , Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 
Glo. 2 16. e.An. 1 w.Som. 1 They be bound vor to go wrong (i. e. 
come to grief) ; can't go on hand-over-head like that there, very 
long. (/>) n.Yks. They are mixed hand ower heead (I.W.). 
w.Yks. 5 ' A lot o' fellahs cam running hand-ower-hSad through 
t'passage [entry] an' ommast pick'd muh darn.' ' Here they come, 
hand-ower-hfiad.' s.Lin. When a went to see her she was hand- 
over-head cleaning her room (F.H.W.). (c) e.An. 1 (9) Gall. 
(JAM.) Kcb. Some nan' to nicve Wi' manly pith o' arm, beyond 
the mark, Far fling the pond'rous mell, DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 
87. (10) Abd. (JAM.; (n) Slk. Folk are a' wise ahint the hand, 
HOGG Tales (1838) 321', ed. 1866. (12) Sc. 'But father,' said 
Jenny, . . 'suldna I cry on you?" 'At no hand, Jenny,' SCOTT 
Old Mortality 118161 iii. (13) w.Wor. 1 Sam's a very good lad to 
me now, but at one 'and I thaowt 'e'd never do no good, to 'isself 
nar no one else. (14, a) Cai. 1 (b) Cai. 1 , Cld. (JAM.) (15,0)80. 
Applied to any work that is already done, or any hardship that 
has been sustained (JAM.). Cai. 1 1.6) n.Sc. Applied to a person, 
at times in relation to marriage (JAM.) ; When she's by hand and 
awa', Ross Sng. (ib.) (17) Sc. (JAM.) (18) Nhp. 1 (19! Ayr. I 
was aye for our ane to mak' that proposal to you, but it has come 
better aff your haun, HUNTER Studies (1870) 39. (20) Sh.I. Shii'll 
no foster twa lambs 'ithoot somtin' aff o' da haand, alto' he [it] is 
da end o' Aapril, Sh. News (May 7, 1898). (21. at Ayr. When he 
asked her, she married him oot of haun, SERVICE Dr. Duguid (cd. 
1887) 9. Nhp. 1 w.Som. 1 You might depend, sir, I'll do un vor 
ee, right out o' hand. (b) Ayr. 1 would not juist insist upon such 
a hasty and oot of hand manner of treatment, SERVICE Dr. Duguid 
(ed. 1887) 133. (c) Nhp. 1 (d) Nhp. 1 I've got the job out of hand 
at last. w.Som. 1 The job shall be a-put out o" hand in a proper, 
workmanship manner, (aa) N.I. 1 ' It's doon the hill, an' wi' the 
ban' : ' said of a thing that is easily done. This expression is 
taken from ploughing experience. When a man is ploughing 
across a sloping place, and has difficulty in getting the earth to lie 
back, he would say it was ' again the nan' ; ' if otherwise he would 
say it was ' wi' the han' ' (s.v. Wi' the han'). (23) w.Yks. 1 (34) 
Sh.I. Da back o' my haand baith ta dem an' der laws, Sh. News 

(Apr. a, 1898). Cai. 1 'E back o' my han' t'ye, I am done with 
you. Lnk. The back o' my hand to ye, Annie, MURDOCH Doric 
Lyre (1873) 91. (25) s.Ir. He wasn't in the forge at that present, 
but was expected at every hand's turn, LOVER Leg. (1848) II. 
417. (26) Edb. There's my hand she'll tire, and soon sing dumb, 
FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 107, ed. 1785. (37.0) n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 4 
Ah beear him at hand foor all sha knaws aboot what wa did ay 
Sallie's. (b) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 'I'll bear thee at hand for't,' I will 
owe you a grudge in the matter ; n.Yks. 4 It war nowt bud a dirty 
trick, an' Ah s'all awlus beear him at hand for't. (28) Nhp.' 
w.Wor. 1 The fever's made 'im mighty weak, but 'e's on the 
mendin 'and now. s.Wor. (H.K.), ae.Wor. 1 (39) Clis ' The 
expression is chiefly used in buying fat pigs. s.Chs. 1 Oxf. 1 MS. 
add. (30) Sh.I. He had been in the habit of going south to sail, 
and coming home again every year in time to give the ' old folks ' 
a hand with the harvest, NICHOLSON Aithsiin' Hedder ( 1898) 7. 
Per. It's no a tracer to gie ye a hand at a brae, Sandy Scott (1897) 
17. Lnk. John had come hame raither sooner than usual, just to 
gie a bit han', ROY Generalship (ed. 1895) 7. n.Cy. (J.W.) Ken. 
Give us a hand with this, will you? (D.W.L.) (31) Lin. An' a 
towd ma my sins, an's toithe were due, an' 1 gied it in hond, 
TENNYSON A'. Farmer, Old Style (1864) st. 3. (32) w.Wor. 1 (33) 
Sc. The Admiral Hamilton . . . held both the king and them in 
hand for his own ends, not yet known, SPALDING Hist. Sc. (17921 
I. 182 (JAM.). (34) Nhp. 1 ^5) Gall. He ne'er was sweir a han' 
to len', NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 52, ed. 1897. w.Yks. Tha'll 
suarly len' a helpin' hand To lift her off o' t'plat, PRESTON Poems 
(ed. 1881)8. n.Lin.' lalus lend 'em a hand when ther'sonythinggoas 
wrong. Nhp.^Oxf. (G.O.) (36. o) N.I. Mfyou let the chile get the book 
he'll make a hand of it. w.Yks. (E.G.) Lan. Freq. heard, N. V Q. 
(1886) 7th S. i. 517. e.An. 1 ' He has made a hand of all he had,' 
he has wasted his whole property. Snf. Children make a hand of 
a proper lot of boots, Macmillan's Mag. (Sept. 1889) 358- (*) 
s.Not. ' I med a hand on't,' or 'a good hand out of it' (J.P.K.X 
(c) s.Chs. 1 Ahy mun noa' ubuwt)th maa-rkits ufoa r ahy sel ; ahy 
ilu im waan't bi mai'd u aan-d on [I mun know abowt th' markets 
afore I sell : I dunna want be made a hand onj. s.Not. He ollus 
tries to mek a hand on yer (J.P.K.). (d Lei. Endeavouring to 
urge me to say something he might take hold of to make a hand 
of. MS. Acct. of matters in dispute betw. Thornton and Bosworth 
(i-jgd). 137) Sur. 1 (38) Nhb. There is still a very common dread 
amongst some old people that evil may ensue from their writing 
anything. Great caution is therefore always exercised in the 
matter. ' He wis not one to put hand to paper ' -to commit 
himself (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 1,39) Sc. (JAM.) (40) Sc. HISLOP 
Anecdote (1874) 634. Or.I. Belus being much discouraged and 
broken in spirit, despairing of life, put hand in himself, and became 
his own executioner, BRAND Hist. v 1721 i 14 (JAM.). Cai. 1 1,41, 
Nhp. 1 (42 i Ayr. He is very anxious to put to his haun', SERVICE 
Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887; 163. (43) N.I. 1 There, don't mind him ; 
he's only takin' a han' at you. (.44, Sh.I. Trial an' hardship is 
been her lot, objeck, frae day 'at shil took Aandrew Tulloch bi da 
haand, Sh. News (Feb. 5, 1898). (45) Sc. (JAM.) [46) Nhb. He 
just took it up at his aan hand (R.O.H. ). 

(b) pi. (i) Hands up, a term in curling : cease sweeping ; 
(2) among hands, (3) a/ween , in the intervals of other 
engagements, between whiles ; (41 between , in the mean- 
time ; (5) first , early, at the beginning; (6) through- , 
in hand ; discussed, done with, settled ; 17) to be in nands 
with, (a) to possess in a certain way ; (b) to be in a state 
of courtship with ; (8) to be no great hands, not to be any- 
thing very good or remarkable ; (9) to have no hands with, 
to have nothing to do with, have no dealings or connexion 
with ; (10) to lay hands on, to baptize; (n) to put in one's 
hands, (12) to put out one's hands, to help oneself at table. 

(i Ayr. I carena though ye're twa ells short Hands up 
there's walth o' pouther, BOSWELL Poet. Wks. (ed. 1871) 196. (a) 
Gall. Little jobs are sometimes done amang hans ; that is to say, 
they are done without, in any shape, retarding the large job, MAC- 
TAGGART Encycl.( 1834) 8, ed. 1876. n.Cy.iJ.\V.) (3)Sc.(jAM.) (4)Per. 
The carles did baith rant and roar, And delt some knoits between- 
hands, NICOL Poems (1766) 48. nuCy. (J.W.) (5) Snr. 1 They 
didn't get much of a shoot first hands. (6j Ayr. Haith ! we'se 
hae mony an auld ploy through hauns again I SERVICE Notandums 
(1890) 3. (j, a) Sc. GAM.) (b] Sc. He's in hands wi' Jean ; do 
ye think they'll mak it out ? (ib.) (8) Stf. I'm no great hands of a 
traveller, MURRAY Joseph's Coat (1883) 38. 1,9) Glo. 'Ee did et 
yer see, and I didn't 'a no 'ands wi' ut, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
(1890) iv ; Glo. 1 I won't have no hands wi ye. Wil. 1 I shan't hae 
no hands wi't. (10 Sc. This daft divine Shall ne'er lay hands on 




bairn o' yours and mine, LEIGHTON Wds. (1869) 13. (n) Sh.I. 
Whin we wir set wis in, I says, ' Gud bliss wis, men. Pit in your 
haands an' begin,' Sh. News (.Sept. 18, 1897). (12) Gall. (A.W.) 

3. Fig. A workman, servant ; an employe in a factory 
or mill. In gen. colloq. use. 

Frf. One of the old ' wrichts ' had several apprentices and even 
a few journeyman ' hands,' INGLIS Ain Flk. (1895) 39. Per. This 
isna the way they do wi' hired hands where I come frae, Sandy 
Scott (1897) 10. n.Yks. 2 An individual. A helper. ' Good hand, 
good hire,' good servant, good wages. w.Yks. Dun yo everspeak 
up fur th' honds? Warty Rhymes (1894) 18 ; (F.J.N.); w.Yks. 3 
n. Liu. 1 Women and children who work upon a farm. The labourers 
and servant ' chaps ' are not hands. s.Oxf. The 'ands are busy 
threshin' now most days, jest the last o' my barley, ROSEMARY 
Chiltems (1895) 39. 

4. An adept, clever performer. 

Sh.I. Doo's da haand fir borin' even gengs, Sh. News (Apr. 29, 
1899). Abd. He was nae han' at bargain-makin' an' that, ALEX- 
ANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 16. Per. Gin there wasna a better hand I 
would hae to do my endeavour, Sandy Scott (1897) 56. Ayr. He's a 
great han' for splorin' about his punctuality in ordinary transactions, 
HUNTER Studies (1870) 283. n.Cy. (J.W.) n.Yks. ' She is a good 
hand,' she is a clever needlewoman (T.S.). s.Stf. He was a 
reg'lar hond at carvin', PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Nhp. 1 A 
bad hand at that work. Oxf. (G.O.) Nrf. You grind the scythes. 
You're a better hand on it than I am, EMERSON Son of Fens 
(1892,248. Sus. HOLLOW AY. 

5. Handwriting; signature. 

Rnf. I doot it's no dune for improvin" his haun, NEILSON Poems 
(1877) 48. Nhp. 1 Put your hand to this receipt. 

6. A handling, feel when handled. 

Wil. Corn has a good hand when it is dry and slippery in the 
sack : a bad hand when damp and rough, DAVIS Agric.(T&i$) ; Wil. 1 

7. Fig. Anything difficult to manage, a 'handful'; esp. in 
phr. a great hand. 

Crab. He's been a great hand to me sin' he's been ill (M.J.B.). 
Sus. ' A great hand,' a good deal of trouble, as the trouble of 
bringing up a delicate child S.P.H.). Ess. Well, sir, children 
are a hand (A.S.P.) ; Mother's a great hand S.P.H. . Sur. 1 It's 
a very great hand to have so many sick people. Sus. 1 I was a 
terrible hand to mother all the time I was down with the titus-fever. 

8. Business, performance, job. 

Ayr. A bonnie haun ye had made o't, GALT Ptovost (1826) xxxiii. 
Edb. See what a bonny hand ye'll mak o't! Tint Quey (1796) 15. 
Gall. He makes a bad hand o' himsell, i. e. he abuses himself 
(A.W.). n.Cy. (J.W.I Nrf., Suf., Hmp. HOLLOWAY. 

9. The horse that walks on the left-hand side in a team, 
as opposed to the ' fur' or ' furrow ' horse. 

Ayr. My han' afore's a gude auld has-been, BURNS Inventory 
(1786) 1. 8 ; My han' ahin's a weel gaun fillie, ib. 1. 10. e.Lth. 
Ye couldna fit him wrang In whatna yoke ye bade him gang . . . 
Following or leadin', hand or fur, MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes (1885) 
61. N.I. 1 The horse that walks on the unploughed land is said to 
be ' in the han' ' ; the other horse is called the ' fur horse ' (s.v. 
Wi' the han'). 

10. Direction ; neighbourhood. 

Abd. Nearer han' hame, at Marnoch, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb 
(1871) xiii. Nhb. Ever se mony cheps fre Rothbury hand came 
up, OLIVER Rambles in Nhb. 1,1835) 156; (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 
Lakel. 2 He co's off o' Kendal hand bi' t'twang on him. Cum. 1 
He's gone towart Ireby and that hand ; Cum. 4 n.Yks. 2 1 went 
ower te Kirby hand. w.Yks. (J.W.) Lan. They moight get th' 
job done gradely nigherhant than Gratna Green, BANKS Forbidden 
(1885) xxv. 

11. A shoulder of pork, when cut as a joint without the 
blade-bone. Gen. in phr. a hand of pork. 

N.I. 1 A ham made from the fore-leg of a pig. s.Don. SIMMONS 
Gl. (1890). Not. (J.H.B.), Lin. (W.W.S.), Nhp. 1 , War. 23 Oxf. 1 
MS. add. Hnt. (T.P.F. , e.An. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.), w.Som. 1 
"12. The fore upright of a gate. 

Nhb. 1 ' Hand and har,' front and back uprights. 

13. A measure for water-cress. 

Lon. We buy the water-cresses by the' hand.' One hand will make 
about five halfpenny bundles, MAYHEW Land. Labour \ 1851) I. 150. 

14. v. Phr. (i) to hand about, to escort a lady ; (2) out, 
to distribute ; (3) up, to summon, bring up before a 
magistrate ; (4) me down, any article purchased second- 
hand or ready made ; any odd-looking garment ; (5) -tne- 
down looking, worthless, good-for-nothing in appearance. 

(i) Nrf. We met several young couples out for a walk. ' Dash 
it, master, they fare to be a-handing 'em about to-night' ( W.R.E.). 
(a) n.Lin. 1 Ey, Miss, it's Loord 'at hands oot iv'rything 'e riches 
an' poverty, an' sickness an' health. (3) Suf. If you do ... Ill 
hand you up before the justice, STRICKLAND Old Friends (1864) 9. 
(4) Dmb. Och try nae maira han-me-down, But tryst ta braw new 
clock, TAYLOR Poems (1827) no. N.I. 1 Whar did ye get that auld 
hand ma doon of a coat? Nhp. N. & Q. '1878) 5th S. ix. 263. 
[Amer. Kansas Univ. Quar. (1892) I.] (.5) Lnk. Ye've maybe 
heard o' the braw troot that a lang-haired han'-me-doon looking 
creatur' pented on the shutter o' the box-bed in the Gledshaw 
kitchen, FRASER Whaups (1895) 188. 

15. To sign. e.An. 1 They made me hand a paper. 

16. Toactassecond in afight eitherbetween men or cocks. 
s.Don. SIMMONS Gl. (iSgoV Wil. 1 n.Wil. I'll hand 'e, if you 

be gwain to fight un (E.H.G.). 

Hence Hander or Handler, sb. (i) a second in a fight ; 
(2) the adviser of a competitor in a ploughing-match. 

(i) Nhb. A famous ' handler' who died not long ago had but to 
make his appearance at the [church] door, and the usually long 
sermon, and prayer almost as long, were abridged, the sleepy 
congregation . . . would be seen making for a well-known 
rendezvous, where mains were often fought on Sunday afternoons, 
Longman's Mag. (Feb. 1897) 331. n.Lin. 1 , sw.Lin. 1 , Hrf. 1 Wil. 
BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; Wil. 1 n.Wil. Who's agwain to be 
hander thun ? (E.H.G.) (2) Gall. Every competitor has a friend, 
a ploughman, to help and advise him during the competition, who 
is called a 'hander.' The friend walks beside the competitor, and 
is of special service in the opening up of the first furrow, and at 
the ends of each furrow (A.W.). 

HANDECHAMP, sb. ? Obs. w.Yks. Also in form 
handerhamp (HALL.). A ruffle. (HALL.), w.Yks. 1 

HANDED,///, adj. Sc. Nhb. Chs. Nhp. 1. In phr. 
(i) handed squares, salt-making term : squares of salt such 
as are commonly hawked about the streets. Chs. 1 ; (2) 
well handed, clever at particular work. Nhb. 1 ; (3) to swop 
even-handed, to exchange without profit. Yks. (J.W.), Nhp. 1 
2. Hand in hand. 

Fif. One summer eve, as in delightful walk. Handed, they past 
down Thirdpart's avenue, TENNANT Anster (1812) 105, ed. 1871. 

HANDEL, sb. Sc. Light refreshment taken before 
breakfast, a snack of food. 

Slg. First cut our handel, weel ye ken our due, Good routh o' 
bread and cheese and \vhiskey blue, GALLOWAY Limcarty ( 1804) 25. 
HANDERMENT, sb. Cor. 2 Obstruction, delay, hin- 

HANDERSOME, adj. n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 
[a'ndasam.] Handy ; inclined to meddle, meddling. 
[Handersome,/ae#0sMs, LEVINS (1570).] 
HANDING, prp. War. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Wil. Also in 
forms handen- Glo. ; handson- Glo. 1 [ae'ndin.] Incomp. 
(i) Handing-point, (2) -post, a sign-post, finger-post. 

(i) Glo. (S.S.B.) (2) War. 3 Glo. A bit further along you'll 
come to a 'andin post (E.S.) ; You'll see a handen post at road 
end (A.J.M.) ; Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 MS. add. Brks. Quite commonly 
spoken and written. Wil. 1 

HANDKERCHIEF, sb. Var. dial, forms in Sc. and Eng. 
I. Dial, forms: (i) Ankatcher, (2) Ankercher, (3) 
Ankitcher, (4) Hancheker, (5) Hancurchor, (6) Han- 
cutcher, (7) Handkecher, (8) Handkercher, (9) Hand- 
kerchy, (10) Handkertcher, (n) Handketcher, (12) 
Hangecher, (13) Hangkecher, (14) Hangkicher, (15) 
Hangkitcher, (16) Hankcher, (17) Hankecher, (18) 
Hankercher, (19) Hankerchir, (20) Hankershor, (21) 
Hanketcher, (22) Hankicher. (23) Hankisher, (24) Han- 
kitch, (25) Hankitchor, (26) Hanksher, (27) Hankutcher, 
(28) Hanky, (29) Hankycher, (30) Hanshaker, (31) 
Henkicher, (32) Henkitch, (33) Ontcher. 

(i) Not. 3 (2) s.War. 1 Dev. 'E tuk out ez 'ankercher, BURNETT 
Stable Boy (1888) xi. (3) War. 2 , se.Wor. 1 (4) nw.Der. 1 (5) 
Nhb. (R.O.H.) (6) w.Yks. 1 (7) Lan. WESTALL Birch Dene (1889) 
I. 299. Dev. Reports Provinc. (1887) 8. (8) n.Lin. 1 , sw.Lin. 1 
Midi. Common (E.S.). War. 3 Shr. 1 Ang-kur'chur'. Cor. A clane 
handkercher, Longman's Mag. (Feb. 1893) 380. (9) w.Yks. Polish 
it up wi' his handkerchy, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1878) 7. (10) 
Not. (J.H.B.) (n)N.I. 1 (i2)e.Lan. 1 (13) w.Som. 1 Ang'kechur. 
(14) m.Lan. 1 Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). .(.15) Oxf. 1 
(16) Cor. 1 (17) Cum. 3 His white hankecher, 2. Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 




(18 Ir. Corners of ' hankerchers,' BARLOW Idylls (1892) ii. Cum. 
That reed check hankercher, Mary Drayson (1873) 33. w.Yks. 2 , 
War. 4 , Brks. 1 , Sur. 1 Som. A white pocket-han'kercher, RAYMOND 
Sam and Sabina (1894) 34. (19) w.Yks. Spread yer hankerchir 
o' t'top on't, BRONTE Wuthering His. (1847) xiii. (20) Nhb. 
iR.O.H.i (ai) Lan. An owd hanketcher, CLEGG Reaund bi M 
Derby (1890) 9. (aa) w.Yks. Yks. Wkly. Post (Apr. 10, 1897). 
I.W. 1 Som. Their white ' hankichers,' RAYMOND Men o Mendip 
(1898) xiii. (33) Cum. 1 (34) s.Chs. 1 Aangk-ich. ,35) Nhb. 
(R.O.H.) (36) Cor. She took un out of the hanksher, HICHAM 
Dial. (1866) 6. (37) Dur. 1 , Cum. 1 , n.Yks. (T.S.) (28) Sh.I. She 
had tied in the corner of her hanky, BURGESS Sketches (and ed.) 
29. e.Sc. I've tied your hanky round it, SETOUN 7?. Urquhart 
^1896) xix. Frf. The pupils had to bring handkerchiefs to the 
Dovecot, which led to its being called the Hanky School, BARRIE 
Tommy (1896) 157. Fif. Ane o' Stewart's tippence-happeny 
Union Jack hankies. M'L-AREN Tibbie (1894) 14. Oxf. (W.D.), 
Snr. (L.J.Y.) (39) Lon. MAYHEW Prisons ( 1862 424. (30) Chs. 1 
Shr. 1 An-shukur. (31 j w.Yks. BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). (33) 
s-Chs. 1 (33) se-Wor. 1 

n. Dial. use. In comp. Handkerchief-dance, a country 
dance performed with handkerchiefs. 

Oxf. 1 Som. They had ' Hunt the squirrel ' and the handkerchief 
dance, RAYMOND Men o' Mendip (1898) xiii. 

HANDLE, sb. and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and 
Eng. Also written handel Sh.I. ; and in forms han'le Ayr. 
N.I. 1 ; hannel Cum. 14 ; hann'l n.Yks. 4 [h)a-n(d)l,ae-n(d)l.] 

1. sb. In phr. to make a handle of anything, to endeavour 
to turn a thing to one's own advantage or to another's 

Sc. fA.W.), Nhp. 1 Nrf. To represent a subject matter more to 
the disadvantage or discredit of a person than the circumstance 
will really admit ; to exaggerate, though frequently in a jocular 
way; to banter; to ridicule (W.W.S.). 

2. Comp. Handle-dish, a hand-cup, a bowl with a handle. 
Sus. (S.P.H.), Sus. 1 

3. A hand, esp. the hand of a clock or watch. 

w.Yks. f)a muant leak wi' t'anlz 3 t'tlok. Av brokan litl anl 3 
mi wots (J.W.); T'meter hannels, BINNS Orig. (1889) 5. 

4. Fishing tackle or gear. Also in form handlin. 

Sh.I. I' da time 'at 1 got me handel tagedder, Girzzie leepid da 
bait, an' lightin' me pipe awa' I gengs. Sh. News (Oct. a, 1897) ; 
My sniiids an' handlin rex me doon, Dey're dere upo' da lame, 
STEWART Tales (1892) 92. 

5. A large pail or tub. Also in comb. Milk-hannel. 
Cum. 1 ; Cum. 4 A tub larger than a ' geggin,' wider at the bottom 

than the top, but with a proportionately shorter stave-handle ; 
used for collecting the milk in the byre, or for carrying water 
from a spring ; it was carried on the head. 

6. v. To secure, get hold of, esp. to receive or get money 
from ; to touch. 

Knr. ' Handle the dust,' to receive money (JAM.). Ayr. Ne'er 
a bawbee hae I yet han'let o' the price, GALT Gilhaize (1823) i. 
Gall. It canna be proven that ever I handled a plack o' the price, 
CROCKETT Anna Mark (1899) Hi. n.Cy. (J.W.) s.Not. If they 
ain't allus handlin' on yer, they wain't be civil to yer (J.P.K.;. 
11. Lin. 1 Times is straange an' bad, I niver handled soa little money 
as I hev this last year. I weSnt hev you bairns han'lin bull, he'll 
be stabbin' on you. Oxf. (G.O. 1 ! 

7. To put an arm round a girl's waist. 

Brks. 1 In love making, where the swain may not have flow of 
language, he may sometimes attempt to put his arm round the 
girl's waist ; this is called ' handlin' on her,' and would probably 
be met by the command to ' Adone now,' or a more decided ' Gie 
out! ' 

8. To use, employ, make use of, not necessarily with the 
hands ; esp. in phr. to handle the feet. 

N.I. 1 ' Handle yer feet," make good use of your legs. n.Lin. 1 
An old woman who was lame said, ' I can't han'le my feet so well 
as I ewsed to could.' Ess. 1 

9. To deal with, treat, manage; to afflict with illness, &c. 
Gen. mpass. 

Ayr. Tightly he did the guager han'le, The mair he shuck the 
fallow by the throat, BOSWELL Poet. Wks. (1816) 148, ed. 1871. 
n.Yks. 1 He's been desper't'ly sair hannled wi' t'fever. A chap's 
lahk t'be parlously hannled gif he gits intiv t'haands o' thae low- 
wers [lawyers] ; n.Yks. 2 I was varry sair hannel'd that bout ; 
n.Yk. 4 Tha hann'ld t'lad varry badly. Sha's varra kittlish an' 
bad ti hann'l. ne.Yks. 1 He's very queerly hannl'd. w.Yks. (J.W.) 

10. To drag up a curling-stone by the handle. 

Sc. It is said of a stone that has not pith, 'handle't' (G.W.); 
Big Andra fairly felled his stane, Handle 'im a hog or I'm mistaen, 
R. Caled. Curling Club Ann. (1886-7). 

11. To hurry, exert oneself. N.I. 1 
HANDLEBERRY, HANDLER, see Angleberry, sb.', 

Hand, v. 16. 

HANDLING, sb. Sc. Not. Also in forms haandling 
Sh.I. ; hannlin' Lnk. 1. A business, affair ; a position of 
trust, stewardship ; interference, intermeddling. 

Sc. He wad fain hae a handling in that affair (JAM.). Sh.I. (K.L.I.) 
w.Sc. A discussion, altercation, quarrel (ib.SuppI.). Gall. Me wi'the 
care o' yer gran'faither sic a handling, him nae better nor a bairn, 
CROCKETT Sunbonnet (1895) iv. Kcb. He giveth him no handling 
or credit, only he intrusteth him with common errands, wherein 
he cannot play the knave, RUTHERFORD Lett. (1660; No. 106. 

2. An entertainment, party, meeting, gathering. 

w.Sc. A merry-making, a meeting of friends or opponents for 
discussion; a soiree is often called a tea-hanlan (JAM. Supple. 
Dmb. Thae gangrel folk At ilka han'lin' aye afore the clock, 
SALMON Gowodean (1868) 68. Ayr. We are providing for a 
handling. GALT Legatees (1820) viii. Lnk. I proposed to John that 
we should hae a kind o' hannlin' by way o' heatin the house, ROY 
Generalship (ed. 1895^1 6. Dmf. I had only been yinst in her house 
since she settled, and that was at a promiscuous tea handling, 
SHAW Schoolmaster (1899) 329. 

3. A boat-hook. 

Not. (J.H.B.); A species of boat-hook with two prongs at the 
end instead of a hook, used for propelling a boat across a river 

HANDLUM, adj. w.Som. 1 Awkward, clumsy of hand. 

Uur-z dh-an'lumsmaa-yd livur aay zee'd ; uur-ul tae'ur ubroa'ud 
moo'ur cloa'm-un ur wae'ujez kau'ms tiie [She is the handlumest 
girl I ever saw ; she will tear abroad more crockery than her 
wages come to]. 

HANDMAN, sb. Obs. ? Dev. A man-servant. 

She, . . in imitation of the patriarchs of old, went to bed to the 
handman, because her consort was stricken in years, SHEBBEARE 
Matrimony (1754^ II. 245, ed. 1766. 

HANDSALE, see Auncel. 

HANDSEL, sb. and v. In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. and 
Eng. Also in forms ansel(l e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Chs. 2 Der. 2 
nw.Der. 1 Not. Dev. ; anstil Chs. ; hansel(l Sc. (JAM.) N.I. 1 
Nhb. Dur. 1 s.Dur. Cum. 14 Wm. n.Yks. 14 e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 2 
Lan. 1 Chs. 13 s.Chs. 1 nw.Der. 1 Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 Lei. 1 
War. 3 Shr. 1 Hrf. e.An. 2 Suf. 1 Sus. 1 Hmp. Dor. [h)a'nsl, 
ae'nsl.] 1. sb. A gift conferred at a particular season or 
on the commencement of a new undertaking to confer 
luck ; an auspicious beginning ; a good omen. Also used 

Sc. The first thing ye'll get for your handsel in the morning 
will be a sonsie breakfast, FORD Thistledown 11891)332 ; Her new 
year's hansel for to gie, DONALD Poems (1867) 249. Sh.I. The 
first house to be visited was Braefield, where they were hopeful 
of getting a good 'hansel,' CLARK Gleams (1898) 150. ne.Sc. 
When one put on a piece of new dress, a coin of the realm called 
hansel, had to be put into one of the pockets. When one put on 
a piece of new dress, a kiss was given to and taken from the wearer, 
and was called the ' beverage o' the new claes.' When a boy or 
girl wearing a piece of new dress entered a neighbour's house 
something was given as hansel, GREGOR Fit-Lore (1881) 31. Abd. 
When the christening was over, the old minister put a half-crown 
into the baby's breast for ' hansel,' ALEXANDER Ain Fit. (1882) 
25. Per. Gie the student his degree, The advocat' his hansel fee, 
HALIBURTON Ochil Idylls (1891) 135. Flf. Granny, gie's oor 
hansel, It's new-year's day, DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 68. Dmb. By 
and by ... To gi'e us a' our hansel time about. SALMON Gowodean 
(1868) 70. Rnf. Whan buskit oot in braw new claes, Auld grannie's 
hansel's never miss't, NEILSON Poems (1877) 16. Ayr. Ye'll no 
guess what the Gudeman has in his pouch to gie them for hansel 
to their matrimony, GALT Entail (1823) xx ; A blast o' Janwar 
win' Blew hansel in on Robin, BURNS There was a Lad, St. a. 
Lnk. Ye're bringin* us ben A hansel o' fortune for a', New Year ! 
WRIGHT Life (1897) 75. Edb. Auld-nick may gie't for them its 
handsel, LEARMONT Poems (1791) 164. Nhb. ' A hansel penny" is 
usually put into the pocket of any new garment to hansel it and 
the formula repeated, ' Health to weer, strength to teer, an money 
to buy another' (R.O.H.). w.Yks. I must buy something for 
ansel (H.F.S.). Lan. Money given when anything new is under- 




taken, THORNBER Hist. Blackpool (1837"); Lan. 1 A gift given to 
the first purchaser. s.Hmp. I've brought a parcel. . . T'aint often 
as a handsel comes to the Woodhouse, VERNEY L. Lisle (1870) 
vii. Dor. Something given to a young woman at her wedding 
towards house-keeping is called a ' good-handsel ' in the vale of 
Blackmore, BARNES Gl. (1863); A goodish hansel come Behind 
her pretty soon, ib. Poems (1869-70) 3rd S. 72. 

2. Comp. (i) Handsel-e'en, the eve of the first Monday 
of the New Year ; (2) -Monday, the first Monday of the 
New Year ; Auld Handsel Monday, the first Monday of 
the year, Old Style ; (3) -Tuesday, the first Tuesday 
of the New Year ; (4) -wife, the woman who distributes 
the ' handsel ' or gifts at a marriage. 

(i) Lth. One hansel-e'en, on begging bound, He trudged the 
rural district round, M C NEJLL Preston (c. 1895) 9. (a) Bch. It was 
deemed unlucky to spend money in any form on hansel Monandy, 
GREGOR Flk-Lore 1881) 164. e.Sc. Hansel Monday's comin' on, 
We'll get pies and porter. SETOUN Sunshine (1895) I. Per. As 
brisk a morn's I've seen For mony a Hansel-Munonday, FORD 
Harp (1893^ 385. w.Sc. Hansell Monday, on which occasion 
practices similar to those of Yule were observed, NAPIER Flk-Lore 
(1879) 155. Fit For one to propose the substitution of New 
Year's Day for Auld Handsel-Monday as the winter festival was 
to invite contemptuous ostracism, ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 53. 
Clc. On the evening of Handsel Monday, as it is called, some of his 
neighbours came to make merry with him, Statist. Ace. XV. 201 
n. (JAM.) s.Sc. All our fun of Beltane, Halloween, Hogmanay, 
and Hanselmonday are gone, WILSON Tales (1839) V. 65. Ayr. 
I was sitting on Hansel Monday by myself, GALT Ann. Parish 
(1821) xxxvi. Lnk. We renounce. .. New-year's day, and Hansel- 
monday, WODROW Ch. Hist. ,1721) III. 351, ed. 1828. Lth. Auld 
Hansel Monday comes again Wi' routhy mirth an' cheer, LUMSDEN 
Sheep-head (1892) 35. Edb. Auld Handsel Monday. A day set 
apart, by the common people in this country, for feasting and 
drinking, Auld Handsel Monday (1792) 17. Jr. The first Monday 
in the year, when formerly a present or hansel was given by a 
master or mistress to the servants, and by fathers or mothers to 
children. Anything that comes into your possession that day 
indicates luck, such as a child, calf, lamb, or money. If you 
receive on Hansel Monday you will be sure to be lucky the rest of 
the year, Flk-Lore Rec. (1881) IV. 107. N.I. 1 Nhb. At the Trinity 
House, Newcastle, on Hansel-Monday every free brother who 
answers to his name is entitled to five shillings in money, quarter 
a pound of tobacco, a glass of wine, and as much bread and cheese 
and ale as he pleases (R.O.H.). Lakel. 2 It is customary to 
make children and servants a present. Chs. 1 13) Edb. My barrel 
. , . has na gotten sic a fill Sin fu' on Handsel-Teysday, FERGUSSON 
Poems (1773) 168. ed. 1785. (4) Or. I. Gen. the bride's mother 
(JAM. Suppl.). 

3. The first money received in the dayforthesaleof goods ; 
also the first purchaser. 

Sc. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Edb. A bareheaded lassie, 
hoping to be hansel, threw down twopence, MOIR Mattsic Wauch 
(1828) vi. Nhb. (R.O.H.) Dur. Thus, fishwomen and hucksters 
generally spit upon the hansel, i. e. the first money they receive, 
HENDERSON Flk-Lore (1879) i. s.Dur. Now gie us a hansel, a've 
selt nowt te-day just gie us a hansel for luck (J.E.D.). Lakel. 1 , 
Cum. 14 n.Wm. Giv us a hansel (B.K.). n.Yks. (W.H.) ; 
n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 ' There's handsel this morning,' says the sales- 
man, as he shows the coin to the bystanders for the first thing he 
has sold. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 2 Hawkers and pedlars who go round 
from house to house say, ' Please give me hansel, missis ' ; w.Yks. 3 
' I've not taken a handsel .to-day.' On receiving a handsel, the 
recipient sometimes turns it over and spits on it ' for luck.' Lan. 
Hansell (they say) is always lucky when well wet [i. e. with 
spittle], HARI.AND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 70. Chs. I have 
given you a good ansel, Chs. N. & Q. (1881) I. 82; Chs. 1 ' Gi me 
a hansel this morning.' There is a sort of idea that it brings good 
luck ; Chs. 3 s.Chs. 1 Gy'i)mi u aan-sl, un it)l gy'i)mi gild liik. 
Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 Not. (J.H.B.) ; Not. 1 Ah've sold nowt yet, won't 
yer gie me a hansel ? sw.Lin. 1 Won't you give us a hansel ? i. e. 
make a first purchase of our wares. Nhp. 1 The first money received 
in the day, by small tradesmen or hawkers, is commonly called 
' taking handsell ' ; and many superstitiously spit upon it, to pro- 
pitiate good luck. Shr. 1 Bless yo'. Missis, tak' summat off me jest 
fur 'ansel ; I've carried my basket all mornin' an' never soud a crock. 
Thank yo', Missis, I'll spit on this, an' 'ope it'll be lucky. Shr., 
Hrf. BOUND Provinc. (1876). Cth. (W.W.S.) Lon. GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (M.) e.An. 12 Nrf. You are intreated by an itinerant 
hawker to give him a hansell, COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 
VOL. m. 

71. e.Suf. (F.H.) Sns. 1 The market women have a custom of 
kissing the first coin, spitting on it, and putting it in a pocket by 
itself for luck. Dev. The good luck, which the foolish Devonshire 
market women spit upon, or kiss, and then put into their purse 
or pocket, Horae Subsecivae (1777) 202. Cor. 1 When a man is 
well paid for any chance job early in the day, he says ' that's 
a good hansel.' 

4. A piece of bread given before breakfast ; a morning 
lunch. Gall. (JAM.); MACTAGGART <ry<r/. (1824). N.I. 1 

5. Guerdon, reward ; also ironically, a punishment, a 
smack of the hand. 

Sh.I. Contentmint is da hansel o da sage, BURGESS Rasmie 
(1892) 22. w.Yks. Ah'll gi' tha a good handsell if tha doesn't be 
quiet (J.J.B.X 

6. A handful. w.Yks. Gi' us a handsell o' beans (S.K.C.). 

7. The earnest given on completion of a bargain ; the 
bargain itself. 

Sc. (JAM.) Dur. 1 Seldom used. e.Yks. THOMPSON Hist. Welton 
(1869) 172. w.Yks. (F.M.L.\ Not. 1 , sw.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 Dev. Horae 
Subsecivae (1777) 202 ; HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 46. 

8. The first use <>r trial of anything. 

Nhb. (R.O.H.), Dur. 1 Cum. FERGUSON Northmen (18561 214 ; 
Cum. 4 , n.Yks. 1 w.Yks. SCATCHERD Hist. Morley (1874) Gl. ; Leeds 
Merc. Suppl. (1884^ ; w.Yks. 1 Chs. Sheaf (^t)) I. 182. nw.Der. 1 , 
n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 He is taking hansel of it. Shr., Hrf. BOUND 
Provinc. (1876). Som. SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

9. v. To give money or a present to celebrate a new 
undertaking, &c. ; to inaugurate, celebrate for the first 
time, esp. by drinking. 

Sc. Was there a birth in the family, the dram had to circulate 
to handsel the young Scot, FORD Thistledown (1891) 123. Abd. 
Your dock's in order now, I ween, Ye'se get it hansell'd by a 
queen, CADENHEAD Bon Accord (1853) 147. Per. Juist tae hansel 
her new kist, IAN MACLAREN Auld Lang Syne (1895) 278. Fif. 
Well, I wish you success, and to handsel your new adventure 
I will not charge you anything for these, ROBERTSON Provost 
(1894) 82. Ayr. Before he had begun to levy ' black mail,' as he 
named it, I hansel'd him with a penny, HUNTER Studies (1870) 
135. Lnk. Ilka guidwife her doon-lyin' Hansell'd wi' the barley 
bree, NICHOLSON Kiliuuddie (ed. 1895) 5- Rxb. Come, neibour 
Tam, we'll take a glass To hansel the new year, WILSON Poems 
(1824) 17. Kcb. Some tippling chiels gaed to the tent To hansel 
Leezy Waldron, DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 73. N.I. 1 The first 
purchase made from a dealer hansels him, brings luck. Cum. 4 The 
gift of a coin to the wearer of a new suit of clothes, hansels or 
makes that suit lucky. n.Yks. 4 Whya, thoo'll be lyke ti' han'sel 
t'new hoss, wa's want a glass apiece. w.Yks. 4 The first buyer in 
a shop newly opened hansels it. e.An. 1 To put the first coin into 
a collection. 

Hence Hanselling, vbl. sb. the inauguration, first use or 

Dmf. The fits of ague-fever you had at first were a severe intro- 
duction, . . but I can hope now it was only the hanselling of you 
in your new climate, CARLYLE Unpubl. Lett. (1853) in Atlantic 
Monthly (1898) 685. 

10. Ironically. To give something unpleasant ; to punish 
with a blow. w.Yks. (S.P.U.), (J.J.B.) 

11. To pay earnest-money on a bargain. Also used Jig. 
Fif. [He] was the neist man whase shaven crown was hansel'd 

wi' a swap, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 194. n.Yks. 4 .Ah'll pay tha 
summat noo ti han'sel t'job. w.Yks. (F.M.L.), Not. 1 , Lei. 1 War. 3 
I said I'd go but he didn't hansel me [I have promised to go 
(to a situation as servant) but I am not bound to fulfil my promise]. 
Dev. Tellee whot 'tez, min, thee shedstua-anselled 'n wi' a shilling, 
an' made zure aw 'un, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892). 

12. To try or use a thing for the first time ; to test, prove. 
Sc. It's exactly a fortnicht this day syne ye handselled it for the 

first time, DICKSON Kirk Beadle (ed. 1892) 99; He that invented 
the Maiden first hansel'd her, HENDERSON Prov. (1832) 118, ed. 
1881. Lnk. Gazed at the maister to see if he was going to ' hansel 
the new clogs with a licking,' FRASER Whaups (1895) vi. Edb. 
The unfortunate earl was the first himself that handselled that 
merciless Maiden, which proved so soon after his own executioner, 
PENNECUIK Wks. (1715) 191, ed. 1815. Dmf. I'll be yere blythe 
bridegroom and hansel the sark, CROMEK Remains (1810" ua. 
Kcb. It is a long time since Abel first handseled the cross, and had 
it laid upon his shoulder, RUTHERFORD Lett. (1660) No. 239. 
Nhb. [The new assembly rooms] were opened and ' a very numerous 
and brilliant company ' gathered to hansel them, WATSON Hist. 
Lit. Phil. Soc. Newc. (1897) 34 ; Aa'll not hansel the coat till the 





morn (R.O.H.). Dur. It's partly ... to handsel our new kitchen, 
Longmans Mag. (Oct. 1896) 579 ; Dur. 1 , Com. (J.Ar.), Cum. 14 
n.Yka. 1 ; n.Yks. 4 Ah' ve han'sel'd t'new reaper ti-daay. ne.Yks. 1 Ah 
handsel'd mail new dhriss last Sunda. e.Yks. 1 Ah sal ansel ml 
new bonnet o' Sunday. w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 
Gl. ; Ianselledthetea-potyesterday(H. F.S.I; w.Yks. 8 I'venothand- 
selled my new plough. Lan.',n.Lan. (C.W.D.), Chs. 1 , Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 
I'm gooin' to hansel that new plew. sw.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 Shr. 1 I never 
sid sich a time fur wet ; I thought to 'ansel my new bonnet o' 
Wissun-Sunday, but it rayned all day lung. Shr., Hrf. BOUND 
Provinc. (l8^6'). Suf. 1 First wearing a new coat, gown, or any- 
thing else is hanselling it. e.Suf. To hansel a brewing-tub. To 
hansel an oven is to heat it very thoroughly, when first built, for 
the purpose of drying it, not in order to bake in it. Except in 
these connexions, not used here (F.H.). Sns. 12 Dor. Here, 
Jenny, . . hansell, wi' zome tidy tea, The zilver pot, BARNES Poems 
(1869-70) 3rd S. 100. Dev. To prove the goodness of a thing by 
the trial of a part, as when we say, to hansell a pasty or gammon 
of bacon to have the maidenhead or first use of anything to 
hansell a new knife in a good plum pudding, Horae Subsecivae 
(17771202. Cor. 1 

13. To be the first purchaser. 

w.Yks. Ye've hansil'd meh, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). n.Lan. 1 
Not. I've just anselled (J.H.B.). 

[1. God giue the guid prosperitie ... In hansell of this 

uid new jeir, DUNBAR New Years Gift (c. 1510) 16, ed. 
mall, II. 256. 5. Some . . . were be-hote hansell, if bey 
helpe wold, Rich. Redeless (1399) iv. 91. 7. I have taken 
handsel, Mercimonii primitias accept, COLES (1679).] 

HANDSOME, adj. Sc. Yks. Not. Lei. Dor. Dev. Cor. 
|h la-nsam, ae'nsam.] 1. Very good ; elegant in person ; 
good-looking, used of inanimate things. 

Sc. Not applied to the face. She's a very handsome woman, 
but far frae being bonny (JAM.). Dmb. I gade to learn at the night 
school, Soon learn'd a han'sotne han' o' write, TAYLOR Poems 
(1827) 102. w.Yks. It's a better road ner t'other, but it's nut as 
handsome (F.P.T.). Dev. She gave me such a handsome cup o' 
tea, Reports Provinc. (1891). 

2. Honourable, noble ; good, giving good quality or 

Not. 1 , Lei. 1 Dor. A handsome man, one who keeps good strong 
beer (W.C.) ; My mother told me that she had heard guests say 
to her father when they tasted his beer, ' Mr. Boswell, you are very 
handsome ' (W.G.B.-S.) ; (A.C.) 

3. Of the weather: fine, good, bright. 

Sh.I. It's still very necessitous, an very handsome wedder, 
BuRGESsra- 1898)52. w.Yks. Eh! Miss, but it is a handsome day 
(F.P.T.). w.Cor. It's some handsome weather. Common (M.A.C.;. 

4. Thorough, complete. Also used advb. 

Cor. 3 A handsome service, a church service not shortened .includ- 
ing the Litany. ' To do a thing handsome ' is to do it thoroughly. 

HANDTOGGERS, sb. pi. Dev. 3 The handles fixed on 
the snead of a scythe. 

HANDY, sb. 1 , adj. and adv. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. 
andEng. Alsowritten handi- Sc. (JAM.) Cai. 1 ; andinforms 
haand-de- Sh.I. ; hanni- Cai. 1 ; hany Nhb. ; han'y Ayr. ; 
haunie Per. [h)a'ndi,ae-ndi.] 1. sb. and adj. In coinp. (i) 
Handy-bandy, (2) -croopen, a game ; see below ; (3) -cuffs, 
(a) blows with the fist, fisticuffs ; (b) handcuffs, manacles ; 
(41 -dandy, (a) see (i); (b) on the alert; (5) -grips, close 
quarters, grappling ; (6) -man, one who has no trade in 
particular, but does a little at several ; (7) -might, strength 
of hand, main force; (8) -paddy, a winch, traversing on 
temporary rails, employed to raise heavy weights at large 
buildings ; (9) -pandy, see (i); (10) -pungy, a fight with 
the fists ; (n) -stone, a small stone, one that can be thrown 
with the hand ; (12) -warp, obs., a kind of cloth, formerly 
made in Essex; (13) -workman, a mechanic; a tool- 

(i) s.Chs. 1 A person conceals an object in one of his two closed 
hands, and invites his companion to tell which hand contains the 
object in the following words : ' Handy-Bandy, sugar-candy, 
Which hand wun y6 have ? ' (2) Sh.I. They amused themselves 
with such games as hunt-da-slipper, wads, and haand-de-kroopin , 
SPENCE Fib-Lore (1899) 190 ; S. ft Ork. 1 A game in which one of 
the players turns his face to the wall, his hand resting upon his 
back ; he must continue in this position until he guesses who struck 
his hand, when the striker takes his place. (3, a) Sc.(jAM.) Cai. 1 

To come to handicuffs, to come to blows. w.Yks. 1 (A) w.Yks. 1 
(4, a) Nhb. 1 , w.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 Common. Something being hidden 
in one hand, both are presented by the player to his opponent 
with the words, ' Handy-dandy, sugar candy, which hand is it in ?' 
Glo. A game, ' when by nimbly changing hands, and slipping a 
piece of money from one hand into the other, the guesser is at 
a loss, which hand to fix upon, tho' he thinks he saw its place, 
Horae Subsecivae (1777) 200. Hmp. To play at handy dandy, and 
guess which is the justice, which is the thief. A sort of slight of 
hand, when by exchanging hands nimbly, and slipping the thing 
from one hand to another, the guesser is often deceived, and at a 
loss what hand to fix upon. There is a ... way of playing it, by 
two persons putting their hands one above the other, and then 
raising them and replacing them with rapidity ; used among 
children, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) Dev. 3 (6) m. Yks. 1 ' He's 
handy-dandy with him,' said of one who is a match for another in 
sharpness. (5) Sh.I. He'd been blied if dey'd come in haandie- 
grips, S/t. News (Oct. 23, 1897). Cai.' Slk. We canna come to 
handygrips wi' him, HOGG Tales (1838) 46, ed. 1866. Kcb. 
Certainly my light is dim, when it cometh to handy-grips, RUTHER- 
FORD Lett. (i66o) No. 108. ',6) Oxf. 1 MS. add. (7) Abd. Seean' 
nae way for the laird out o' his difficulty but by handy micht, 
Deeside Tales (1872) 121. (81 [It is very handy for the masons 
and is almost invariably worked by Irishmen, N. & Q. (1853; ist 
S. viii. 508.] (9) w.Yks. 5 A child's game, in which something is 
changed from one hand to the other, and guesses are made as to 
which hand contains it. Chs. 1 The one who conceals the object 
says ' Handy Pandy, sugary candy, Guess which hand it's in ; 
Right hand or left hand, Guess which hand it's in.' Shr. BURNE 
Fit-Lore (1883) 531 ; Shr. 1 (10) s.Chs. 1 Wi)sn sey bit u aan-di- 
pimgg-i naay [We s'n sey a bit o' handy-pungy nal]. (u) Flf. 
The hedge sparrow and the yite jinked the handy-stone, COLVILLE 
Vernacular (1899 8. (13) Ess. ^HALL.), Ess. 1 13) n.Yks. 2 

2. adj. Skilful, dexterous, clever-handed; apt, clever; 

Sh.I. I was always a handy man, BURGESS Tang (1898) 87. 
Elg. I wat she is a handy wife, Oor wife Bell, TESTER Poems ( 1865) 
106. Lnk. You find Doghip handy, I suppose, GORDON Pyotshaw 
(1885) 233. Edb. Cou'd Prick-the-louse but be sae handy As mak 
the breeks and claise to stand ay, FERGUSSON Poems ,17731 2OI i 
ed. 1785. Dmf. Ye gleg, handy craftsmen, that toil for yer bread, 
QUINN Heather 1,1863) 143. Nhb. (W.G.) Dur. 1 A handy lad. 
Wm. He's handy wi' a pen (B.K.). n.Yks. 1 A desper't handy 
chap wiv a speead ; n.Yks. 4 He's a varra handy chap. I.Ma. The 
doctor was that handy about him the ould chap couldn' do without 
him, BROWN Doctor (1887) 34. ed - 1891. nw.Der. 1 s.Not. 'You'll 
hev to be handy how you get 'em,' said A to B, who meant 
' snaking ' some grafts from a choice, well-watched apple-tree 
(J.P.K.). Nhp. 1 Glo. What a handy girl Mary is (A.B.) ; Glo. 2 
Oxf. 1 MS. add. Brks. 1 He be a handy zart o' chap. e^An. 2 A 
clever workman is 'a handy fellow.' Hmp. 1 Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892); 
BRITTON Beauties (1825). Dor. Abel be wonderful handy about 
the place, Longman's Mag. (Nov. 1898) 50. w.Som. 1 I 'sure 'ee, 
he's a rare fuller to work, and he's s'andy 's a gimblet. Dev. 
Tis true that pegs be vury handy crayters, SALMON Ballads( 1899) 50. 

3. Good, sound ; suitable, seemly. 

Abd. The beast's as soun' 's ever a beast was ; and there's nae 
a handier creatur i' the market, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. ; 1882) 102. 
Fif. Gin ye angry grow, or glowr, That winna be sae handy, 
DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 69. 

4. adv. Of place : near by, adjacent to, close at hand. 
Sc. ,A.W.) s.Ir. How should you know that I was here so handy 

to you ? CROKER Leg. (1862) 289. n.Cy. 'J.W.) Cum. His house is 
handy to his office (E.W.P.) ; Cum. 4 His house is very handy to his 
office. Yks. (J.W.), Not. V L.C.M.), Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 Oor chech 
Stan's soa nice an' handy that I mostlin's goa theare e'stead o' to 
chapil. Lei. 1 ' Weer's Higgam ? ' ' Whoy, joost 'andy to Stooke.' 
Nhp. 12 War. 2 The farm lies very handy. Glo. (J.S.F.S.) ; I says 
to her 'as 'er'd ought to go to the churchyard of the parish as 'er's 
now in, as it is so much handier, yer see, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
( 1890) xi ; Glo. 12 , Oxf. (G.O.) Brks." A little me-ad lez handy to 
the house. Snr. 1 Sus. HOLLOW AY. Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892) ; Wil. 1 
Handy home. ' I be zo hard o' hirin', I caan't hire nothen, wi'out 
I comes handier to 'ee,'*. an. n.Wll. 'Tis handy 'Vize [It's near 
Devizes] (E.H.G.). Som. Handy her last end, RAYMOND Men o' 
Mendip (1898) i ; JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825^ w.Som. 1 
Her do live up handy Taun'on. Dev. He said the stones were 
very handy for him, BRAY Desc. Tantar and Tavy (1836) I. 248. 
Cor. And ef the sai [sea] es handy by, In the ' Fisheries' we will 
fish, FORFAR Poems (1885) 10. 




5. Of time : near to, approaching, nearly. 

Hmp. Howold is she? Oh, she's handy upon twelve (M.C.H. B.\ 
I.W. Pretty handy twelve o'clock (J.D.R.) ; I.W. 1 , Wil. 1 s Wil. 
Handy ten o'clock, Monthly Mag. (1814) II. 114. w.Som. 1 They 
did'n come home gin handy one o'clock. Come, Soce ! I zim 'tis 
handy dinner-time. Dev. Christmas Day being so handy to Sunday 
this year (H.S.H.). 

6. Almost, very nearly, near about. 

War. Leamington Courier (Mar. 6, 1897) ; War. 2 s.War. 1 That 
bit o' garden ground is handy to 20 pole. Hrf. 1 Handy a mile. 
Oxf.' Dhat dhaa-r pig waiz aan'di ten skor [That thar pig weighs 
handy ten scor]. Wil. 1 A gied un vower days' work, or handy. 
Dev. The game was preserved, but the keeper lived handy two 
mile from here, MORTIMER Tales Moors (1895) 265; Handy two 
thousand feet auver the zea, ib. 290. 

7. Easily, readily, without trouble. Also used attrib. 
Ayr. When climbing o'er the Hadyer Hill, It wasna han'y wark, 

man, Ballads and Sngs. (1846) I. 94; Oaths come oot far owre 
handy when folk get a drap o' whisky, JOHNSTON Glenbuckie 
(1889! l6 - Wgt. Onything they get ower handy they think nae 
gear aboot, FRASER Wigtown 1,1877; 364. n.Cy. (J.W.) War. 3 It 
is a good bit of ground, it works so handy. 

8. Readily, quickly. 

n.Cy. (J.W.) Not. Look handy (L.C.M.) ; Be handy, be quick 

U.H.B.) ; (W.H.S.) Nhp.2 

9. Officious ; over-busy with one's hands. 

n.Cy. (J.W.) s.Not. Don't be so handy with your marking ; 
I can mark for myself (J.P.KA Oxf. (G.O.) 

HANDY, sb? Sc. Nhb. Cum. Also in form hannie 
Lnk. Cum. 12 [ha'ndi, ha'ni.] 1. A small tub with a 
handle used for carrying water, milk, &c. ; a milking-pail. 

Per. Women used to milk the cows into handies before pails 
were used for this purpose. The handy is seldom seen now(G.W.). 
Lnk. Bring the twa milk hannies, WATT Poems (1827) 59. N.Cy. 1 
Small wooden cylindrical vessel made of staves hooped together, 
one being longer than the rest and serving as a handle. Nhb. 
(W.G.) ; Lyavethe waiter oot wi' the handy, lass (R. O.K.); Nhb. 1 
Cum. 1 ; Cum. 4 A small tub of cylindrical form having a long handle ; 
elsewhere called Piggin. [A handy formed like a miniature milk- 
pail, STEPHENS Farm Bk. (eA. 1849) I. 528.] 

2. Comp. (i) Handie-full, the fill of a milk-pail ; (2) -kit, 
a tub or pail having a long handle. 

( i) Lnk. I had gane into the milkhouse ... to teem a hannie-fu' o' 
milk, Edb. Mag. <,Dec. 1818) 503 QAM.). (2) Cum. 14 

3. A wooden dish for holding food. 

s.Sc. I flang the hannie frae me, Edb. Mag. (Dec. 1818) 503 
(JAM.) ; Thus denominated because it has an ear or hand for 
holding by (JAM.). 

HANE, see Hain, v. 1 

HANG, v. and sb. Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. and 
Amer. Also in forms ang- Cor. 12 ; hange- Der. [h)arj, 
erj, asrj.] I. v. Gram, forms. 1. Present Tense: (i) 
Ank, (2) Haing, (3) Heng, (4) Hong. [For additional 
examples see II below.] See King. 

(r) Ess. 1 (2) Arg. Haing the meishachan, where first I felt 
love's mainglin' smart, COLVILLE Vernacular (1899 1 6. (3^ n.Yks. 4 , 
w.Yks. 2 . s.Chs. 1 Sns. What dey heng a thousan bucklers on, 
LOWER Sng. Sol. (1860) iv. 4. (4; Lan. Furst he chops off his 
woife's heaod, and then hongs aw t'priests, AINSWORTH Witches 
(ed. 1849) Introd. iii. Cor. 2 

2. Preterite : (i) Henged, (2) Unged. 

(i) w.Yks. A've a singin bird heng'd at t'haase top, ECCLES 
Sags. ( 1862) 24. (2) w.Som. Uung'd, Athenaeum (Feb. 26, 1898). 

3. pp. (i) Hangen, (2) Hangit, (3) Henged, (4) Unged. 
(5) Ungen. 

(i) e.Yks. 1 (a) Sc. Do not talk of a rape to a chiel whase 
father was hangit, RAMSAY Prov. (1737). Nhb. Weel fangit syne 
hangit, we'se see them a', DIXON Whittingham Vale (1895) 193 ; 
(R.O.H.) (3) w.Yks. Be heng'd to yer meter hannels ! BINNS 
Orig. (1889) No. i. 5. (4) w.Som. U-ung'd, Athenaeum (Feb. 26, 
1898). (5) s.Chs. 1 Ungn, 81. 

II. Dial. uses. 1. v. In comb, (i) Hang-a-balk, a 
gallows-bird, one ripe for the gallows ; (2) -back, hesita- 
tion, hanging back; (3) -bench, a piece of timber forming 
part of the ' stow ' in a mine ; (4) -bow, the hanging-post 
of a gate, to which the hinges are attached ; (5) -by, 
a hanger-on ; (6) -choice, no difference, one as bad as 
the other ; ' Hobson's choice ' ; (7) -dog, (a) a worthless 
fellow, a reprobate ; (b) villainous, bad ; (8) -dog-like, see 

(?> b} ; (9) -dog look, a villainous or vile expression ; also 
used attrib. in form -dog-looking ; (ID) -fair, a public 
execution ; also called Hanging-fair (q. v.) ; (n) -gallows 
(a) see (i) ; (b) see (7, b) ; (12) -gallows-look, see (9); 
( 13) -lock, a padlock 5(14) -mad, riotous tumult, boisterous 
frolic ; also used at/rib. ; (15) -net, a species of net ; 
see below ; (16) on, mining term : a call from the 
banksman to the onsetter, after any stop, to recommence 
work ; (17) -post, see (4) ; (18) -sleeve, a dangler ; an 
officious but unmeaning suitor; (19) -such, (20) -trace, see 
(i) ; (21) -(s-tree, see (4). 

(i) Nhb. 1 (2) Som. There'd be no hang-back about John 
Winterhead,once his mind was made up, RAYMOND Men o' Mendip 
(1898) xi. (3) Der. Hading Hang-bench muttering in his sleeve, 
FURNESS Medicus (1836) 31 ; Hange-benches, turntree, and coes, 
MANLOVE Lead Mines (1653) ' 2 6 8 - (4) nw.Dev.' Formerly it used 
to project considerably above the gate, the upper part being curved 
towards the head and secured at its end to a diagonal cross-piece. 
Cor. The hang-bow and millyer [the hinge] was all that was left 
of the gate, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) 6. (5) w.Yks. 3 (6) 
Nhb. ' Chs. 1 ' Am nor oi a better bye than Johnny, grandmother ? ' 
' Aw dunna know ; you're both so nowt, that it's hang choice 
between you.' s.Chs. 1 7, a) n.Yks. 4 [The man is not a repro- 
bate not a hang-dog. JEFFERIES Hodge 1880) II. 195.] (b) Bnff. 1 
He canna be gueede, he hiz sic a hang-dog face. [Look at his 
hang-dog air, DICKENS Mutual Friend (1865) bk. i. xii/] (8) Bnff. 1 
A widna like t'meet yon lad i' the dark ; he hiz as hingum-tringum, 
hang-dog-like a leuck 's iver I saw. 19) Lakel. 2 n.Yks. 4 Deean't 
gan aboot wiv a hang-dog leeak o' thi fceace leyke that. e.Yks. 1 , 
n.Lin. 1 w.Som. 1 Me, gwain to have thick hangdog-looking fuller ! 
why, I widn be a zeed in a ten-acre field way un. (10) Wil. 1 
Hang-fair at 'Vize.' formerly treated as a great holiday. Obs. The 
Pleasure Fair at Warminster, on August n, is known as ' Hang- 
Fair,' perhaps from the hanging of two murderers there on that 
day in 1813. Dor. The innkeeper supposed her some harum- 
skarum young woman who had come to attend ' hang-fair' next 
day, HARDY Wessex Tales (1888) I. in. Som. They told the 
grim story of that day . . . How there were thousands at Hang- 
fair, RAYMOND Men o Mendip (1898) ii ; (W.F.R.); W. & J. Gl. 
(1873^. (n, a) Nhb. 1 Cum. That Curst fella's a real Yankee, an 
a regular hang-gallas, SARGISSON Joe Swap (1881) 211. n.Yks. 
(T.S.), w.Yks. 15 , War. J.R.W.) Wil. Where's the money I put 
in th' zack, you hang-gallus? AKERMAN Tales (1853) 55; SLOW 
Gl. (1892) ; Wil. 1 Som. SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. ',1885). w.Som. 1 
' I calls'n a proper hang-gallis why I wid'n be a zeed in a ten-acre 
field way un.' Very commonly used to express repugnance at 
association or contact with any one. s.Dev., e.Cor. (Miss D.) (b) 
I.W. 2 He's a hang-gallus rascal. Dor. A hang-gallows rogue. 
BARNES Gl. (1863). Som. That hang-gallis fellow Standerwick, 
RAYMOND Men o' Mendip (1898) viii ; A hang-gallise fellow, JEN- 
NINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). w.Som. 1 You hang-gallis oseburd, 
tid'n good I catch thee. Who's thick there hang-gallis fuller ? 
Cor. 1 You angallish dog, you ; Cor. 2 (12) Lakel. 2 , e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 , 
Lin. 1 Dev. 3 Bill Jones 'th a-got a 'ang-gallous Hike in 'es face that 
mak'th me creem tu luke at 'n. (13) Nhb. 1 Still used, but probably 
obsol. (14; m.Yks. 1 Employed occas. as an adj. and commonly as 
a sb. (15) Dmf. Hang-nets are larger in the mesh than any other 
nets, and are stretched upright between stakes of about ten feet 
long, placed at regular distances of about eight feet, Agtic. Surv. 
605 (JAMA e.An. 1 ^s.v. Hay-net . (16) Nhb., Dur. NICHOLSON 
Coal Ti: Gl. (1888). (17) Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 In contradistinction to the 
'clappost/againstwhichthegateshuts. (18, ig)e.An. 1 (2o)m.Yks. 1 
Aye, he's a hang-trace, as aud Betty says by such like. (21) Hrf. 2 
2. Phr. ( i) to hang at, to take one's time at ; (2) by, to 
cling to, be on the side of ; (3) for, to be desirous or 
anxious for; (4) for rain, to threaten rain; (5) idly, 
of a sheep : to be ill ; (6) in hand, to be dull of sale ; (7) 
in the band, to remain unsold ; (8) in the bell-ropes, 
said of a couple in the interval elapsing between the calling 
of their banns in church and the wedding ; also of one who 
has been deserted after publication of the banns ; (9) 
in the wind, (a) to subsist on uncertainty, await events ; 
used attrib. ; (b) to put oft", delay, postpone ; (10) on the 
bough, to remain unmarried ; (n) on the slack rope, to 
be lazy; (12) on to, to scold ; (13) out, to loiter or 
stop about a place ; (14) to, to have an inclination or 
affection for ; (15) together, to just be alive and nothing 
more ; (16) up, (a) to bring in debt ; (b) to hinder or 
delay; to foil, prevent ; used in pp.; (c) to leave off work ; 





(17) up afield, to take the cattle off a field and give it a 
long rest, so as to freshen up the pasture ; (18) up the 
hat, (a) to be very intimate in a house ; to be an accepted 
suitor ; (b) of a man when married : to go and live in his 
wife's house ; (19) up by one leg, see below ; (20) the 
ae, to loiter, hold back; (21) the baker, to become 
bankrupt, be out of materials for work; (22) the fiddle 
behind the door, to leave one's good humour behind one; 
(23) the lip, to pout, look sullen ; (24) the stump, see 
below ; (25) be hang ye or to ye, an exclamation ; (26) what 
did ye hang your father for, see below ; (27) Guy heng ! see 
(25) ; (28) to hang out the broomstick, to angle for a husband. 
(i)w.Wor.[He]wanttohangat it, S. BEAUCHAMP Granlley Grange 
(1874) II. 56. (a) s.Oxf. Them lawyers allus 'angs by the rich folks, 
ROSEMARY Chiltems (1895) 61. (3) n.Lin. 1 Well Mary Ann, thoo 

can do as la likes, bud I hang for y& goin' to Mrs. plaace ; its 

a knawn good un. (4) w.Yks. (J.W.) n.Lin. 1 It's been hangin' for 
raain three or foher daays but noan cums. (5) Nrf. When a sheep 
' hang idly,' as they say here in their sing-song provincialism, the 
knowingdog will never touch it they seem to discern that the sheep 
isill,EMERSONyaras(i8ai)n6. (6) Nhp.,Hnt.(T.P.F.) (7)w.Yks. 2 
A house or a farm is said ' to hang i' t'band a long time ' if it does not 
sell when it is offered for sale, and when for a considerable time no 
purchaser can be found. (8) s.Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 Wor. If, after the 
publication of banns, the marriage does not come off, the ' deserted 
one ' is said to be hung in the bell-ropes, N. & Q. 1,1867) 3rd S. 
xii. 139. (9, a) Com. 4 The company consists of the ' well-to- 
do ' and the hang-i'-th'-win' class, BURN Rosenthal, 13. (b) Gall. 
She seldom saw them happy, Matches that hang lang i' win, 
NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 114, ed. 1897. ,10) Sc. Ye impident 
woman! It's easy seen why ye were left hingin' on the bough, 
KEITH Indian Uncle (1896) 5. (n) w.Cor. He rarely does any- 
thing, he's very fond of hanging on the slack rope (M.A.C.). (la) 
e.An. 1 I'll hang on to him properly when I catch him. (13) Mid. 
Don't hang out here, stops business, BLACKMORE Kit (1890) I. xvi. 
(14) s.Chs. 1 60 wuz widh iiz fur u men'i 6e'ur, un it)s lahyk Oz 
iv 6o)z au'viz ungn t6o uz [Hoo was with us for a many 'ear, an" 
it's like as if hoo's auvays hungn to us]. (15) S. & Ork. 1 Yea, 
lamb, he's just hanging together. Cai. 1 (16, a) w.Som. 1 A man 
having a bill brought in unexpectedly for goods ordered on his 
account by his wife or servant, would say: ' I'm darned if I'll be 
a hanged up like this here.' This phr. is most likely the same in 
origin as ' chalk up ' viz. from the score due to a publican being 
written on a slate and hung up, the more primitive method having 
been to chalk it on the back of the door. It is easy to see how 
the expression might get to be applied to a more systematic debit. 
(6) Ken. 1 ' He is quite hung up,' so circumstanced that he is 
hindered from doing what otherwise he would. Sur.' To be delayed 
or hindered, as in hay-making or harvest, from bad weather or want 
of hands. Sus. 1 I was so hung up for time all last week I couldn't 
come, (c} [Ainer. A mower, when rain was coming on : ' I reckon 
we'll have to hang up for all day,' Dial. Notes (1896) I. 37a.] (17) 
Wil. 1 n.Wil. After a farmer has turned his cattle out and ' fed ' a 
field, he will say, ' We'll hang up that field ' (E.H.G.). (18, a) 
Ayr. Ye have only to gang doon and hang up your hat, JOHNSTON 
Glenbuckie (1889) azo. n.Yks. 4 Ah can hang mail hat up yonder 
when Ah'vea mahnd teea. s.Stf. It was known . . . that Snelling 
' hung his hat up ' that is the local phrase at the abode of 
Ephraim Shorthouse, whose daughter Cecilia was grown to a 
marriageable age, MURRAY John Vale (1890) xvii. Brks. 1 (b) Sc. 
(A.W. ) w.Som. 1 When a man marries and goes home to the wife's 
house to live, he is said to 'hang uphishat." The phr. is an everyday 
one, perfectly well understood by every one. It is a bantering 
and rather depreciatory saying. (19) Wil. Though the wheat 
grew very luxuriantly during the winter, the March winds, 
particularly after frost, frequently blew the earth away from the 
plant, and left it (as the Wiltshire phrase is) ' hung up by one 
leg," Agric, 50. (ao) w.Yks. 1 [My lads, I am told you hang an 
a se. I have gone to sea thirty years man and boy, and never 
saw English sailors afraid before, SMOLLETT R. Random (1748) 
Ixv.] (ai) Cam. 4 (aa) Ir. No man 'ill know betther how to hang 
his fiddle behind the door, CARLETON Fardorougha (1836) ai ; 
The old midwives believed that if a man was brutal or unkind (e. g. 
hung his fiddle behind the door) when a child was born to him 
they could transfer all the pain of child-bearing to him, it. note. 
(33) nw.Der. 1 (34) Nhp. 1 A term amongst hedgers and ditchers 
when they hang small thorns on the stumps of the lower table of 
a newly laid hedge ; to prevent animals biting the young shoots in 
the spring and summer. (35) N.I. 1 O behang t'ye for a fool. 
n.Yks. 2 (36) Brkt. 1 Children run after cock turkeys calling, 

' What d'ye hang yer vather wi',' to get the reply ' Holter, holler, 
holler ' (s.v. Come back). (37) I.Ma. Guy heng ! The woman's 
mad, CAINE Manxman (1894) I. iii. 1,38) Oxf. (G.O.) 

3. Of mortar : to cling, hold together. 

Lon. A walling builder told me that ' mac ' was as good as the 
best sand ; il made Ihe mortar ' hang,' and without either that or 
sand, the lime would ' brittle ' away, MAYHEW Land. Labour 
(ed. 1861) II. 199. 

4. Coal-mining term : to incline or dip. See King, v. 
II. 6. Nhb. 1 Nhb., Dur. GREENWELL Coal Tr. Gl. (1849). 

5. To stand ; to incline or stand on a slope. 

N.I. 1 Hangin' on my feet al) day. e.Snf. ' That are hill du hang 
wholly heavy,' is very steep (F.H.). 

6. To fix a gate or door in its place by crooks or hinges. 
Yks. J.W.i, n.Lin. 1 Ess. 1 ' Ank that gate' for ' hang or shut 

that gate.' w.Som. 1 Technically a carpenler hangs a door or gale 
when he fits it to ils place, fixes Ihe hinges, and makes il open 
and shul properly. 

7. Of a scythe : to set it in its ' snead ' or handle. 

N.I. 1 Nrf. 1 take my old Fanny we allust call our scythes arler 
our wives and hung her, EMERSON Son of Fens (i8ga) 131. 
w.Som. 1 Thy zive id'n a-hang vilty, the toer o' un's a cocked up 
to much. nw.Dev. 1 

8. sb. Phr. (i) hang lit on it.' may hanging befall it ; an 
imprecation; (2) the hang.' an expletive. 

(i) Lakel. 2 , n.Yks. 2 , m.Yks. 1 (a) Don. What the hang did ye 
call her ? MACMANUS Oiney Kittach in Century Mag. (Oct. 1899 955. 
0. A snare for catching rabbits, hares, &c. 

Nhb. I'm no sae laith to see them spang An' wam'le, fast tied 
wi' a 'hang,' PROUDLOCK Borderland Muse (1896) 341 ; Nhb. 1 A 
noose made of very fine wire or hair. n.Yks. T'hare was catcht 
in a hang I.I.W.). Chs. 13 , s.Chs. 1 

10. A crop of fruit. 

e.An. 1 A good tidy hang of apples. Nrf. We've got a rare hang 
of plums t'year (W.R.E.). Suf. (R.E.L.), Suf. 1 , e.Snf. (F.H.) 

11. A declivity, slope. Cf. hanger, 5, hanging, sb. 4. 
e.An. 1 e.Snf. The hang of a hill (F.H.). 
HANGALL, see Hankie, v. 

HANGE, sb. Hrf. Glo. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Dor. Som. Dev. 
Cor. Also written hanje Dev. ; and in forms henge 
Hmp. 1 I.W. 1 Wil. 1 Som. Dev. ; hinge Hrf. 1 Glo. 12 Hmp. 1 
Wil. 1 Dor. 1 Cor. 3 ; inge Glo. 1 [aeng, eng, ing.] The 
pluck or liver, lungs and heart of any animal. 

Hrf. 1 Glo. LEWIS Gl. ,1839); Glo. 12 Hmp. A sheep's head 
and henge. A pig's hcnge (J.R.W. ;; Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 Wil. SLOW 
Gl. (18921; 'Peg's hcnge,' pigs fry or 'inwards' iK.M.G.); 
BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; Wil. 1 The heart, liver, and lungs of a 
sheep or pig. In some parts of s.Wil. used only of the latter. 
w.Cy. GROSE (1790). Dor. 1 Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. 
(1825); (W.F.R.) w.Som. 1 In dressing sheep, the head is usually 
left attached by the windpipe ; this is always called a ' sheep's 
head and hange' [an'j]. A calf or pig always has the head 
separated ; hence one hears only of a ' calf s hange,' or a ' pig's 
hange.' Dev. Butchers sell 'sheep's-head and hange' for a few 
pence, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892); Reports Provinc. (1877) 132; 
Dev. 1 Why if es could ha' but a sheep's head and hange es should 
ha' the virst cut o't, 44. n.Dev. GROSE (1790). nw.Dev. 1 , s.Dev. 
S F.W.C.), Cor. 123 w.Cor. The tinner's wife put all the pork left 
at home in salt, except the leans, and saved them to make a good 
pie the Feasten Sunday. She made the hinges and other things 
serve them till then, BOTTRELL Trad. 3rd S. 69. 

Hence Hanjed, ppl. adj. used as a term of abuse. 

n.Dev. What's me-an by thai, ya long-hanjed meazle, Exm. Scold. 
,1746) 1. 30; A long hanjed creature, Home Subsecivae (i"m) aoi. 

[Et sol' pro i Calvishede cum le henge adpaschetyde pro- 
iantacula iiij", Chw. Ace. (1494) S. Edmund Sarum (ed. 
1896) 43.] 

HANGED, ppl. adj. Sc. Cum. Chs. Also in form 
hangit Sc. Cum. 4 1. In comb. (i)Hanged-faced, having 
a look that seems to point to the gallows ; (2) hay, hay 
hung on the steelyard to be weighed, previous to selling ; 
(3) -like, shamefaced, hang-dog like. 

( i) Rxb. (JAM.) (a) Chs. 1 ; Chs. 2 (s.v. Doe) ; Chs. 3 ' Hanged 
hay never does cattle," i. e. bought hay does not pay. ' Slung 
hay ' is another version, and like ' hanged hay,' refers to the mode 
of weighing. (3) Sc. Applied to one who is out of countenance 
or knows not what excuse to make for his conduct. It is said thai 
he looks very hangil-like QAM.). Cum. 4 At last he turn't oot, bil 
hang't like, RICHARDSON Talk (1871) isl S. 34. 




2. Cursed, damned. 

e.Fif. He paid the siller wi' hangit ill-will, LATTO Tarn Bodkin 
1,1864) xv. Lnk. It's a lee ! It's a hangit lee, she's gaun to marry 
oor Jossie ! GORDON Pyotshaw (1885) 41. 

HANGEDLY, adv. Cum. Yks. Reluctantly, unwill- 
ingly ; despondently, as though being led to the gallows. 

Cum. The lave tho" hang'dly follow him Wi' nea uncommon 
spead, STAGG Misc. Poems (ed. 1807) 40. n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 He left 
heeam varry hangedly; n.Yks. 34 , ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 He gangs 
vara hangedly. 

HANGER, sb. Nhb. Yks. Oxf. Nrf. Ken. Sus. Hmp. I.W. 
w.Cy. Dor. Also in form anjur- I.W. 2 1. A hook or link 
by which a pot or kettle is suspended over the fireplace. 

Oxf. 1 MS. add. w.Cy. Hung a black kettle over it [fire] on a 
veritable pothook and hanger, Longmans Mag. (Apr. 1898) 543 ; 
The old iron ' hangers ' for pots are very common, il>, (Nov. 1896; 64. 

2. Comp. Anjur-dogs, andirons at the side of a hearth to 
support the logs, and with hooks for the spit to run on. I.W. 2 

3. A hinge. See Hinger, 3. 

Nhb. 1 As gen. used on field or garden gates. w.Cor. I bought 
new hangers for my desk. Shall I put new hangers to this door ? 

4. //. Fungi hanging to old logs. Nrf. (P.H.E.) 

5. A hanging wood on the side of a hill. Cf. hang, sb. 11. 
w.Yks. The Jay . . . occurs in some of the large falls, or hangers, 

in Airedale, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 143. Ken. 1 , Sus. 12 
Hmp. The naked part of the Hanger is now covered with thistles, 
WHITE Selborne (1789) 301, ed. 1853; (J.R.W.) ; (H.E.) ; Hmp. 1 
These hangers are woods on the sides of very steep hills. The 
trees and underwood hang, in some sort, instead of standing on 
it. Hence these places are called hangers, COBBETT Rur. Rides, 
87. Dor. BARNES Gl. (1863;. 

HANGEREL, sb. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Also in 
forms hangarel(l Sc. (JAM.) Cum. 14 ; hangerill n.Yks.; 
hangrell Gall. Wm. & Cum. 1 [hja-rjaral.] 1. A stick in 
a butcher's shop, on which the carcase of a pig or other 
animal is suspended, a ' cambrel.' N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 

2. An implementofthestable,upon which bridles, halters, 
&c., are hung ; a stick or post on which anything is hung. 

Sc. Commonly a stout branch of a tree with a number of knots 
left on, Gl. Sibb. (JAM.) Gall. They [liggetts] are hung on what is 
termed a hangrell, MACTAGGART Encycl. (.1824) 316, ed. 1876. 

3. Fig. A lazy, idle, good-for-nothing person ; a hanger- 
on. Also used altrib. 

Cum. 14 Wm. & Cum. 1 A hangrell gang Com' with a bensil owr 
the sea, 168. n.Yks. 2 

HANGIE, sb. Sc. Nhb. [ha-rji.j 1. A hangman. 

Sc. Gin hangie would gie them a dip through his trap door, FORD 
Thistledown (1891) 312. Frf. There he stood till hangie got Beneath 
his lug the ugly knot, SANDS Poems (1833) 109. Lnk. Vild hangy's 
taz, RAMSAY Poems (1721) 36 ; Ilk ane saw auld Hangie's helter 
Owre his head aboot to fa', NICHOLSON Kilwuddie (ed. 1895) 76. 
Nhb. The hangey . . . that trims wor neckornowt suit in this life, 
CHATER Tyneside Aim. (1869) 23. 

2. The devil. 

Cai. 1 Ayr. Hear me, auld Hangie, for a wee, An' let poor 
damned bodies be, BURNS Address Deil (,1785) st. 2. 

3. A drift-net. Cf. hang, 9. The use of the hangie or 
drift-net on the waters of the Tay, Scottish Leader (Mar. 
u, 1889) 5. 

HANGING, ppl. adj. and sb. Van dial, uses in Sc. 
Irel. Eng. and Colon. Also written hangen War. Dor. 1 
1. ppl. adj. In comp. (i) Hanging-bout, an execution, 
hanging ; (2) coal, a common sort of coal ; (3) - 
cover, a wood on the slope of a hill ; (4) -fair, see (ij ; (5) 
field, a field on a slope ; (6) gale, a payment of rent 
allowed to lie in arrear ; see Gale, sb. 3 ; (7) gate, a bar 
hung across a small stream to prevent any one passing it ; 
(8) geranium, the geranium, Saxifraga sarmentosa ; (9) 
head, the upright part of a gate, to which the hinges are 
attached ; (10) -house, a shed under a continuation of the 
roof of a house ; (n) level, an uninterrupted declivity; 
an inclined plane ; (12) market, see below; (13) -on, 
mining term : a place in the shaft where tubs are taken 
out and put in; (14) -post, see (9); (15) -side, the high 
side of a drift in a colliery, driven on the level of an in- 
clined stratum ; (16) -wall, an overhanging wall ; the 

wall or side in a mine over the regular vein ; (17) -wood, 
see (3). 

(i) n.Yks. 2 (a) Stf. 1 (3) War. The hounds were ' run through 
a hanging cover,' B'ham Dy. Gazette (Feb. 18, 1899) Hunting Notes. 
(4) Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873:. w.Som. 1 Jack and Liz be gwain to 
be married next Thuzday, 'cause there's gwain to be a hanging 
fair to Taunton thick morning, and they must lost a day's work, so 
they be gwain there fust, vor a bit of a spree. (5) e.Suf. (F.H.) 
(6) N.I. 1 On some estates it is customary to allow one gale of rent 
to lie always in arrear. This is called the hanging gale. Myo. 
They owed but six months' rent with the hanging gale, Times 
(Nov. 13, 1880 . (7) Lnk. Below the hanging gate on Barncluith 
burn, PATRICK Plants (1831) 191. (8) Wil. 1 From the way in 
which it is usually suspended in a cottage window. (9) w.Som. 1 
(10) Dor. BARNES Gl. (1863). (ii) Nnp. 1 , e.An. 1 Nrf., Sus. 
HOLLOWAY. (12.! Lon. It was a hanging market that day that is 
to say. things had been dear, and the costers couldn't pay the price 
for them, MAYHEW Land. Labour (1851) I. 64. (13) Nhb., Dur. 
NICHOLSON Coal Tr. Gl. (1888;. (14) Wil. 1 Freq. heard, although 
' har ' is much more commonly used. w.Som. 1 Thick piece mid do 
vor a vallin post, but he id'n good 'nough vor a hangin-post. 
nw.Dev. 1 The back is hinged to the hangin'-poss by crooks an' 
eyes, and the head is usually fastened to the vallin'-poss by a hapse 
and stape. (15; Nhb. (,G.C.G.) (.lOjnw.Der.i.Nhp. 1 [Aus. What 
we thought was the ' hanging-wall' caved in, and showed us the 
true reef again, VOGAN Blk. Police (1890) vii.j (17) Nhp. 1 , War. 3 
e.Suf. (F.H.) 

2. Phr. (i) hanging bone villain, a term of abuse ; (2) 
sort of way, wavering between illness and health. 

(i) w.Ir. Oh, the hangin' bone villian ! LOVER Leg. ^1848) I. 199. 
v a) Chs. 1 

3. The hinges or apparatus on which a door, 
gate, &c., is made to swing. 

w.Som. 1 The hook and eye or hook and twist are the common 
forms of gate hangings. '(You. can put wiren hangings to thick 
box, neef 'ee mind to.' nw.Dev. 1 

4. The sloping side of a hill ; the steep wooded side of a 
hill. Cf. hanger, 5. 

Nhp. 1 ' It lies on the hangings,' on the side of a hill. Brks. 1 E'll 
vind moor partridges on the hangin' yander 'n anywher. Hmp. 
(J.R.W.), Wil. 1 n.Wil. I see dree foxes up in th' hanging (E.H.G. . 
Dor. BARNES Gl. (,I 86 3) > Dor. 1 My little zummer-leaze da stratch 
all down the hangen, 141. 

5. A hillside field. 

War. (J.R.W.) Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892); Wil. 1 Som. SWEETMAN 
Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

HANGLE, sb. Lan. Glo. Brks. Wil. Som. Also in 
forms angle Lan. ; hangler Wil. 1 [a'rjl, avnl.] 1. The 
iron rack or pot-hook on which a kettle, &c., is suspended 
over the fire. Gen. in pi. 

Glo. (J.S.F.S.) Brks. Gl. (1852); Brks. 1 , Wil. 1 Som.jENNiNGS 
Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825); W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; i^W.F.R.); (F.A.A.) 
w.Som. 1 In farm-houses and places where wood only is burnt, a 
bar of iron is placed across the chimney, six or seven feet from 
the ground ; from this are hung iron hooks so made as to lengthen 
or shorten at will, and on these are hung the various pots and 
kettles over the fire. These hooks are sometimes called hangles, 
'or ' a pair o' angles,' but oftener ' chimbly crooks.' 
2. A door-hinge. 

Lan. The gate drooping from its angles, BRIERLEY Layrock 
^1864) III. 36; In Saddleworth and its neighbourhood the word 
'angle' is very commonly used to denote a door-hinge, Manch. 
City News (Feb. 29, 1896). 

HANGMAN, sb. Der. Nhp. War. Shr. Som. In phr. 
hangman' swages, (i) thirteen pence halfpenny ; (2) money 
paid beforehand for work. 

(i) nw.Der. 1 , Nhp. 1 War. 3 Rarely heard now. w.Som. 1 The 
tradition is that in the time of good King George, or 'Farmer 
George,' as he is still called, the hangman, himself a reprieved 
convict, received the clothes of the condemned and thirteen pence 
half-penny for each culprit. The price of a box of pills is still 
facetiously spoken of as hangman's wages. (2) Shr. 1 

HANGMENT, sb. n.Cy. Cum. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Not. 
War. Also Som. Also in forms engmond, engmont 
w.Yks. ; hangman w.Yks. 3 ; hangmet w.Yks. ; hangmut 
e.Lan. 1 ; hengment, hengmondt w.Yks. [h)a'rjment, 
e-rjment, avnment.] 1. A hanging, execution ; en- 

n.Yks. 2 w.Som. 1 I thort I never should'n a-got droo they there 




brimmles, 'twas jish hangment's never you behold. They do zay 
how thick there fuller's a-let off, zo there 'ont be no hangment to 
Taun'on thease year. 

2. The devil, deuce, used as an oath in van phr., esp. 
what the hangment. Also in pi, 

Cum. What the hangment is ta maapen aboot noo ? Willy Wattle 
(1870) 3 ; Cam. 14 Yks. The haangmenttak that hangrick, FETHER- 
STON T. Goorkrodger (1870) 137. n.Yks. (I.W.I; What the 
hangment is t'fellow gain ta diu? (W.H.) e.Yks. 1 Hangment tiv 
it, says Ah. w.Yks. I couldn't imagine whot the engmond wor 
t'matter wi' urn, Yksman. 1880) 198; Nah then, hah leng are ye 
bahn ta keep me waiten ? Whot the hengmondt ! HARTLEY Clock 
Aim. (1874) T, Whear the hengments hes teh been? (JE.E.); 
(S.P.U.); w.Yks. 12 ; w.Yks. 3 A woman who turned in her toes 
put her shoes, by mistake, on the wrong feet and exclaimed, ' Why 
what the hangman do I ail ? I used to twang, but now I shale.' 
Lan. What the hangment ails 'em CLEGG Sketc/itt, 1(18951 7 ; Lan. 1 , 
n.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 War. 3 What the hangment is that fellow doing? 

3. Phr. (i) to play the hangment, (a) to be very much en- 
raged ; (b) to injure, play havoc or the mischief with ; (2) 
shame and hangment, an oath or exclamation. 

(:, a) N.Cy. 1 Cum. 1 ' He'll play the hangment wid ye,' he will 
be very severe ; Cum. 4 n.Yks. Yon fellow a'l play the hangment 
wi' me if a doant tack him some brass (W.H.). w.Yks. He varry 
oft, in his tantrums, plays the engmond wi' hizsen, Yksman. i July 
1878) 52; Thare wor t'hengment ta play, Pudsey Aim. (1894); 
w.Yks. 1 He wor hotterin mad, an play'd t'hangment, ii. 304. 
ne.Lan. I mun know naa, lass, or there'll be th' hangments to play, 
MATHER Idylls (1895) 259. nw.Der. 1 f ti) e.Yks. 1 This dhry 
weather's playin hangment wJ tonnops [turnips]. Chs. 1 It's 
played the hangment with me. Not. 2 He played hangment (or the 
hangment) with it. (2} Cum. 3 What the sham' an hangment d'ye 
mean be that ? Yan o C Elect ; Cum. 4 

HANGY, adj. Cum. Brks. Suf. 1. Of soil : sticky, 
wet, clayey. Cf. clung, 5. 

Brks. 1 e.An. 1 ; e.An. 2 Clayey soil, when wet, is hangy. e.Suf. 

2. Poorly, dull through incipient illness. Cum. 4 (s. v. 

HANGY-BANGY, sl>. Nhb. 1 A big, lazy fellow; a 

HANK, sb. 1 and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also in forms ank Bdf. ; henk w.Yks.; hink Ken. 12 ; 
honk m.Lan. 1 s.Lan. [h)ank, aerjk.] 1. sb. A rope or 
coil ; a knot, loop. Also usedy^g". 

Sc. Her hanks of raven hair, CUNNINGHAM Stiffs. (1813^ 28; 1 
have cast a double hank about the round world since I last heard 
of a soft morning, SCOTT SI. Ronan (1824) xv. Ayr. The broom- 
covered knowes Took a hank on this heart I ne'er can unlowse, 
AINSLIE Land of Bums (ed. 1892 228. N.I. 1 Cum. 3 Though thy 
hair were hanks o' gowd, Sng. Waukrifc Minnie . ne.Yks. 1 , m. Yks. 1 
2. A skein or measure of cotton, thread, wool, &c. Also 
used Jig. 

Sc. It taks twa hanks o' thread, HISLOP Anecdote (1874) 259. 
Abd. I'm ganin' ower to the toon to buy a few hanks o' worset, 
MACDONALD Sir Gibbie, xxii. Per. Hanks o' thread, FORD Harp 
(1893) 210. Ayr. Richt or wrang ye maun leeze out the tanglcd i 
hank for yoursel', JOHNSTON Glenbuckie (.1889) 50. Lnk. Coft the 
yarn in hanks, WATSON Poems (1853) 85. Gall. At every ' hank ' 
it [the chack reel] winds, it gives a ' chack ' or clack, MACTAGGART 
Encycl. (1824) 130, ed. 1876. N.I. 1 A measure of linen yarn. Uls. 
A ravelled hank, an intricate piece of business (M.B.-S.). N.Cy. 1 
To make a ravelled hank, to put anything into confusion. Nhb. A 
ravelled hank is a tangled skein, and the word >sjig. applied for 
a confused state (K.O.H.). Dur. 1 , Lakel.- Cum. 1 ; Cum. 3 When 
the worsted hanks she wound, 180 ; Cum. 4 A skein of thread or 
yarn, composed of 12 cuts. Wm. Hod us this hank o' wursit 
(.B.K.). n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 A knot or clump of worsted consisting 
of so many skeins. ' They're boun te mak a cotter'd hank on't,' 
an entangled business of it. e.Yks. MARSHALL Km: Econ. (1796). 
m.Yks. 1 Two or more skeins of cotton, silk, worsted, or thread of 
any kind. w.Yks. The standard hank of worsted is 560 yards in 
length vF.R.); w.Yks. 3 Thread, &c. in course of preparation, 
wound upon a large cylinder. A hank of wool or cotton is 840 
yards, of worsted 560. Six hanks make one bunch in cotton and 
worsted, four in woollen ; w.Yks. 8 , n.Lan. 1 s.Lan. BAMFORD 
Dial. (1854). Chs. 1 A term used in flax-dressing. nw.Der. 1 , Not. 1 
Lin. A hank of woollen yarn consists of seven lees, MARSHALL 
JfrMMr(l8ll) IIL n-Lin. 1 , Glo. (A.B.), Glo. 2 , Oxf. (G.O.) e-An. 1 
A small quantity of twine, yarn, &c., not rolled in a ball, but 

doubled over in lengths, is called a hank. Ken. LEWIS /. Tenet 
(1736) ; Ken. 1 ; Ken. 2 A hank of silk. w.Som. 1 

3. Phr. (i) to be in a hank, (2) to get or have things in a 
hank, to be in a state of perplexity or trouble ; to get one's 
circumstances involved ; (3) to have, hold, or keep the hank 
in one's own hand, to be master of the situation ; to hold 
one's own. 

(i) n.Yks. 1 (2) n.Yks. 14 (3 Sc. Hangie aye keeps the hank 
in his ain hand, FORD Thistledown (1891 N 312. ne.Sc. I believed 
that I had the hank o' circumstances fairly in my nan', an' cud 
win' the thread just as I wished, GRANT Keckleton, 14. Abd. 
Which meeting enabled the goodwife to get ' the hank ' sufficiently 
in her ain hand, without the appearance, as she thought, of seizing 
it too openly, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 173. Ayr. Keep your 
ain ban' at your ain hank, Nor fash wi' fremmit matters, AINSLIE 
Land of Burns (ed. 1892) 92. Uls. 'To keep the hank in your 
own hand.' Prov. Do not abandon any advantage you possess, 
from custom of buyer and seller seizing hold of a hank, latter 
retaining it, or handing it over according to issue of bargain, Uls. 
Jrn. Arch. (1857,1 V. 106. Cum. 4 She hed t'hank in her awn 
hand, FARRALL Betty Wilson (1886) 127. 

4. A cluster, collection of things ; a gang, confederacy, 

Nhp. 1 They arc all of a hank. War. (HALL.) Som. ' There's 
sucl; a hank wi' em al' ' would be said where it was impossible to 
lay blame on the right person. Mark Beauchamp tells me that he 
has lived for 35 years ' in the hank o' houses' (W.F.R V . 

5. Dealings with, connexion. Also m pi. in phr. to have 
hanks with. Used always with a neg. 

War. (J.R.W.) Oxf. 1 Us be fren's now, but at one time, I 
66dn't aa no hank wi 'n, MS. add. Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892 ; Wil. 1 
I won't ha' no hank wi' un. Dor. He would never again have 
hanks with any young woman, except the girl he intended to 
marry fC. K.P. . Som. I never had noo hank in mathymaticks or 
astronomy, AGRIKLER Rhymes (1872) 55; W. & J. Gl. (1873 
w.Som. 1 Her said how her wid'n ha no hanks way un. Also 
applied to animals gen. I have heard people warned, moreover, 
'nut to have no hanks' with a certain horse, or with an undesir- 
able bargain. Dev. A coachman, whose horse had run away, said 
to his master afterwards, ' I'll have no more hank with 'im,' 
Reports Provinc. (1897). nw.Dev. 1 

6. A loop for fastening a door or gate. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Nhb. (R.O.H.) n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 A rope- 
loop for fastening a gate to the post, in lieu of a latch or a hook ; 
n.Yks. 4 e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). Nhp. 1 , War. 3 , 
e.An.', Suf. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.I 

7. Hold, influence, esp. in phr. to have a hank over one, 
to have an advantage over one. 

Sc. ' You abuse your advantages, madam,' he said, 'and act as 
foolishly in doing so, as I did in affording you such a hank over 
me,' SCOTT Rcdg. (1824 xix. n.Yks. 1 To have one in hank. To 
have, or have placed, a person in such circumstances that he is in 
a state of perplexity, trouble, or anxiety ; or that he is unable to 
extricate himself. Hrf. 2 And a couldna get a hank on him. Glo. 1 
If I'd a done that, I should have given him a hank over me. Ken. 1 
Wo say a man has a hank on another ; or, he has him entangled in 
a skein or string ; Ken. 2 , Hmp. (J.R.W.) Som. Mothers will say 
that the other boys have such a hank upon their own particular 
boys (W.F.R. . Dev. 1 A wid trounce me if a cou'd ha' any 
hank upon me. 43. 

8. Phr. (i) to break the hank of a thing, to overcome the 
principal difficulty ; (2) to keep a good hank upon your 
horse, to have a good hold of the reins. 

(i) Bdf. ' To break the ank' or ' hank ' of a thing has the same- 
meaning as ' to break the neck ' of it. It may denote properly to 
break the bondage which a task imposes, the hold which it has 
upon one (J.W.B.). (a) N.Cy. 1 

9. A habit, custom, practice. 

N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Cum. (H.W.) ; Cum. 1 He hes a hank o' gangan 
out at nects ; Cum. 4 w.Yks. 1 Shoe's gitten a sad hank o' runnin 
out at neets. 

10. A fall or ' chip ' in wrestling. 

Lakel. 2 Cum. 4 C tried the click and turned it into the hank. 

11. A hook, something to hang a thing upon ; a handle. 
w.Yks. Aw'Il put this parkin' i' this pot up'o t'henk, Yksman. 

Comic Ann. (1880) n. Som. ^HALL.) 

12. v. To make up into coils or skeins. 

Sh.I. He found the cow's tethers hanging hanked, BURGESS 
Tang (1898; 157 ; He hankit his tail ower his elbik, ib. Rasmie 




(1892) 17. N.Cy. 1 , Cum.", n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 5 'Hank,' or ' skein- 
thread,' so called because looped together in certain lengths, or 
' hanked ' together. ' Hank us that,' loop me that. 

Hence Hanking, vbl. sb. the process of putting yarn or 
worsted into ' hanks ' or skeins. 

w.Yks. (J.M.); BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). 
13. To fasten, secure, tie up ; to fasten with a loop. Also 

Sc. A man is said to be hankit, when he has so engaged himself 
to a woman, that he cannot recede without breach of faith, and 
loss of character QAM.). Lth. We both jumped from the trap, 
hanked the nag to the nearest tree, LUMSDEN Sheep-head (1892) 
204. Edb. A bonny flae . . . Had a' the night been hankit Fast by 
the left foot muckle tae, FORBES Poems (1812) 38. Nhb. Hank 
them chines on (R.O.H.). Dur. 1 , Lakel. 1 , Cum. 1 * Win. Ther 
chaps al hank thersells onta tha, Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 16. 
n.Yks. 1 To fasten or ' hang ' a horse : as, by passing his bridle, or 
halter, over a gate, a hook, or what not ; n.Yks. 2 To tie up with a 
bandage; n.Yks. 34 ne.Yks. 1 To hank a band, i. e. fasten or secure 
a band. e.Yks. THOMPSON Hist. Welton (1869) 170. w.Yks. 1 , 
Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. Then owd woman teks clock-waaight, an' 
cat-gut band, . . an' hanks it roond tooth, PEACOCK Tales (1886) 98. 
s.Wor. To overcast [in sewing] (H. K.). Nrf. Hank up the gate, 
COZENS- HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 3. e.Suf. Hank up, to fasten a 
door or gate with a hook (F.H.). 

14. To tie anything so tight, as to leave the impression 
of the cord ; to gall with a rope or cord ; to hold a horse 
in tight, check him by drawing bridle. 

Sc. The neck is said to be hankit when a necklace is tied too 
strait GAM.). n.Yks. 1 

15. To walk arm in arm with ; to link arms. 
Nhb. Hank your airm through mine (R.O. H.). 

Hence Hanking-arms, vbl. sb. the act of walking arm 
in arm. 

Lan. They had risen to the dignity of ' hankin'-arms,' although 
they had not quite mastered the difficulty of keeping in step with 
each other, ALMOND Watercresses, 28. 

16. To associate with ; to act or agree with ; to keep 
company with. 

w.Yks. A man is hanked with another in an evil undertaking, 
Leeds Merc. Suppl. (June 6, 1896) ; w.Yks. 3 Au wonder haa he 
could hank wi' sich folk. Som. There was one Abraham Urch, 
and William did use to hanky wi' he (W.F.R.). Dev. If anything 
good in my heart had a place I could hank it wi' thee and thy 
workin's could trace, PULMAN Sketches ,1842) 71, ed. 1871. 

17. Wrestling term : see below. 

Cum. (H.W.) ; Cum. 4 When wrestling the left leg is put forward 
and between the legs of the opponent, thus catching his right. 
At the same time the body is thrown back, and the opponent 
turns under. This is considered to be a beaten man's ' chip,' and 
not a good one, and to avoid it the ' click ' or ' back-heel ' is 
employed. My informant ' liked weel to be hankt, he has sic 
a lang leg, and generally fellt them 'at triet it.' 'J was hanked, 
S- trying the inside click.' 

18. To catch or hang anything on to a hook. 

Edb. Her coats upon a lang nail hanket, Tint Quey (1796) 20. 
Wm. Hank t'kettle on t'creuk (B.K.). w.Yks. 2 Two bow-legged 
knife-grinders met on a footpath. One of them said to the other, 
' Nah, moind, owd lad, or we shall hank.' He meant that his leg 
might, unless he took care, be hooked or fastened to his friend's 
leg. Lan. His foot hankt in a three-legged stool, Takin' tK New 
Year in (1888) 14. m.Lan. 1 To honk yo'r cooat sleeve on a nail. 
s.Lan. Honk it on, BAMFORD Dial. (1854). Not. 1 

19. To long for, desire earnestly. Cf. hanker, v. 5. 
Cum. (W. K.), Chs. 3 Lin. In agro Line, usurpatur pro inclina- 

tione et propensione animi, SKINNER (1671). w.Som. 1 He do 
hank arter her sure-lie ! 

[1. As he [Laocoon] etlis thair hankis to have rent, 
DOUGLAS Eneados (1513), ed. 1874, n. 80. ON. honk (gen. 
hankar), a hank, coil, skein (VIGFUSSON). 11. Da. hank, 
handle of a basket, ear of a pot. 13. Thair navy can thai 
ankir fast and hank, DOUGLAS Eneados, in. 88.] 

HANK, sb. 2 Sc. Also in form haank, haanks Sh.I. 
1. The leeside of a boat. 

Sh.I. I see da black lump o' da boat noo. Shu's juist baerin' 
apo' wir haank yonder, Sh. News (Feb. 4, 1899) ; He laid da peerie 
taft across da haanks o" da fowereen, an' set him [it] up, ib. 
(June 3, 1899) ; ' Takkin' her up in hank,' pulling strongly on 
the leeside to lie nearer the line (J.I.). 

2. Comp. Hank-oarsman, the rower who sits near the 
helmsman. Bnff. 1 

HANKER, v. and sb. 1 Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Der. War. Won Oxf. Brks. Ess. Dor. Also in form 
pnkerse.Wor. 1 [h)a-nka(r, -rjk3(r).] 1. v. To entangle 
in, become fastened on. 

Cum. 4 When a rope is dragged along the ground, it may be 
hankered round a stone or stake. If a girl was taking linen off 
the hedge where it had been put to dry and it got fixed to the 
thorns she would say it was hankered. 

2. Phr. hanker the heel, wrestling term : to trip up one's 
antagonist by planting one's foot behind his. Cum. 4 See 

3. To loiter, linger about ; to dally, tarry, stop. 

Sc. Bonny, bonny stanes come pirlin' [moving], And hanker juist 
when they reach the tee, R. Caled. Curling Club Ann. (1887-88) 
377. Lnk. Ye needna hanker on the road, WRIGHT Life (1897) 
82. Ayr. We know they would not stay nor hanker Till it was 
quite overthrown, LAING Poems (1894) 46. Edb. He sees her aft, 
an' winna bide away, But hankers i' my house the H'e-lang day, 
LEARMONT Poems (1791) 296. Wm. A hankert aboot an dud, an 
eftre a bit whaa sud a see bet Tommy his varra sell, Spec. Dial. 
(1865) 17. w.Yks. I hanker abaght t'public hoose, Leeds Herald 
(Jan. 1862). Lan. THORNBEK Hist. Blackpool (1837) 108. Oxf. 
(G.O.) Brks. I used to hanker round the kitchen, or still room, 
HUGHES Scour. White Horse (1858) viii. 

4. To hesitate, ponder, esp. to hesitate in speaking. 
Rnf. Willie hankered awee this morning, I think, but there is 

nae wonner, for he got unco near the throne whiles, GILMOUR 
Pen Flk. (1873) 46. Ayr. He hums and he hankers, BURNS What 
can a Young Lassie do, St. 2 ; Ne'er hanker lang, when tempted 
sair, WHITE Jottings (1879) 148. Lnk. Ilka day she hankered 
owre't, It bothered her the mair, ORR Laigli Flichts (1882) 35. 
Nhb. He kinda hankert i'the middle o'hees speech (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 

5. To desire, covet, long for. Also with after. 

e.Sc. Her heart hankers after the pots, SETOUN Sunshine (1895) 
276. Cum. Auld Skiddaw lang hed hanker't sair Itsel to be t'Fell 
king, RICHARDSON Talk (1876) 2nd S. 13 ; Thoo knows it's thee he 
hankersel'ter, GWORDIEG-REENUP YanceaYear(i8i3)6; Cum. 4 Yks. 
(J. W.) Lan. Ye won't hanker after a fire again, GASKELL M. Barton 
(i848)v. Chs. 1 Der. Art tha hankerin after a trade ? WARS David 
Grieve 1^1892) I. iv. War. There's many another man 'ud hanker 
more than he does, GEO. ELIOT 5. Marner (1861) 133. se.Wor. 1 
Nrf. John is a kind a' hankering arter Mary (W.W.S.). 

Hence (i) Hankering, (a) sb. a strong desire, a longing; 
(b) ppl. adj. longing, desirous ; (2) Hankersome, adj. 
uneasy, discontented, envious. 

(i, a) Sc. Hankering and hinging on is a poor trade, RAMSAY 
Prov. (1737). Cum. 1 He still hez a hankeran' for her. Yks. (J.W.) 
Chs. 1 An yo getten a sope o' red port wine as yo'd give my 
mother; oo's been ta'en bad in her bowels, and oo has sitch a 
hankerin for a sope o' red port wine. Brks. Gl. (1852) ; Brks. 1 
Ess. Gathers had A hank'rin' arter Mary, CLARK /. Noakes (1839) 
st. 29. (b) Dor. In a hankering tone, HARDY Trumpet-Major 
(1880) iii. (2) Wm. Yan mae be hankersem an bad anuff, Spec. 
Dial. (1880) pt. ii. 7. 

6. sb. Phr. there's the hanker, there's the rub. Cum. 4 

7. Inclination, longing, desire. 

Lan. There's hanker i' every condition, HARLAND Lyrics (1866) 
296. Dor. She has not shown a genuine hanker for anybody yet, 
HARDY Laodicean (ed. 1896) bk. iii. 273. 

8. Hesitation, doubt, regret. 

Rnf. As one who laughs at social wit, And laughs without a 
hanker, M c GiLVi<AY Poems (ed. 1862) 23. 

HANKER, sb. 2 Yks. An open clasp or buckle. See 
Anchor, sb. e.Yks. Still in use, though not usual (R.S.). m.Yks. 1 

[Cp. ON. hanki, the hoop or clasp of a chest.] 

HANKIE, sb. Dmf. QAM.) A bucket narrower at the 
top than the bottom, with an iron handle, used in carrying 

HANKLE, v. and sb. 1 Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Lan. Lin. Also written hanckle n.Cy. Dur. 1 ; and in 
forms ankel n.Yks. ; ankle e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. ; enkle w.Yks.; 
hangall Rnf. ; henkl S. & Ork. 1 ; henkle n.Yks. 4 w.Yks. 5 
[h)a-nkl, h)e'nkl.] 1. v. To entangle, twist together. 
Also usedy/g-. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 , Cum. 14 Wm. His booat in 
her crin'lin' did hankie, BLEZARD Sngs. (1868) 17. n.Yks. He gat 




hankled amang t'briers (I.W. ) ; n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 4 Ah've gitten t'kite 
sadly hankled. ne.Yks. 1 It's a dree job ; they're all seea hankled 
tigither. e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. WILLAN List Wds. (1811); 
(R.H.H.); w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 8 'Luke what that barn's done ! goan 
an' lowsed t'skein ofTo' t'chairs an' henkled it awal on a heap ! ' 
'Hankled' is very rarely heard; it is always 'henkled.' Lan. You 
may get hankled among the bushes, BRIGGS Remains (1825) 48 ; 
Lan. 1 n,Lan. (C.W.D.); Fishing-nets are said to be ankled when 
they have become twisted together (W.H.H.1 ; n.Lan. 1 n.Lin. 
All his munny as he should ha' gotten's hankled up wi' th" farm, 
PEACOCK Tales (1890) and S. 50; n.Lin. 1 

Hence Hankled, ppl. adj. twisted, entangled. Nhb. 1 , 
m.Yks. 1 

2. Fig. To entangle in some pursuit or proceeding ; to 
associate with, be connected with ; to inveigle, entice, 
decoy. Gen. with in or on. 

Rnf. We are so far involved and hangalled . . . that I am at 
a loss what to wish were done, WODROW Corresp. (ed. 1842) I. 343. 
s.Dur. ' He's gitten hankled in.' An expression often used in 
connexion with courtship, where the connexion is not considered 
desirable (J.E.D.X Wm. He gat hankled on wi' a lot at niwer 
did neea dow an' niwer will (B. K.); Thae trie o mannars a waes 
to tice fooak an git em hankalt in ta treeat em, Spec. Dial. (1885) 
pt. iii. 26. n.Yks. He hankled on wiv a woman (I.W.) ; Him as 
hankled him on! ATKINSON Lost( 1870) xxvi; n.Yks. 'Theyhankled 
him on intiv t'matter ; n.Yks. 2 ' They hankled him on,' drew him 
in to be one of their set ; n.Yks. 4 Ah weean't be hankled on wi' 
neea sike leyke carryings on. ne.Yks. 1 Ah is vexed at oor Tom's 
gitten hankled in wi sike a rafflin lot. e.Yks. 1 Ah's varry sorry 
she's getten hankled wi sike a slither-pooak as him. w.Yks. He's 
getten ankledon wi' alow lotfS.K. C.) ; Iftha gets henkled on with that 
low lot, thall soon loss both credit and character (M.N.). aLin. 1 
He's a honest chap his sen, bud he's gotten hankled inwi'a straange 
lot o' rogues. sw.Lin. 1 He has got so hankled amongst them. 

Hence Hankled, pp., fig. habituated, accustomed to. 
n.Yks. 2 

8. To wind up a fishing-line, rope, &c., into a coil ; to 
'work ' in hemp. 

Sc. To fasten by tight tying (JAM.) ; Wha hankie the hemp sae 
fine, WADDELL Isaiah (1879) xix. 9. Sh.I. I hankl'd up Staarna's 
teddir an' hang him [it] ower da kneebi o' da klibber, Sh. News 
(Aug. 13, 1898) ; Shu hankl'd aff a lock o' wirsit aff o' a clue at wis 
lyin' in her lap, ib. (July 23) ; S. & Ork. 1 
4. To greatly desire ; to ' hanker ' after. n.Yks. 4 

Hence Hankling, (i) vbl. sb. a hankering, craving after ; 
(2) ppl. adj. desirous of, having a craving or desire for. 

(i) Cum. 1 n.Yks. 4 Ah awlus bed a hankling foor Tom's meer. 
Neea, wa didn't bargain, bud Ah've a gert hankling foor't. e.Yks. 1 
(a) n.Yks. 2 
6. To loiter, linger, wait about. Cf. hanker, v. 3. 

Lan. So tha'st no cageon ston' hanklin' theere, HARLAND Lyrics 
(1866) 137 ; A young man seeking the favour of a young woman 
with whom he is in love, goes hanklin about her house on all pos- 
sible occasions (S.W. \ 
6. sb. A tangle, twist. 

Lakel. 2 A hank o' wusset '11 o' gang intul a hankie when ye're 
windin' it. Wm. Hod on ! Thoos garn ta hev mi threed o in a 
hankie (B.K.). 

HANKLE, s6. 2 Cai. 1 The ancle. 

[Hec cavilla, a hankyl, Pict. Voc. (c. 1475) in Wright's 
Voc. (1884) 751. Cp. the obs. Sc. hanckleth, an ancle. 
Thair cotes war syd evin to the hanckleth, DALRYMPLE 
Leslie's Hist. Scoll. (1596) I. 94. See AnclifF.] 

HANKLE, see Hancle. 

HANKTELO, sb. Obs. s.Cv. Slang. [Not known to 
our correspondents.] A silly fellow. (HALL.) 

[Hanktelo, a silly fellow, a meer codshead, B. E. Diet. 
Cant. Crew (1690) (FARMER).] 

HANKY-PANKY, sb. and v. Yks. Lan. Stf. Lin. Hrf. 
Som. Slang. Also in forms anky-pranky Stf. 2 ; henky- 
penky Lan. 1 1. sb. Trickery, underhand dealing, shuff- 
ling. Also used altrib. 

w.Yks. An if aw catch him playin onny hanky panky tricks wi' 
me aw'll repooart him, HARTLEY Seels Yks. and Lan. (1895) iii ; 
w.Yks. 2 He's full of his hanky-panky tricks! Lan. 1 Now mi lad 
none o' thi henky-penky here ; stand up fair. Stf. 2 Let's 'ave 
none o' yer anky-prankies here. Th' lad's good at th' bottom, but 
'e's such a anky-pranky sort of a chap. s.Stf. If you try to come 
any hanky panky dodge with me, MURRAY Rainbow Gold (1886) 

362. n.Lin. 1 Noo goa strlght, lets hev noa hanky-panky-wark this 
time. Hrf. 2 None of your hanky-panky. w.Som. 1 I told'n he was 
a vrong directed wi me ; I zeed droohis hanky-panky in a minute. 
Slang. Hanky-panky, legerdemain, whence trickery, any manner 
of double-dealing or intrigue, FARMER. 
2. v. To humbug, cheat, trick ; to be up to tricks. 

Stf. 2 I gien th' lad sack at last, fur 'e was anky-prankying a' 
the dee thro. 

Hence Hanky-pankying, humbugging, cheating, 

Lan. No hanky-pankyin' wi'out belungin' to us, BRIERLEY Irk- 
dale (1868) 71. 

HANNEL, sb. Lim. A blow given to the head of one 
pegging-top by the spike of another. SIMMONS Gl. (1890). 

HANNEL, HANNI(E, see Handle, Handy, sb. 12 

HANNIEL, sb. and v. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Also written haniel Sc. UAM.) Slk. Nhb. ; hanyel Sc. 
(JAM.) ; hanziel Bch. ; and in forms haanyal Cai. 1 ; 
hunniel n.Cy. w.Yks. ne.Lan. 1 ; hynail Edb. [h)a - nial, 
h)a'njl.] 1. sb. A greedy dog ; a covetous, greedy person. 

Slk. (JAM.) n.Cy. GROSE (1790). w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to 
Caves (1781). ne.Lan. 1 

2. A long, hungry-looking fellow. 

Cum. Thoo hofe-starv't leuckan hanniel thoo, SARGISSON Joe 
Scoap (1881 ; 209 ; We'd hay-cruiks, and hen-tails, and hanniels, 
ANDERSON Ballads (1805) 170, ed. 1808; Shem o' them! thur 
peer country hanniels, That slink into Carcl to feeght, ib. 47, ed. 
1840; Cum. 1 

3. A lout ; a lazy, awkward, good-for-nothing fellow ; a 
worthless, mischievous person ; a gen. term of abuse. 

Cal. 1 Edb. Tarn Pucker's sic anither hynail ; And vends about 
diurnal scandal, LEARMONT Poems (.1791 ) 66. Slk. Sae little kend 
the haniel about fencing that ... he held up his sword-arm to 
save his head, HOGG Talcs vi8s8) 7, ed. 1866. Rxb. A lazy haniel 
(JAM.). n.Cy. (J.L.) (1783). Nhb. Ah'll tie yer legs ye haniel, ye, 
if ye diven't larn to behave, CLARE Rise of River (1897) 51 ; ' Ye 
greet hanniel, ye, what are ye dein' here?' Spoken to a lazy 
idler ^R.O.H.); Nhb.' Cum. 4 A waggish man, to be looked down 
on, but with deference. A girt lang hanniel. Wm. (J.H. 1 ! 

4. Comb. Haniel slyp, an uncouthly-dressed person ; 
an ugly fellow. 

Bch. (JAM. i ; In came sik a rangel o' gentles an' a licthry o" 
hanziel slyps at their tail, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 17. 

5. v. To have a jaded appearance from extreme fatigue. 
Lnk. To gang hanycllin, to walk with the appearance of sloven- 
liness and fatigue ^JAM.). 

HANNIER, sb. Obs. Yks. A cross, teasing person. 

w.Yks. WATSON Hist. Hlfx. (1775) 539; Leeds Merc. Suppl. 
(Mar. i, 1884) 8; w.Yks. 4 

HANNIES, sb. pi. Sc. Oatcakes. 

Edb. May ye'r board be ay weel sair'd Wi' Adie hannies, 
FORBES Poems (1812, 88 ; ' Oat-cakes,' called so from a baker of 
that name in Dalkeith, famed for baking them, ib. note. 

HANNIWING, sb. Sc. A term of contempt. 

Frf. But ha! ye hanniwings, look there! SANDS Poems (1833) 88. 

HANNY, v. Lan. ? Obs. To dispute, argue. 

He couldn't allow us to stond hannyin theere, un obstructin th' 
passage, STATON B. Shu/tie, 70 ; A friend writes that ' hannying 
and yinny ing 'formerly meant 'barring and jarring' in an alehouse 
in argument or dispute, but it is not known to me vS.W.). 

HANOVER, sb. Lin. Suf. Used in exclamations or 
mild oaths ; see below. Cf. Halifax, Hull, &c. 

s.Lin. Go to Hanover.' ' What the Hanover do I care about 
it ' (T.H.R. 1 ). e. Suf. ' Go to Hanover and hoe turnips.' Said to 
date from the time of the Georges, who were very unpopular in 
the east, if not elsewhere. Still in popular use (F. H.). 

HANS, sb. Obs. Sc. Yks. Cant. In phr. Hans in 
Kelder, an unborn child ; a toast formerly drunk to the 
health of the expected infant. 

Per. Syne pauky Steen drank to the bride, Come, lass, your 
hans on kelder, NICOL Poems (1766) 49. n.Yks. An old lady, long 
dead, whose childhood was passed in Whitby, told me that she 
remembered at dessert sometimes this toast being drunk. . . She 
found from Yorkshire friends that it was a custom to gather a knot 
of very intimate friends together, for a take-leave party, at a house 
where hospitalities would necessarily be suspended till the chris 
tening day, N. &-> Q. (1868) 4th S. i. 181 ; n.Yks. 2 Cant. Hans- 
ein-kelder, Jack in the box, the child in the womb, or a health to 
it, B.E. Diet. Cant. Crew ,1690) (FARMER). 




[Du. Hans in Kelder, lit. Jack in cellar, an unborn 
child; cp. the Swabian toast, Hanschen im Keller soil leben, 
' dies sagt man bei dem Gesundheit-trinken auf feine 
schwangere Frau ' (BIRLINGER) ; EFris. hansken in de 
keller (KOOLMAN) ; Bremen dial, hansken im keller (JVtb.).] 

HANSE, HANSEL(L, see Hance, Handsel. 

HANSEL, sb. Hmp. [ae'nsl.] The handle of a flail. 

An implement consisting of two sticks loosely joined together ; 
one, the hansel, held in the hand, and the other joined to it, the 
zwingel, descending with a dull thud upon the wheat-ears, GRAY 
Heart of Storm (1891) II. 175. 

HANSER, HANT, see Heronsew, Haunt. 

HANTERIN,s6. Sc. Written hantrin e.Lth. A moment, 
short space of time. Also used attrib. See Aunterin. 

Cai. 1 I'll be at yer han' in a hanterin. Boid [wait] ye a hanterin. 
e.Lth. A' ither airts south, north, or wast At hantrin times grow 
dull an' dour, MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes (1885) 92. 

HANTIC(K, see Antic. 

HANTINGS, sb. pi. n.Cy. (HALL.) Dev. 1 The handles 
which fix on to the snead of a scythe. 

HANTLE, sb. Sc. Irel. and n. counties to War. Wor. 
Shr. Also written hantel Sc. Cum. 4 ; and in forms antel 
n.Stf. ; antle n.Lin. 1 ; handtle Chs. 23 ; hontle w.Yks. 2 
Lan. 1 Chs. 1 s.Stf. nw.Der. 1 ; ontle se.Wor. 1 [h)a'ntl, o'ntl.] 

1. A handful. 

Cum. 4 , Lakel. 2 n.Yks. A hantle o' morr is mah weel beluwed 
unto me, ROBINSON Whitby Sng. Sol. (1860) i. 13. w.Yks. 2 Lan. A 
hontle o' wot corks feel intot, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1740) 25 ; 
Lan. 1 , Chs. 123 s.Chs. 1 Dhi sen ey mai'z u aan'tl u miin-i evri 
fae-r-dee [They sen hey mays a hantle o' money every fair-dee]. 
n.Stf. (A.P.) s.Stf. Gie us a hontle o parsley, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. 
Ann. (1895). Der. 2 , nw-Der. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 It is customary to say, 
' a good hantle,' whenever the quantity exceeds a common hand- 
full ; Nhp. 2 , War. 3 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 I'll scaud a 'antle o' 'ops an' 
bind it to the mar's leg it'll bring the swellin' down. 

2. Fig. A tussle, hand to hand fight ; a scuffle ; as much 
as one can manage. 

s.Stf. Yo'n find yo'n got a hontle wi'him when he's growed up, 
PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Der. You'd a sore hantle wi' him 
bytimes an all tales be true, VERNEY Stone Edge (1868) xviii. Lei. 1 
' Ah cain't tell ye what a hantle ah hed wi' him : ' said a woman 
of a violent old man, disordered in mind. Nhp. 2 , War. 3 

3. A large quantity or amount ; a great deal. Freq. 
used in //. Also used attrib. 

Sc. Ye'll be a hantle better by it, STEVENSON Catriona (1893) 
xiv; There's a hantle bogles about it, SCOTT Guy M. (1815) i. Sh.I. 
A bed, ta luek daecent, needs a hantle o' attention, CLARK Gleams 
(1898) 19. Bnff. Hantels o' folk dinna get that, GORDON Chron. 
Keith (1880) 321. ne.Sc. He didna wee! understand hantles o' 
oor words, GRANT Keckleton, 97. e.Sc. Man, ye're a hantle waur 
yoursel', SETOUN Sunshine (1895) 226. Bch. He makes a hantle 
rout an' din, But brings but little woo', FORBES Ulysses (1785) 35. 
nw.Abd. A hantle widna min' the leyk o' his [us], Goodwife (1867) 
St. 43. Kcd. Forks an' futtles were to hantles Leems nae handlet 
ilka day, GRANT Lays (1884) 72. Frf. I would a hantle rather 
waur my money on Elspeth, BARRIE Tommy (1896) 223. Per. 
That says a hantle About a licht heart in a sorrow-proof mantle, 
STEWART Character (1857) 71. Fif. I'm gaun back to't a hantle 
sicht puirer than I left it, MELDRUM Margredcl (1894) 231. e.Fif. 
She had a mind o' her aiu aboot a hantle o' things, LATTO Tarn 
Bodkin (1864) viii. Dmb. If I hadna better reasons a hantle to 
gar me steer my feathers, CROSS Disruption (1844) ii. Ayr. A 
hantle o' ither courtly glammer that's no worth a repetition, GALT 
Provost (1822) vii; (J.M.) Lnk. Hantles wha tipple do miscarry, 
WATT Poems (1827) 51. e.Lth. We'll be a hantle better off nor 
them, HUNTER /. Inwick (1895) 172. Edb. A hantle graces roun' 
her lip Sat sweet as dew on lily's dreep, LEARMONT Poems (1791) 
27. Slk. A hantle better nor onything ye'll say the nicht, CHR. 
NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) III. 35. Rxb. Mischanters I hae met a 
hantle, A. SCOTT Poems (ed. 1808) 46. Gall. Possest wi' a hantle 
o' jaw, LAUDERDALE Poems (1796) 74. Kcb. I've a weel-stockit 
hame o' my ain, Wi' horses an' kye, an' a hantle o' siller, ARM- 
STRONG Ingleside (1890) 150. Ir. The hantle of money them 
dhrainin' works come to is untould, BARLOW Kerrigan (1894) 113. 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Aa've getten a hantle o' caud. Fishermen's creels 
are aye a hantle bigger wi' thinkin o' them (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 
Cnm. Still ha'e a hantel left yet, ANDERSON Ballads (1805) 94, ed. 
1815; Cum. 3 A hantle o' ye hae turn't oot to be deuks, 181 ; 
Cum. 4 n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 A hantle o' money. m.Yks. 1 

Hence Antling, sb. with neg. not any amount (of know- 
ledge), no inkling. 

Lin. Rare (E.P.). n.Lin. 1 I ha'nt noa antlin' wheare he is noo, 
bud he did tell me his wife ewsed him that bad he should slot off 
to "Merikay. 

[1. Hand '+ -tie (suff.) ; this is a common suff. in the 
Chs. and Shr. dials. ; cp. apperntle. It is prob. an equiv. 
of-ful; see s.Chs. 1 (gram. 57) and Shr. 1 (gram, xliii).] 

HANTRIN, see Hanterin. 

HANTS, adj. Wil. Used in comb, with sheep and 
horses ; see below. 

They were called with them hants sheep ; they were a sort 
of sheep that never shelled their teeth, but always had their lambs- 
teeth without shedding them, and thrusting out two broader in 
their room every year. . . There were such a sort of horses called 
hants horses, that always shewed themselves to be six years old, 
LISLE Husbandry (1757) 360, 361 ; Wil. 1 

HANTY, rf/. Obs. Sc. Also in form haunty Abd. 

1. Convenient, handy. 

Abd. SHIRREFS Poems (1890) Gl. Rnf. Thou wast the hantiest 
biel, in truth, That e'er I saw, PICKEN Poems (1788) 180 (JAM.). 
Lnk. RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (1725) Gl., Scenary ed. 

2. Not troublesome, often applied to a beast. 

Sc. (JAM.) Rnf. ' Hanty,' manageable with ease, PICKEN Poems 
(1788) Gl. 

3. Handsome. 

Sc. Lizie they think far mair hanty, GALLOWAY Poems (1788) 
214 (JAM.). Abd. SHIRREFS Poems (1890) Gl. Lnk. RAMSAY Gentle 
Shep. (1725) Gl., Scenary ed. 

HANVAYGE, v. Sh.I. To look or wait about for. 

We hanvayged aboot fir maistlins an ooer, bit never saw da bow 
again, SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) 248. 

HANYADU, int. Sh.I. A call to a bird to come and 
pick up food thrown to it from a boat. S. & Ork. 1 

HANYEL, HAOLEGHEY, see Hanniel, Holghe. 

HAP, v. 1 , sb. 1 and adv. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and 
Eng. [h)ap, asp.] 1. v. To happen, chance, befall. 

Abd. May sic like hap to Uncle Tarn, ANDERSON Rhymes (1867) 
62. Frf. Wyle well for gin ye hap to rue, What can be worse ? 
MORISON Poems (1790) 81. Fif. If unaware you hap to lose your 
body's well-adjusted poise, TENNANT Anster (1812) 71, cd. 1871. 
Rnf. Hap what micht, 'Twad aiblins mak' a fen', YOUNG Pictures 
(1865) 10. Ayr. Erch lest the gentle fouk should hap To hear or 
see, FISHER Poems (1790) 68. Lnk. They . . . spak'o' deaths that 
late had been, An' some wad maybe hap bedeen, MURDOCH Doric 
Lyre (1873) 9. Edb. How haps it, say, that mealy bakers . . . 
Shou'd a" get leave? FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 174, ed. 1785. 
Nhb. 1 Aa'll be there o' Monday as it haps. n.Yks. 1 Hap what hap 
may; n.Yks. 4 If nowt s'u'd hap ti stop ma, Ah s' cum. e.Yks. 1 
Happen, pp. of to hap. n.Lin. 1 If it haps to raain I shan't goa. 
Ken. How haps you don't know ? (G.B.) ; Ken. 1 Soin. Not knowing 
anything at all o' what had happed, RAYMOND Men o' Mendip 
(1898) vii. w.Som. 1 Cor. It canna be ondone what ha' happ'd, 
BARING-GOULD Curgenven (1893) xxi. 

2. With on or upon : to come upon by chance, light on ; 
to meet with. 

e.Yks. Black Morris . . . managed to hap on Lucy Blyth, WRAY 
Nestleton (1876) 54. Chs. 1 If yo're goin to th' fair may be yo'n 
hap on our Jim, for he's gone an hour sin. Sur. ./V. & Q. (1874) 
5th S. i. 517 ; Sur. 1 Maybe you'll hap upon him in the wood. 
w.Som. 1 By good luck I hap 'pon the very man. Very common. 
Cor. I happed once on a manuscript account book of a white witch 
or charmer, QuiLLER-CoucH Hist. Polperro (1871) 148. 

3. sb. Chance, fortune, fate ; luck ; esp. in phr. by) good, 
great, &c., hap, by good luck. 

Sc. Better hap at court than good service, RAMSAY Prov. ( 1 737) ; 
Hanging gangs by hap, FERGUSON Prov. (1641) 14. Per. I wish 
naething but good betide, Or be your hap, NicoLPo^ms(i766)5g. 
Fif. Guid hap, their dinner then was laid Upon the tables lang and 
braid, Wi' damask napery owrspread, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 99. 
Gall. Yet it was far out of my hap to help it, CROCKETT Moss-Hags 
(1895) xvii. Wxf. 1 n.Yks. 1 In Clevel. the word is usually 
qualified, as in ' ill hap,' ' strange hap ' ; but we also say ' by what 
hap,' or the like ; n.Yks. 2 Lan. DA\iEsRaces( 1856) 233. ne.Lan. 1 
Sur. Apropos of the happy stoppage of the fire on a common, a 
woman said, 'You know, Sir, luck is God's hap,' N. d^ Q. (1880) 
6th S. i. 239. w.Som. 1 By good hap we jis meet'n eens he was a 
comin out. n.Dev. And nif by gurt hap tha dest zey mun at oil, 
Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 267. 




4. An event, occurrence, esp. an ill event, a misfortune, 
accident. Also in form hapnient 

Lnk. Belyve the lang-legged Tailor chap Cam" canny back to 
learn the hap, MURDOCH Doric Lyre (1873) 30. m.Yks. 1 Hapment. 
n.Lin.' A sore hap. [But mark the hap ! a cow came by And up 
the thistle eat, HALUWELL Rhymes (1842) 47, ed. 1886.] 
6. Comp. (i) Hap-luck, chance, gen. used advb. hap- 
hazard, without premeditation ; (2) -stumble, a chance 

(i) Nhp. 1 ; Nhp. 2 He did it hap-luck. (2) Sc. Such hap-stumble 
as this into pure nonsense, PITCAIRN Assembly (1766) v. 
6. adv. Perhaps, perchance. Cf. haps. 

Lan. DAVIES Races (1856) 233. Ess. (S.P.H.), Ken. (W.F.S.) 
Snr. N. & Q. (1874) 5th S. i. 517 ; Sur.i, Sus. (S.P.H.), Sns. 1 

HAP, v* and sb. x In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. and n. 
counties to Der. Not. Lin. ; also Nhp. e.An. Also written 
happ Wm. w.Yks. 4 ; happe N.Cy. 2 ; and in forms ap 
n.Yks. Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 ; haup Rxb. ; heap Lin. [h)ap.] 
L v. To cover, enwrap ; to envelop, surround ; also with 
up, in. 

Per. The snawso' time May hap your forehead high, HALIBURTON 
Ochil Idylls (1891) 127. Lnk. The mists that had happit the nicht 
Row'd up frae the glens, HAMILTON Poems (1865) 23. Slk. She 
lay her lane All happed with flowers, HOGG Poems (ed. 1865) 35. 
Dmf. Wi' some sweet lass beside ye, when the gloamin' haps the 
glen, REID Poems (1894) 6. Cum. T'poor sheep In t'snowdrifts 
war hapt up, RICHARDSON Talk (1871) 131, ed. 1876. Wm. Sno' 
that haps the frozen poles, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 8. n.Yks. 2 
All white and happ'd up; snowed over. w.Yks. (J.W.) n-Lin. 1 
It was hapt 'e a peSce o' broon paaper. 

2. To cover up for the sake of warmth ; to wrap ; to 
tuck up in bed ; also with down, in, up. 

Sc. I took my cloak to her and sought to hap her in the same, 
STEVENSON Catriona (1893) xxiii. Sh.I. Her dimity coat, an' her 
pepper an' saut mantle, wid hap ye weel, STEWART Tales (1892) 
33. ne.Sc. Littlens wull tak' caulds, herd an' hap them hoo ye 
like, GRANT Keckleton, 95. Cai. 1 Bnff. His head an' hands he 
mamma hap. For fear a beagle should him slap, TAYLOR Poems 
(1787) 35. Bch. I hae . . . gloves likewise, to hap the hand Of 
fremt an' sib, FORBES Shop Bill (1785) 13. Abd. Hap it weel wi' 
strae an' keep awa' the caul (W. M.). Kcd. His ridin' coat Happin' 
half the buckskin breeches, GRANT Lays (1884) 81. Frf. Watch 
ower your little sister by day and hap her by night, BARRIE Tommy 
(1896) 117. Per. Mistress Hoo 'ill hap ye round, for we maunna 
let ye come tae ony ill the first day ye'r oot, IAN MACLAREN Brier 
Bush (1895) 167. Fif. Hose an' shoon, an' sarks an' coats To hap, 
an' keep them hale, DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 41. s.Sc. Hap her 
white breast wi' my little wee wing, WATSON Bards (1859) 13. 
Rnf. His head aneath the claes he haps, PICKEN Poems (1813) I. 
120. Ayr. The worthy man happing us with his plaid, we soon 
fell asleep, GALT Gilhaize (1823) xxvi. Lnk. Nae lordly ermine 
his shouthers may hap, LEMON St. Mungo (1844) 82. Edb. Our 
wife handed us out a pair of blankets to hap round me, MOIR 
Mansie Wauch (1828) xiii. Rxb. While ae auld blanket Can hap 
us baith, RUICKBIE Wayside Cottager (1807) 175. Dmf. Here's a 
dud to hap its head, CROMEK Remains (1810) 30. Gall. Then we 
happed him up, CROCKETT Moss-Hags (1895) vii. Wgt. A happit 
up the prawtas wi' strae, FRASER Wigtown (1877) 364. N.I. 
(M.B.-S.); W. (f Q. (1873) 4th S. vii. 480; N.I. 1 Vis. Uls. Jrn. 
Arch. (1658) VI. 361. s.Don. SIMMONS Gl. (1890). n.Cy. GROSE 
(1790) ; N.Cy. 12 Nhb. There ! Thoo's wee! happed up, and reel 
too, it's vara caud, CLARE LoveofLass (1890) II. 127. Dnr. It will 
be very cold, mind hapy'rself up well (A.B.) ; Dur. 1 s.Dtir. Mind 
ye hap him in well (J.E. D.). Cum. She happ'd her up, Aw wished 
her weel, ANDERSON Ballads (ed. 1808) 14 ; Cnm. 1 She hap't o' 
t'barns at bed time. Wm. (C.W.D.) ; Thick leather jerkins hap'd 
their sides, WHITEHEAD Lyvennet( 1859) 4. s.Wm. (J.A.B.) n.Yks. 
They pulled some more ling to hap themselves withal, ATKINSON 
Maori. Parish (1891) 381 ; n.Yks. 128 ; n.Yks. 4 Nooyamun hap up 
well. It's a cau'd neet. ne.Yks. 1 Thoo mun hap thysen weel ; 
it's varry cau'd. e.Yks.i, m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. (F.M.L.) ; His mother 
happed him up i' two blankets (S.P.U.); w.Yks. 1234 ; w.Yks. 5 
Am weel hap'd up, ah sal tak no harm a' t'outside, whatiwer ah 
chonce in. Lan. (S.W.) ; The old fellow stopped now and then to 
hap her up and see if she wanted anything, WAUGH Chim. Corner 
(1874) 80, ed. 1879 ; Lan. 1 , nXan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Put him to bed, 
and put plenty of hillin on him, an hap him up warm. Der. 1 , 
nw.Der. 1 Not It's very cold, but she's well happed up (L.C.M.) ; 
(J.H.B.) sJlot. Hap the child up well from the co'd (J.P.K.). 
Lin. Hap him up wi' does (J.C.W.) ; They're all happed up warm 

in their roons, FENN Dick o' the Fens (1888) iii. n.Lin. 'At's 
obligated to hap itsen doon as soon as coud weather sets in, 
PEACOCK Taales (1890) 2nd S. 59 ; n-Lln. 1 s.Lin. She's happing 
the young chickens up as carefully as she would her own babby 
(T.H.R.). sw.Lin. 1 Nhp. His universal care Who hapt thee down, 
CLARE Village Minst. (1821) II. 206; Nhp. 1 Only adopted in the 
Northern part of the county. e.An. 1 Nrf. HOLLOWAY. 

Hence (i) Happed or Happit, ppl. adj. covered, wrapt 
up, furnished with wrappings or clothes ; if) Happing, 
so. a covering, wrapping, a coverlet ; pi. clothes, esp. bed- 
clothes ; (3) Happing-kist, sb. a linen-chest ; (4) -sheets, 
sb. pi. bed-coverings. 

(i) Sc. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Abd. Scantily happet, Bell 
Skene wi' her twa bairnies lay, ANDERSON Rhymes (1867) 143. 
Frf. His backie ill happit, an's feetie ill shod, WATT Poet. Sketches 
(1880) 15. Per. A wee auld man, warm-happit in a cloak, STEWART 
Character (1857) 181. Lnk. Beds weel happit, sheets like snaw, 
NICHOLSON Kilwuddie (ed. 1895) 87. Dmf. Bonny wee bairns, a' 
weel happ'd and fu', SHENNAN Tales (1831) 155. n.Cy. Border Gl. 
(Coll. L.L.B.) w.Yks. Weel hapt up abaht t'neck, BANKS Wkfld. 
Wds. (1865). (2) Sc. And ye'll mak' a bed o' green rashes, Likewise 
a happing of gray, AYTOUN Ballads (ed. 1861) I. 282. e.Sc. On a 
sharp frosty morning . . . thatch roofs have a look of cosiness and 
warmth, hanging over the houses like a thick winter happing 
fringed at the eaves, SETOUN R. Urquhart (1896) ii. Rnf. An' cozie 
the happin o' the farmer's bed, THOM Rhymes (1844) 72. Ayr. 
My gray plaid, my cauld winter's warm happin', BOSWELL Poet. 
Whs. (1801) 21, ed. 1871. Edb. Throwing awa siller on your 
nick-nack feckless happins, BALLANTINE Gaberlunzie (ed. 1875) 23. 
Gall. A twig o' hazel's a' her happin', To hatch her young, 
NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 96, ed. 1897. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dnr. 1 , 
s.Dur. (J.E.D.) Cum. T'fella at pool t'happin off, SARGISSON Joe 
Scoap (18811 155 ; A happin tied on t'topon't, Willy Wattle (1870) 
3 ; Cum. 1 Wm. Three par a blankets an twoa happins, WHEELER 
Dial. (1790)62; (A.C.) s.Wm.(J.A.B.),n.Yks. 124 ne.Yks. 1 A'e 
ya happins eneeaf? e.Yks. Bed appin (Miss A.) ; e.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 
Bed-happing. w.Yks. We've na happin on t'bed (J.T.F.) ; (J.T.) ; 
w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 Ah've nivver hed haaf happing eniff this winter. 
ne.Lan. 1 s.Not. It's co'd abed now for them as 'asn't plenty o' 
happins (J.P.K.). Lin. BROOKES Tracts Gl. ; Lin. 1 The nights 
being cold we require more appin. nXin. 1 I've knawn farm 
hooses, a many, wheare sarvant chaps hed niver enif happin' o' 
the'r beds. s.Lin. See that he's plenty happing ower him : it's 
frelzin' co'd (T.H.R.). Nhp. 1 , e.An. 1 (3) n.Yks. 2 A large chest 
for linen, seen hereabouts in old family houses. Some are 
pannelled and carved ; and in raised figures bear dates within the 
i7th century. (4) ib. 

3. To clothe, dress ; also with up. 

Frf. She was naturally a bonny bit kimmer rather than happit 
up to the nines, BARRIE Minister (1891) vi. Per. I'll hap ye an' 
fend ye, an' busk ye, an' tend ye, FORD Harp (1893) 164. Fif. I 
sail hae you happit well, DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 84. Lnk. Lasses 
a' weel hapt wi' druggit, NICHOLSON Kilwuddie (ed. 1895) 26. 
Rxb. Paper, In wliilk my muse here boots to haup her, A. SCOTT 
Poems (ed. 1808) 17. n.Yks. 23 , w.Yks. (J.T.) 

4. Comp. (i) Hap-gear, clothing of all sorts; (2) -harlot, 
a coarse coverlet ; (3) -warm, a warm, substantial cover- 
ing or article of dress ; also used at/rib. 

(i) n.Yks. 2 (2) N.Cy. 1 A servant's coverlet. e.An. 1 (3) ne.Sc. 
The tailor . . . plied his needle and thread . . . till the webs had 
become hapwarms fit to defend the coldest blast, GREGOR Fit-Lore 
(1881)58. Bnff. 1 That quyte o' yours is a gueede hap-warm. Edb. 
Ye'll bring up after us, your master's trotcozy an' liapwarm, 
BALLANTINE Gaberluneie (ed. 1875) 328. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. 

5. To cover over ; to bury, cover with earth ; to cover 
with earth or straw as a protection from cold or wet, to 
thatch ; also with down, in, over, up. 

Sc. And my luve's briest is happit 'Neath cauld drifts o' snaw, 
Ballads (1885) 65. Elg. The carle sees the last ruck-head Hapt in 
baith saif and braw, COUPER Poetry (1804) I. 188. e.Sc. Better be 
happed with the eternal silence of the hills than drowned in the 
din of the streets, SETOUN R. Urquhart (1896) i. Abd. Stacks wi' 
thack an' rape war happit licht, Guidman Inglismaill (1873) 27. 
Per. My babe sleeps in yon kirkyard Happed owre wi' clammy 
clay, SPENCE Poems (1898) 48. e.Fif. The solace o' my gran- 
faither's solitary oors, after he had happit my grannie i' the mools, 
LATTO Tarn Bodkin ( 1864) xi. Dmb. Our wee hoose, new happit, 
brushed and clean, SALMON Gowodean (1868) 37. Rnf. The cauld 
clay haps the Rose of Elderslie, FRASER Chimes (1853) 82. Ayr. 




It wasna till they had gotten them a' safely hame and the hole 
happit up, that they really kent what they had, SERVICE Noiandums 
(1890) 67. Lnk. To-day auld Wullie Gaw has been happing some- 
body up, FRASER Whaiips (1895) i. Lth. Green's the sod that 
haps the grave O' mony a Cannygoshan ! SMITH Merry Bridal 
(1866) 38. Slk. I digged a grave, and laid him in, And happ'd 
him with the sod sae green, BORLAND Yarrow (1890) 54. Rxb. 
Ance I'm happit wi' the truff I ken I'll need nae mair, WILSON 
Poems (1824) ai. Dmf. Tae me wad been doubly kin' . . . Had 
he me happ'd some dyke behin' There tae remain, QUINN Heather 
(1863) 74. Nhb. Gae hap him up i' his lang hame Sin' Billie's 
dead, DONALDSON Poems (1809) 6a - Cum. He's been happed up 
many a long year (J.Ar.). n.Yks. They've gitten t'muck an' taties 
all hapt nicely in (W.H.); n.Yks. 1 To cover, by placing straw and 
earth over potatoes, earth over the dead, and the like. 'All's 
dune, now: thou mun hap him oop.' To a sexton after the grave- 
service was completed ; n.Yks. 2 ' I should like to see thee happ'd 
up,' an ill wish to see you in your grave ; n.Yks. 4 Ah've just 
happ'd Willie's grave up. ne.Yks. 1 Then you've gitten poor au'd 
Willie happed up at last. e.Yks. To cover ; as the seed with soil, 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788) ; e.Yks. 1 We happ'd awd woman up 
quite comfortably I chetch-yard, last Monday. Der. 2 ' He's now't 
good for till he's happed up,' said of a miserly churl. nw.Der. 1 
Not. 3 Well happed down, well covered in. s.Not. Ah just 'apped 
the taters up wi' a little earth (J.P.K.). Lin. 1 It will not be long 
before you'll have her to hap up. n.Lin. I wasn't goin' to hev him 
happ'd awaay i' a parish coffin, PEACOCK Taales (1890) and S. 56 ; 
n.Lin. 1 Noo then, get them taa ties happed doon, it'll freeze to-neet like 
smack. sw.Lin. 1 They happed the stack up. Our potatoes are 
well apped up. So you've happed poor old Charley up. Nhp. 
When I, Hapt in the cold dark grave, Can heed it not, CLARE 
Village Minst. (1821) I. 173. 

Hence (i) Happing, sb. thatch, straw or earth used as a 
covering ; (2) Happing-up, sb. a burial. 

(i) n.Lin. 1 Covering, such as ... earth on a potatoe pie. sw.Lin. 1 
We're short of happing, to hap the stacks with, (a) Cum. Coniston 
. . . was obliged to send all its deceased to Ulverston for interment, 
and Christian happing up, LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 265. 

6. To hide, conceal, cover away, to ' hush up ' ; also 
intr. to hide oneself. 

Sc. Man, doctor, I ha'e happit mony a faut o' yours, an' I think 
ye micht thole ane o' mine, FORD Thistledown (1891) 98. e.Sc. 
What way will ye seek to rake up what I've happit awa for years? 
SETOUN R. Urquhart (1896) xxvii. Ayr. Ye maun be cowards, 
whan ye hap By dykebacks, sheughs, and ditches, Ballads and 
Sngs. (1847) II. 113. n.Yks. 2 'They got it happed up,' the matter 
was silenced ; n.Yks. 4 Let's hap t'job up noo an' saay neea mair 
aboot it. w.Yks. (J.W.) n.Lin. 1 Thaay maay try as thaay like 
ther's noa happin' a thing o' that soort up e' thease daays. 

7. To shelter, shield, protect. 

Sc. The moonlight, they say, is no just canny . . . and ye should 
be happit and sained from its influence, COBBAN Andaman (1895) 
xxiv. Bch. Syne slouch behind my doughty targe, That yon day your 
head happit, FORBES Ajax(i^^) 9. Kcd. Myauldbiggin',Thatmony 
year has happed me Up to the very riggin', JAMIE Muse (1844) 
32. Frf. Dear cottie ye cou'd tell . . . How many ills on me befel, 
When ye did hap my taily, Yon rantin night, MORISON Poems 
(1790) 85. Per. Wi' Dives' craps to ca' oor ain, A' hoosed an' 
happit frae the rain, HALIBURTON Ochil Idylls (1891) 29. Ayr. 
Jamaica bodies, use him weel, An' hap him in a cozie biel, BURNS 
On a Sc. Bard, st. 9. Edb. They scoug frae street an' field, An' 
hap them in a lyther bield, FERGUSSON Poems U773) I 39, ed - !7 8 5- 

8. To smooth down, press lightly ; to pat soil with the 
back of a spade ; in salt-making : to smooth the lump salt. 

Lan.',Chs. 13 nw.Der.iTo press slightly the soil in garden beds 
with a spade after the seeds are sown. 

Hence Happer, sb. salt-making term : a small wooden 
spade or paddle used to smooth lump salt. Chs. 1 

9. To make up a fire, to stack or heap it up so as to 
keep it in. 

Sc. It's time I should hap up the wee bit gathering turf, as the 
fire is ower low, SCOTT Monastery (1820) iv ; I'll maybe find the 
fire black out, though I had happit it so as to last the whole day, 
WHITEHEAD Daft Davie (1876) 149, ed. 1894. Cum. 4 , Yks.(J.W.) 

10. sb. A covering or wrap of any kind ; a coverlet, rug ; 
a thick outer garment, dress, clothing ; also used _/?. 

Sc. Mak's cosie the hap o' a theekit cot bed, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 
357. Sh.I. Shu laid aff her hap an' axd for a drap o' mylk, Sh. 
News (May 14, 1898). Abd. The hairst was ta'en in, and the rucks 
got a hap, ANDERSON Rhymes (1867) 124. Frf. They were sair in 

want o' a puckle needfu' haps in the day-time, WILLOCK Rosetty 
Ends (1886) 25, ed. 1889. Per. I met her by the burnie's flow, 
Aneath the hap o' e'enin', EDWARDS Strathearn Lyrics (1889) 43. 
Ayr. I'd be mair vauntie o' my hap, Douce hingin' owre my curple, 
BURNS Answer to Verses (1787) st. 5. Lnk. The plaided hap o' 
auld warP ways, MURDOCH Doric Lyre (1873) 8. Lth. [He] wons 
upon the hill-tap, In peat-biggit shieling wi' thin theekit hap, 
BALLANTINE Poems (1856) 98. e.Lth. Swathed up in mufflers, 
mittens, haps and hose, MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes (1885) 167. Edb. 
Winter's caulds, baith keen and snell, Freeze on the hap o'er muir 
an' fell, GLASS Cal. Parnassus (1812) 40. Kcb. When Criffel wears 
a hap, Skiddaw wots well o' that, SWAINSON Weather. Flk-Lore 
(1873)206. N.I. 1 n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.); N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 
' Put a hap on the bed,' means put an extra covering on it. Dur. 1 
Cum. A hap mear or less is nowt in our house, RIGBY Midsummer 
to Martinmas (1891) i. Wm. Have you put plenty of hap on? 
(B.K.) n.Yks. 1 ' Have you plenty o' haps?' 'Aye, Ah's tweea 
shawls an' mah thick cloak, forby t'roog ' ; n.Yks. 2 Rare good 
haps; n.Yks. 4 m.Yks. 1 They may manage fora bit of scran [food], 
but they've scarcely a rag of hap. w.Yks. 1 Gimme plenty o' hap. 
Lan. To doff his winter-hap, WAUGH Heather (ed. Milner) II. 26 ; 
Thae's a terrible lot o' hap abeawt tho', ib. Snowed-up, ii. ne.Lan. 1 
Der. 'Ha' ye got plenty o' haps?'..' Tis main cold,' VERNEY Stone 
Edge (1868) xxv. 

11. A heavy fall of snow. 

n.Yks. [He] would be matched to get home again; for it was safe 
there was going to be a 'hap,' ATKINSON Maori. Parish (1891) 349. 

[1. The peaple sawe thame [the opinions] happit al, 
and coloured with fair wourdes, DALRYMPLE Leslie's Hist. 
Scotl. (1596) II. 466. 2. I pray be Marie nappe hym 
warme, York Plays (c. 1400) 144.] 

HAP, v. 3 and int. Sc. Irel. Lei. Dev. Also in forms 
haap Sc. Lei. 1 ; haape n.Dev. ; hape Frf. ; haup Sc. 
(JAM.) [h)ap, h)ep.] 1. v. Of horses or yoke-cattle : to 
turn to the right away from the driver. 

Sc. STEPHENS Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) I. 160 ; It is opposed to 
wynd, which signifies to turn to the left or towards the driver (JAM.). 

2. Phr. (i) to hap or wynd, (a) to make draught cattle 
turn to the right or left ; (b) to turn one way or another 
at another's will, to be tractable ; (2) haup weel, rake weel, 
try every way, rather than be disappointed. 

(i, a) Abd. But he could make them turn or veer, And hap or 
wynd them by the ear, MESTON Poet. Wks. (1723) 16. (b) Frf. 
How bless'd is he that to his mind Has got a wifie . . . That to his 
wish will hape or winde, Soothing each care, MORISON Poems 
(1790) 79. s.Sc. Ye'll neither hap nor wyn neither dance nor 
haud the caunle, WILSON 7'ales (1839) V. 234 ; We say of a 
stubborn person : ' He will neither haup nor wynd ' (JAM.). (2) 
Fif. A phr. borrowed from ploughing. The lit. meaning is: If the 
horse will not go to the right hand, let him take the opposite 
direction (ib.). 

3. To stop, keep back ; to check, balk. 

Dev. A farmer, speaking of some encroaching neighbours, said, 
'They'd have it all, nif did'n hape 'em a bit,' Repotts Provinc. (1889). 
n.Dev. Horae Subsecivae (1777) 197; Nif vauther dedn't ha-ape tha, 
Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 51. 

4. int. A call to a horse to turn to the right ; also with 
off, up. 

Sc. (JAM.) ; MORTON Cycle. Agric. (1863). w.Sc. ' Haup up' is 
only applied to [cattle], N. &> Q. (1856) 2nd S. i. 439. s.Sc. ' Hap, 
Bassie, hap,' and smacking his whip the horse increased his speed, 
WILSON Tales (1839) V. 13. Ayr. Just gies his naigs a hap or gee, 
An' canny drives around it, AINSLIE Land of Bums (ed. 1892) 217. 
Lnk. By their answerin' our ca' Hap, wyne, wo back, or step 
awa', WATSON Poems (1853) 25. Bwk. Monthly Mag. (1814) I. 
31. N.I. 1 

5. A call for cows. 

Lei. 1 When I wus a b'y they'd use to call the cows with a 'haap,' 
now they call 'em wi' a ' hoop.' 

HAP, v.* Sc. [hap.] In phr. hap weel, w)rap weel, 
come of it what will, whatever be the result, hit or miss. 
Cf. hap, v? 2. 

Cai. 1 Slk. Whilk makes me half and mair afraid, . . But hap weel, 
rap weel, I will send it, HOGG Poems (1801) I. 91 (JAM.). Rxb. I 
carena, I'll do it, hap weel, rap weel (&.). Gall. MACTAGGART 
Encycl. (1824). Kcb. Hap weel an' wrap weel, I'll ax her ower 
hame, ARMSTRONG Ingleside (1890) 219. 

HAP, v. 5 w.Yks. [ap.] 1. Of animals : to lap, suck up. 
(J.B.), (J.W.) 2. To dry or mop up a wet place. (J.W.) 

I 2 




HAP, sb. a Obs. Sc. Cum. An instrument for scraping 
up sea-ooze to make salt with. 

Dmf. His first care is to collect the sleech proper for his purpose; 
this he effects by means of an implement named a hap, a kind of 
sledge drag furnished with a sharp edge at that part which touches 
the ground, and drawn by a single horse, Agric. Surv. 527 GAM.). 
Cum. 4 A sledge-drag or scraper, drawn by a horse, used for col- 
lecting the surface-leech on the salt-bed, Solwoy, 44. 

HAP, see Hip, sb. 1 , Hop, v?- 

HAPE, sb. Sc. A halfpenny. 

Lnk. Dae ye want the Citeez [Citizen]? Evenin' or Weekly? It's 
only a hape, NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) 106. 

HAPE, see Hap, v. a , Heap, s*. 1 

HAPLY, adv. Obs. Chs. Der. Also in form happely 
Chs. 2 Perhaps. Chs. 13 Der. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) 

[He came, if haply he might find any thing thereon, 
BIBLE Mark xi. 13.] 

HAPP, HAPPA, see Hap, v. 2 , Hap ye. 

HAPPE, v. Obs. n.Cy. To encourage or set on 
a dog. GROSE (1790). 

HAPPEN, v. 1 and sb. 1 Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. 

1. v. To befall, happen to ; to become of. Also used 
in pass. 

Slg. Some dreadful dool shall happen us, TOWERS Poems (1885) 
56. Edb. The fate That soon will happen Kirk or State, CRAWFORD 
Poems (1798) 38. Lth. Has anything happened Hootsman ? 
LUMSDEN Sheep-head (1892) 311. w.Yks. If owt happens me tha 
mun lewk after aar Lizzie, Spec. Dial. s.Not. Ah've bin lookin 
for th' mester i' th' shop. What's appened im? (J. P. K.) Lei. 1 A's 
'appcned very lucky to get independent. 

2. To incur, meet with (an accident, c.) ; to have any- 
thing occur to one ; occas. with of. 

e.Dur. 1 He happened it [it happened to him!. She happened 
a bad accident. n.Yks. Ah happen'd a accident (T.S.") ; n.Yks. 1 
' Puir gell ! she's happ'n'd a misfort'n ; ' had, or going to have, an 
illegitimate child. 'Ah seen a hare liggin, an' Ah happ'n'd (t') 
misfort'n te knap't o' t'heead ' ; n.Yks. 4 ne.Yks. 1 Ah's happen'd 
a bad accident. w.Yks. He'd happened t'accident at his wark, 
Yksma. Comic Ann. (1878) 42. n.Lin. Whativer's matter noo? 
Has Jack happen'd owt ? PEACOCK Tales(i 886^61 ; n.Lin. 1 He happen'd 
an accident up o' Magin Moor ; his herse flung him and brok two 
on his ribs. sw.Lin. 1 They've never happened owt yet. They 
were down together, but they happened nothing. Cmb. He 
happened of an accident (W.W.S.). Suf. (C.L.F.) 

3. With of, on, in, or with : to come upon by chance, fall 
in with, light upon. 

Per. Ance we happen'd on a stell, High up amang the Ochils, 
HALIBURTON Oc/iil Idylls ( 1891) 13. Ayr. Gif that ye Coud happen 
on a loving wife. She might a comfort to ye be, FISHER Poems 
(1790) 154. Gall. She happen't on a frien'To help her in the time 
o' need, LAUDERDALE Poems (1796) 68. n.Cy. (J.W.), ne.Lan. 1 
s.Chs. 1 Iv yfi aap-n-n upun aa'r Joa'j, tel im th'mes'tur)z bin 
waan'tin im [If y6 happen'n upon ahr Geo'ge, tell him th' mester's 
bin wantin him]. Not. I happened on him just agen the miln 
(L.C.M.); The difficulty of happening on a policeman, PRIOR 
Rente (1895) 61 ; Not. 1 Lin. 1 nXin. 1 I happen'd on her just agean 
Bell-hoale. sw.Lin. 1 I happened on him last market. Rut. 1 I 
thought I'd ask the doctor to call in next door, if I should happen 
on him to-day or to-morrow. Lei. 1 Mhp. The restless hogs will 
happen on the prize, CLARE Shep. Calendar (1837) 74 ; Nhp. 1 I 
couldn't happen on him no where. War. 3 , Hnt. (T.P.F.) Nrf. 
I used to go up the road and happen in with some boys, EMERSON 
Son of Fens (1892) 18 ; I happened with him at mine [at my house], 
COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 63 ; I had just happened of him 
up a tree when you began to halloa, HAGGARD Col. Quaritch (1888) 
I. xii. Suf. I happened o' he at Ipsitch (C.G.B.). e.Snf. I hap- 
pened with him at the inn (F.H.). 

4. With along: to come by chance, to arrive unexpectedly. 
Sur. 1 Sn.' Master Tumptops, he's a man as you'll notice 

mostly happens- along about anyone's dinner-time. 

5. Phr. to happen right, to agree together, ' hit it off.' 
s.Not. ' How did you get on with him ? ' ' Oh, sometimes we 

happened right, an' sometimes we didn't' (J.P.K.). 

6. Comp. (i) Happen-chance, a matter of casual occur- 
rence. n.Yks. 2 ; (2) -clash, an accidental blow or fall. 
ib. ; (3) -keease, see (i). ib. 

7. sb. An accident, occurrence. 

w.Wor. That were a baddish happen, S. BrAUCHAMp N. Hamilton 
(1875) II. 133. 

HAPPEN, v? Som. To rattle, make a cracking 
sound. See Happer. 

What I don't like about coke is its happening on al' the while 
when you first put it on (W.F.R.). 

HAPPEN, s6. 2 Ayr. (JAM.) The path trodden by 
cattle, esp. on high grounds. 

HAPPENING, sb. and ppl. adj. Sc. Yks. Also Dev. 

1. sb. An event, occurrence. 

Gall. I could not find it in my heart to tell him of the happening, 
CROCKETT Grey Man (1896) 189. w.Yks. I could take more plea- 
sure in telling such young doings without meaning... nor in jumping 
out into the quick and strong flood of happenings that came after, 
SNOWDEN Web of Weaver (1896) 17. Dev. Tidings and happenings 
new and old, SALMON Ballads (1899) 6 ; Before the final coorious 
happening, there was a fire in a croft of auld Applebird's, PHILL- 
POTTS Bill Vogwell in Blk. and White (June 27, 1896) 824. 

2. ppl. adj. Casual, chance, occasional. 

Per. Mrs. So and So was here to-day, but it was only a happen- 
ing call (G.W.). Lnk. If it wasna for a happening visitor looking 
in at orra times, FRASER Whaups (1895) xii. 

HAPPEN(S, adv. and conj. n.Cy. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Stf. Der. Not. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor. Shr. Glo. 
Also written happance w.Yks. ; and in forms 'appen 
Lan. m.Lan. 1 Der. ; hap'm Cum. 4 ; oppen Der. 1. adv. 
Perhaps, possibly, may be. 

N.Cy. 1 , Cum. 4 Wm. ' Will you lend me a book?' * Happen I 
have not got one" (B.K.) ; Said he was happen rader better ner 
good, Aid Smiler, 19. n.Yks. 2 ; n.Yks. 4 ' Wilt ta cum?' 'Happen 
Ah may.' ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 Happen Bill '11 cum whom [home] 
next week. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Yol happance think this a queer 
idea a mine, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Thowts (1845) n ; w.Yks. 1 I 
spreead taable claath happen nut seea simmitas they'd been used 
lull, ii. 299; w.Yks. 234 ; w.Yks. 5 Happen ah sal an' happen ah 
sahn't. Lan. That friend's happen slander'd yoa o' at he could, 
HARLAND Lyrics (1866) 223; Our Jacob's got something on his 
mind. . . He's 'appen fallen in love, HAMERTON Wcnderholntc 
(1869) xv ; Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 e.Lan. 1 The cheapest is happen not 
the best. m.Lan. 1 , Chs. 123 Stf. Happen your husband tied ye 
off marryin' afore he died ? Cornh. Mag. (Jan. 1894) 38. n.Stf. 
Happen ye'dget something to think on, GEO. ELIOT A. Bede (1859) 
I. 8. Der. It's 'oppen two moil fro' here, HALL Haihersagc (1896) 
i ; 'Appen thou be'st. and 'appen thou baint, LE FANU Uncle Silas 
(1865) I. 298; Der. 2 . nw.Der.l Not. (J.H.B.); If he speaks 
to you, you can 'appen be deaf. PRIOR Renie (1895) 60. Lin. 
Happen sea-bank broke to show folk as fen warn't niver meant to 
be drained, FENN Dick o' the Fens (1888) iii. n.Lin. 1 Happen I 
maay cum doon o' Sunda' at neet, bud I'm not sewer. s.Lin. 
Happen he may artcr all (T.H.R.). sw.Lin. 1 Happens, I may. 
It was a good job, happen, as she did go. Lei. 1 'Do you think 
she's gone home?' "Appen.' Nhp. 1 War. They'd happen ha' 
died, if they'd been fed, GEO. ELIOT Floss (1860) I. 42; War. 12 ; 
War. 3 ' 'Ave a go at a ship, master; appen yo might 'it a 
ship [sheep].' A sarcasm launched at me by a shepherd who had 
seen me miss my game in two successive shots ; War. 4 Happen I 
may light upon it when I goes a milking. s.War. 1 , s.Wor. (H.K.), 
s.Wor. 1 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 'Appen I shall be theer. Glo. 1 
2. conj. In case, lest, perchance. 

n-Yks. 1 Ah'll think, happen Ah gans. ne.Yks. 1 Ah'll waat 
happen sha cums. w.Yks. (J.W.) 

HAPPER, v. Hmp. Wil. Dor. Som. To fall with a 
heavy sound ; to rattle down, patter ; to crackle ; gen. 
with down. 

Hmp. Of an apple falling from a tree, ' Didn't it happer down ! ' 
(W.H.E.) Wil. You can hear the rain now. It's happering down, 
ib. ; Wil. 1 To come down smartly, as hail, or leaves in autumn. 
Dor. An' orcha'd apples, red half round, Have alia happer'd down, 
BARNES Poems (1863) 78. Som. Till tha snaw happer'd down 
and cover'd tha groun, AGRIKLKK Rhymes (1872) no; SWEETMAN 
IVincanton Gl. (1885); W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; JENNINGS Obs. Dial. 
w.Eng. (1825). w.Som. 1 How that there 'ood do happery 1 

Hence (i) Happering, (a) vbl. sb. the snapping or 
crackling of an ember in a fire ; (b) ppl. adj. pattering, 
rattling coming down like hail ; (2) Happery, adj. crack- 
ling, apt to snap or crackle. 

(i, a) Wll. N. & Q. (i88i)6th S. iv. 106. (A) Dor. At the feast, 
I do mind very well, all the vo'ks Wera-tookina happeren show'r, 
BARNES Poems (1863) in. (a) w.Som. 1 Vir [fir] tops baint much 
o' viring, they be so happery. 

HAPPER, see Hopper, sb. 1 




HAPPINCH, sb. Chs. The lapwing, Vamllus vul- 
garis. Science Gossip (1865) 36. 
HAPPIT, see Hoppet, v. 

HAPPLE, v. Sc. [Not known to our correspondents.] 
To trickle, roll down. See Hop, v?- 6. 

Edb. The sa't tears ran happlin' owr my cheek, LEARMONT Poems 
(1791) 325. 

HAPPY, adj. Sc. Irel. n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Chs. Lei. Nhp. 
War. Cor. [h)a'pi, ae'pi.] 1. In phr. (i) Happy by lucky, 
at a venture, at all hazards, by chance ; (2) family, 
a variety of stonecrop, Sedum ; (3) -go-long, an easy- 
going person; (4) -go-lucky, (a) see (i) ; (b) see (3); (c) 
chance, accident ; (5) man be his dole, a good wish, an 
expression of goodwill. 

(i) Nhp. 1 He has taken that bit o' ground happy by lucky, he's 
chanced it. (2) Chs. 1 Frequently grown in cottage windows ; 
Chs. 3 The buds and flowers, though on different stalks, all nestle 
together. (3) Nhb. (R.O.H.) (4, a) Cai. 1 Rxb. Happy-go-lucky, 
I'll venture (JAM.). s.Don. He could not ride a bicycle, but he 
said he would try happy go lucky (D.A.S.). Lin. 1 , n.Lin. 1 (b) 
Lei. 1 A good fellow of a reckless random disposition. War. 3 (c) 
n.Yks. It's happy-go-lucky whether you get them or nut (I.W.). 
m.Yks. 1 The well-known phrase ' happy-go-lucky' has more of a 
meaning to northern than southern ears. Cor. After that went 
recklessly . . . and finally abandoned the exercise of ... reason 
for happy-go-lucky, BARING-GOULD Gaverocks (1887) i. (5) n.Cy. 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) 
2. Lucky, fortunate, boding good fortune. 

Bnff. There are happy and unhappy days for beginning any under- 
taking. . . There are also happy and unhappy feet. Thus they wish 
bridegrooms and brides a happy foot, Statist. Ace. XIV. 541 . (JAM.) 

HAPRICK, sb. Sh.I. Also written happrick. [ha'prik.] 
Panniers or baskets slung over a horse's back. 

A auld osmal liiikin' auld maid, wi' a mooth laek a horse hap- 
prick, STEWART Tales (1892) 35 ; S. & Ork. 1 Two cazzies united by 
a band laid over a horse's back for carrying manure. 

HAPS, adv. Sc. n.Cy. Ess. Ken. [haps, asps.] 
Perhaps, perchance. See Hap, adv. 6. 

Edb. If yer morals dinna men' Ye'll haps be scau'ded at the en', 
LIDDLE Poems (1821) 58. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) Ess. 
An', haps, near ov a-fire, CLARK J. Noakes (1839) St. 170; Ess. 1 
Ken. Aps he may. Aps he be (W.G.P.). 

[It may haps be objected, CALLIS Stat. Sewers (ed. 
1647) 94 (N.E.D.).] 

HAPS, see Hasp, sb. 1 

HAP-SHACKLE, v. and sb. Sc. Lan. Also in form 
hop-shackle Sc. Lan. 1 [ha'p-, h)o'p-Jakl.] 1. v. To bind 
together the feet of cattle so as to prevent them from 
straying. Slk., Gall. QAM.) 

Hence Hap-shackled, ppl. adj. fettered, cumbered ; 

Ayr. Thou now has got thy daddie's chair, Nae hand-cuff'd, 
mizzl'd, hap-shackl'd Regent, BURNS Elegy on the Year 1788 (1789) 
1. 34 ; Jeanie stood like ane hapshackl'd, AINSLIE Land of Burns 
(ed. 1892) 188. Gall. An horse is said to be so when an hind and 
fore foot are confined by a rope fixed to them ; this is to hinder 
them to 'hop ' or ' leap,' MACTAGGART Encycl, (1824) 253, ed. 1876. 
Lan. ' Thou walks as if thou were hop-shackle't ! ' ' Thou'd be 
hop-shackle't too, if thou'd as mony corns o' thi toes as I have,' 
WAUGH Chim. Corner (1874) 17, ed. 1879 ! Lan. 1 
2. sb. A ligament for confining a horse or cow; a shackle, 
fetter; also used fig. 

Ayr. No creatures in a crib, no horses in hapshackles, AINSLIE 
Land of Burns (ed. 1892) 139. Slk. An intelligent correspondent 
from Ettrick Forest informs me that he never saw the operation of 
hapshackling performed otherwise than by fastening the hap- 
shackle round the fore feet of the animal (JAM.) ; I have got this 
matrimonial hap-shackle off and am free, HOGG Tales (1838) 282, 
ed. 1866. Gall. (JAM.) 

HAPSHER, adv. Lakel. Cum. Also in forms hapsha 
Lakel. 2 Cum. ; hapshy Cum. 1 In comp. (i) Hapsher- 
hapsher, (2) -rapsher, -rapsha, or -rapshy, haphazard, at 

(i) Cum. (J.W.O.) (2) Lakel. 2 Cum. (J.W.O.); Bit ah sed, 
just hapsha rapsha, sez ah, SARGISSON /oe Scoap (1881) 140 ; Cum. 1 

HAP YE, phr. Obs. n.Cy. Also in forms happa 
N.Cy. 2 ; happe. 1. What think you ? do you think so ? 
GROSE (1790), (K.),N.Cy. 2 2. Thank you. BAILEY (1721). 

HAR, int. Nhb. Dur. Yks. e.An. Also in form arr, 
aar e.An. 1. A call of the carter to a horse to come to 
the left or near side. 

e.An. The rustic teamman's address to his horse when he wants 
it to turn into a gateway to the left is something of this kind, 
'Cup bear, har, hate wa' holt' (H.C.H.). Nrf. RAINBIRD Agric. 
(1819) 302, ed. 1849. 

2. A word of command addressed to a plough-horse to 
turn to the right. 

Yks. The horses are trained when young to turn to the right on 
hearing this word (G.W.W.). 

3. Phr. har away, be off ! come along. Cf. hay-ree. 
Nhb. (H.M.) e.Dur. 1 Haa'wee'u, haa-nrwee'u, haru ('harra') 

wee'u. The shibboleth of this county, heard every day and almost 
every five minutes. 

HAR, see Haar, sb. 1 , Have, Her. 

HARASS, sb. Lin. Sur. [a'ras.] Difficulty, great 

Sur. 1 ' It's a harass to get them up they hills.' Speaking of 
carting building materials on to the hill. 

Hence Harassment, sb. a worry, trouble, harassed con- 

n.Lin. 1 Dr. P. he says to me, 'Mrs. D.,' he says, 'it's ovver- 
harassment o' th' liver 'at yer sufferin' from.' s.Lin. (T.H.R.) 

HARBER, sb. e.An. 1 Suf. 1 e.Suf. (F.H.) Also written 
harbur, and in form arbour Suf. 1 [a'ba(r).] The horn- 
beam or hard-beam, Carpinus Betulus. Also in comp. 

HARBIN(E, sb. Or.I. A young coal-fish of about two 
years old, Merlangus carbonarius. 

The piltock of Shetland is the kuth of Orkney, which the following 
year is distinguished in the latter place as harbines, or two-year- 
old kuths, HIBBERT Desc. SIi. I. (1822) 25, ed. 1891 ; S. & Ork. 1 
[SATCHELL (1879).] 

HARBOUR,s6.andv. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Chs. Lin. 
Wor. Pern. Glo. Oxf. Som. Dev. Cor. Also written harbar 
s.Pem. ; and in form herbour Sc. 1. sb. A shelter, refuge. 

Edb. It is said, as a harbour and rallying point, to have been 
much resorted to by the Covenanters, PENNECUIK Whs. (1715) 127, 
ed. 1815. n.Yks. 4 Wa mun finnd a harbour sumwhere whahl 
t'shooer's ower'd. w.Yks. (J.W.) n.Lin. 1 It power'd doon wi' 
raain an' ther' was noa harbour to find noa wheare. w.Som. 1 
Kau'msoa'us! lat-s goo t-aarbur [Come mates ! let's take shelter]. 
The word ' shelter' is unknown. 

Hence (i) Harberance, (2) Harberie, sb. harbourage, 
shelter ; (3) Harbourless, adj. without shelter or refuge. 

(i) Nhb. 1 Thor's a lot o' ratlins this year ; the rough stubbles is 
been a grand harberance for them. (2) Sc. He that is ill of his 
harberie, is good of his way kenning, RAY Prov. (1678) 370. (3) 
Lnk. So am I harbourlcss, LITHGOW.PO/. Rent., ed. 1863 (Passionado). 
2. Lodging, house-room ; a house, home ; a room, place 
of entertainment, place of reception. 

Sc. He kept them up till I had neither house nor harbour, 
KIRKTON Ch. Hist. (1817) 274. Per. What! herbour freers? an' 
the gudeman fra hame ? HALIBURTON Dunbar (1895) 95. Lakel. 1 
Turned out of ' huse and harbour.' Cum. 4 Wm. Cheated aut ol 
hause and harbour, HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 1.312. n.Yks. 1 ; 
n.Yks. 4 Seea lang ez it's cleean, Ah deeant mahnd, bud Ah mun 'ev 
a harbour foor t'neet. w.Yks. (J.W.) Chs. 1 My word! but this 
is a wyndy harbour. A wood-fent's a regular harbour for rottens. 
n.Lin. 1 Thaay was to'n'd oot Vto th' streat, an' noa harbour was to 
be gotten for 'em noawheares, soa I let 'em lig e' my barn. 
sw.Lin. 1 His sister jives him harbour, but he finds himself. There's 
no harbour at D, so they've ta'en a house at H. There's no other 
harbour to be got. Oxf. (G.O.), w.Som. 1 

Hence (i) Harbourage, sb. stopping-place, entertain- 
ment ; (2) Harbouration, sb. a collection, lodgement ; a 
collection of anything unpleasant. 

(i) w.Som. 1 Noa- aa'rbureej yuur! [No shelter here!] is the 

^ . it i 11 i___ __j___ -i i ; i - . 

a harbouration o' dirt as that is. s.Chs. 1 Mahy sai'ks ulahy'v! 
wot u aa-rburai'shun u rub'ich dhur iz i dhu aays [My sakes alive ! 
what a harbouration o' rubbitch there is i' the ha'ise]. 
3. The place where a deer lies or has been lying ; the 
bed of a deer. 

w.Som. 1 An old stag always tries to find a young deer to turn 




out of his harbour. n.Dev. When he [the stag] has settled himself 
down he is said to be ' in harbour,' JEFFERIES Red Deer (1884) vi. 

Hence Harbourage, sb. a covert, lair, hiding-place. 

w.Som. 1 The deer made for Bollam Wood, but there was no 
harbourage there. 

4. v. To give shelter to ; to hide ; to entertain, give 
house-room to. 

Ayr. We had committed the unpardonable sin against the prelacy 
of harbouring our minister and his destitute family, GALT Gilliaise 
(1823) xvii. n.Vks. 4 Gen. used in a derogatory sense. ' Sha's 
neeawaays neyce whaw sha harbours.' ' Tha'd harbour tha devil 
if tha thowt tha c'u'd mak owt byv it' w.Yks. (J.W.) Chs. 1 He 
harbours aw th' poachers i' th' country ; Chs. 3 , n.Lin. 1 , Oxf. (G.O.) 
Glo. 1 Her says her won't harbour the dog in the parlour. w.Som. 1 
'Tis a place where they do harbour thieves and all sorts o' rough 
car'iturs. Cor. And 'cused me forharbren hes booay to my house, 
TREGELLAS Tales (1860) 5. 

Hence Harberous, adj. hospitable, affording shelter. 

So. He liberal was and harberous, ROGERS Three Reformers 
(1819) 114. 

5. To pet, spoil, make much of. 

s.Pem. Ye'v alwiz been harbarin' this child, an' naw a's spoilt 

6. Phr. to harbour laze, to induce or encourage laziness. 
s.Wor. PORSON Quaint Wds. (1875) 20. 

7. To dwell in a place ; to haunt, frequent. 

n.Cy. (J.W.) Chs. 1 Rats harbour in a barn. Partridges harbour 
amongst turnips ; Chs. 3 They harbour there continually. Glo. 2 
w.Som. 1 The police kept watch on the places he was known to 
harbour. Her told em how he did'n harboury there. 

8. Of a deer or stag : to have a lair ; to haunt, frequent. 
w.Som. 1 To ascertain by tracking, or other means, that the deer 

is harbouring or laired in a particular spot or covert. n.Dev. If a 
man could steal a view of 'un, . . where he harbours, WHYTE- 
MELVILLE Katerfelto (1875) xv. 

9. To track a stag to its lair. 

w.Som. 1 n.Dev. To use woodman's language, he had fairly 
'harboured his deer,' WHYTE-MELVILLE Katerfelto (1875) xvi ; 
A guinea is paid for each stag ' harboured ' successfully, JEFFERIES 
Red Deer (1884) vi. 

Hence Harbourer, sb. hunting term : a man whose duty 
it is to track out a stag's lair or ' harbour.' 

w.Som. 1 The harbourer ... is as important an officer in the 
establishment of a pack of hounds kept for hunting the wild deer 
as the huntsman himself. Indeed it would be well if every hunts- 
man was to serve a novitiate as harbourer. It unfortunately 
happens that every under-keeper and loiterer about the haunts of 
the wild deer, thinks he can act as harbourer, COLLYNS, 76. Dev. 
The harbourer having reported a ' warrantable deer ' in Parsonage 
Wood, Mem. Rev. J. Russell (1883) xii. n.Dev. He has earned 
an unchallenged right to call himself the most skilful ' Harbourer ' 
in the west, WHYTE-MELVILLE Katerfelto (1875) xvi. 

[1. I wasastraungerandnedyofharboure.UDALL^njs/n. 
Par. (1548) Matt. xxv. 2. An harbar, liospicium, Cath. 
Angl. (1483).] 

HARBY, HARCELET, see Herb, Haslet. 

HARD, adj., adv. and sb. Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. 
and Colon. Also in forms haad e.Yks. 1 ; hand e.Yks. ; 
nurd Cmb. 1. adj. and adv. In comb, (i) Hard-backed, 
miserly, stingy, noted for driving hard bargains ; (a) 
batch, grape-wine ; see below ; (3) -bitten one, a hard 
taskmaster; (4) -bound, constipated; (5) -bowed, said of 
flax when the seed has formed ; (6) -bread, oatcake ; (7) 
buttons, a boys' game ; see below ; (8) cake, (9) 

cheese, hard treatment, a hard lot, ' hard lines ' ; (10) 
core, brick, rubbish, or refuse used to make foundations; 
(n) -corn, wheat and rye, as opposed to barley and oats ; 
(12) -dick, a pudding made only of flour and water ; (13) 

does, see (9) ; (14) -dumpling, see (12) ; (15) eating, 
dry food and corn, as opposed to grass; also called 
Hard-food; (16) -faced, (a) impudent, obstinate, brazen- 
faced; (6) obstinate in making a bargain; (c)close.-grained, 
hard in texture ; (17) -favoured, stern-faced ; coarse- 
featured ; (18) -fish, dried or salt fish ; (19) -fist, a miserly 
person; (20) -fisted, covetous; (21) -fruit, stone-fruit, 
plums, &c. ; (22) -gait, a hard road ; used fig. in prov. ; 
see below ; (23) -gob, white metal ; (24) -grain, a present 
of wheat or money made to children at Christmas; 

(25) grass, var. species of sedge or Carex ; (26) 
-ground man, a workman employed in driving rock 
other than coal ; (27) -haddled, hard-earned ; see Addle, 
I/. 2 ; (28) -handed, stingy, niggardly, close-fisted; (29) 

hap, misfortune, adversity; (30) -head, hardihood; (31) 
headed, (a) unyielding, stubborn ; (b\ shrewd, ' cute ' ; 
(32) -hearted, heart-breaking, distressing; (33) -hewer, 
a stone-mason ; (34) -hodden or -holden, tightly held ; at 
a loss, embarrassed ; hard put to it ; (35) -horn, tightly ; 
(36) -iron or Hardine, fa) the black knapweed, Centaurea 
nigra; also called Hardhead (q.v.) ; (6) the corn-crowfoot, 
Ranunculus arvensis; (c) the spreading halbert-leaved 
orache, A triplex hastata ; (37) -matched, hardly able ; (38) 

matter, difficult ; (39) meat, see (15) ; (40) -melched, 
of a cow: difficult to milk; (41) -mouthed, obstinate, 
stubborn; (42) -nap, a shrewd, clever fellow; (43) -coined, 
badly treated, over-worked ; see Hoin, v. (44) -pin't, said 
of grass when eaten off close to the bare ground ; (45) 
-pushed, hard put to it ; (46) -race, calcareous concretionary 
matter formed round.fossilized bones, found;in brick-earth ; 
(47) -sailing, trouble, misfortune ; (48) -set, (a) scarcely 
able, hardly, with difficulty ; hard-pressed, in difficulties, 
straits; (b) hungry; (c) to overdo; (49) -setten, said of 
eggs sat upon until nearly the date of hatching ; (50) 
-stocking, land on which more stock is pastured than it 
can properly nourish ; (51) -thistle, the creeping plume- 
thistle, Carauus arvensis; (52) -tree, close-grained wood ; 
(53) water, spring water as distinguished from rain or 
soft water ; (54) weight, a trifle short of the weight 
named; (55) --wheat, bearded wheat, Triticum durum; 
(56) wood, (a) oak and ash as distinguished from fir, 
willow, beech, &c. ; (b) firewood in logs or brands as dis- 
tinguished from faggot-wood or ' wood ' simply ; (57) -wood 
trees, deciduous trees (with the exception of oak), not ot 
the fir tribe ; (58) -woolled one, see (3) ; (59) word, (a) 
abuse ; scandal ; (b) a blunt refusal ; (c) a pass-word or 

(i) n.Yks. He's a hard-backed un (T.S.). (al s.Hmp. Do you 
fetch that bottle of hard-batch (wine made from the outdoor grapes), 
VERNEY L. Lisle (1870) vi. (3) w.Wor. A hard-bitten un as be no 
mon's friend, S. BEAUCHAMPW. Hamilton (1875) I. 3. (4) Chs. 1 (5) 
N.I. 1 (6) n.Ir. She bakit aboot three griddle fu's o' hard breid, 
LYTTLE Paddy McQuillan , 18. Lan. Wi'n yo have hard brade orloaf- 
brade ' WAUGH Awd Bodlc, 250. (7) Lon. Several boys place one 
button each close together on a line. The game consists in hitting 
a particular button out of this line without touching the others. 
This is gen. played in London streets, GOMME Games (1894) 190. 
(8) n.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 , War. 3 (9) e.Yks. 1 It's hard cheese when yan 
awn bayns tons ther backs o' yan, MS. add. (T.H.) w.Yks. 5 To 
be turned off the premises where several generations of a family have 
lived and died, would be ' hard-cheese.' A criminal may deserve 
his twenty-one years' sentence of transportation, nevertheless it is 
' hard cheese to the poor fellah ! ' Not. 1 , n.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 , Oxf. (G.O.) 
(10) Lon. The phrase ' hard-core' seems strictly to mean all such 
refuse matter as will admit of being used as the foundation of 
roads, buildings, &c., MAYHEW Land. Labour (ed. 1861) II. 281. 
(n) N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Wheat or maslin, when growing, as 
distinguished from barley and oats. Stf. (K.) (i2)Sns. 1 (i3)Yks. 
(J.W.) n.Lin. 1 It's hard-does for a man and his wife and bairns to 
be thrawn oot o' wark wi'oot warnin'. Glo. These 'ere times with 
hard doos fur farmers, and wi" the 'checnery and zo on, BUCKMAN 
Darke's Sojourn (1890) x. Oxf. 1 JUS. add. (14) n.Yks. (I.W.) (15) 
Sc. (A.W.) Myo. I'd like the white mare tuk off the grash an' gave 
some hard 'atin' for afewdays, STOKER Snake's Pass(i8gi)vi. (i6,) 
Chs. 3 I have heard a bold horse called ' a regular hard-faced one." 
s.Chs. 1 tae-rbl aa'rd-fai'St wensh [A terr'ble hard-faced wench]. 
(b) Chs. 1 (c) ib. Timber which is hard and difficult to work is 
said to be hard-faced. An apple of so close a texture that you 
can scarcely get your teeth through it would be called hard- 
. faced. (17) Ayr. A stalwart, hard-favoured, grey-haired man-at- 
arms, GALT Gilhaize (1823) i. Cum. 14 (18) Sc. Indiscriminately 
given to cod, ling, and torsk, salted and dried (JAM.) ; Scoticisms 
(1787) 38. Or.I. PETERKIN Notes (1822) App. 32. Cal. 1 (19) 
s.Lin. Ha'e you hired yer sen to an o'd hard-fist like her! 
(T.H.R.) (20) Nhp. 1 (21) Ken. 1 (2a) Sc. 'The hare maun 
come to the hard gait,' matters must take their course. Gen. 
addressed to those who appear wilful, and are determined to take 
their own way apparently against their interest (JAM.). (23) 


[6 3 ] 


w.Yks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Nov. 4, 1893) ; w.Vks. 2 (24) ne.Lan. 1 
(25) Stf. Various sorts of seg grasses, provincially hard grass, iron 
grass, carnation grass, ReportsAgric. (1793-1813) 27. (26) \Reports 
Mines.] (27) w.Yks. Dunnot be fooils goin an spendin boath yer 
time ah yer hard-haddled cash at a jerry-shop, Dewsbre Olm. 
(1878) 3. (28) n.Sc. (JAM.) (29) Cum. Then hard hap have I, 
GILPIN Ballads (1874) 52. (30) w.Cy. (HALL.) (31, a) Cai. 1 , Slk. 
(JAM.) (6) Nhb. (R.O.H.) (32) Sh.I. Is dis wadder iver gaun ta 
shange, Magnus ? He's [it's] truly been a hard-heartid time dis 
while, as iver I mind, I link, Sh. News (June II, 1898). (33) 
Ken. 12 (34) Lakel. 2 Ah was hard hodden ta keep mi tongue 
atween mi teeth an' keep frae tellen mi mind streck oot. n.Yks. 2 
' I was hard-hodden frae laughing,' with difficulty I refrained 
from it. w.Yks. I have never seen a man so hard holden as he 
was, SNOWDEN Web of Weaver (1896) ii. (35) Sc. With his eyes 
shut hardhorn, Magopico (ed. 1836) 29. (36, a) Lan. (B. & H. ), 
Chs. 13 Stf. (B. & H.), s.Not. (J.P.K.) (6) n.Cy. (HALL.) Midi. 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796) II. Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 , Lei. 1 (c) Lei. 1 
(37) n.Yks. 2 That wall's hard-match'd to stand. (38) Oxf. 1 MS. 
add. nw.Dev. 1 'Tis hard matter to git about. (39) e.Yks. Maketh 
goodes fall sharply to their hard meate, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 
76. (40) s.Chs. 1 (41) Cor. You loose-jaw! hard-mouth'd, chuckle- 
headed kna-ave, FORFAR Poems (1885) 47. (42)Hrf. 2 (43) w.Yks. 
And all the while this lovin' wife, Hard-ooined although shoo be, 
CUDWORTH Dial. Sketches (1884) 107. (44) Cuin. 4 (45) Sc. 
(A.W.), n.Cy. (J.W.), Oxf. (G.O.) w.Som. 1 We was terrible 
hard-pushed to get em a-dood in time. (46) Ken. It is called 
' Hard race' by the workmen ... at the large brickyard near 
Erith, RAMSAY Rock Specimens (1862) 180. (47) e.Yks. 1 Poor 
awd Mally ; sha's had nowt bud hard-salin all her life-tahm, MS. 
add. (T.H.) (48, a) Sc. (A.W.) n.Yks. Ah's hard-set to dua 't 
(T.S.) ; T'parson was hard-set [to keep from laughing], TWEDDELL 
Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 35; n.Yks. 12 ; n.Yks. 4 Ah wur hardset ti 
git t'job deean i' tahm. ne.Yks. 1 Ah lay he'll be hard-set ti a'e 
deean afoor neet. e.Yks. 1 Ah's haad-set ti live o' that wage. 
m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Shoo wir hard-set to do sich a thing as that, 
HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1886) 44; w.Yks. 12 Lan. 1 He's hard-set, 
aw con tell thi eawt o' wark an' his woife deawn wi 1 twins. 
e.Lan. 1 , Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 We shall most on us be hard set if thease 
prices hohds on a year or two longer. sw.Lin. 1 They're often 
hardset for a meal. Lei. L Nhp. 1 He is hard set to maintain his 
family. War. 8 , Hnt. (T.P.F.) Dev. 3 He's hardzet to pay his rent. 

(b) w.Yks. 2 War. 3 He is so hard set he will eat anything offered 
to him. (c) m.Yks. 1 Take him to the field with thee, and don't 
hardset him, now. (49) Cum. (J.Ar.), Cum. 4 (50) s.Wil. I have 
known the principle of hard-stocking carried to an injurious 
length, MARSHALL Review (1817) V. 224. (51) e.An. (B. & H.) 
(52) Kcd. O get to me a cloak of cloth, A staff of good hard tree, 
MAIDMENT Garl. (1824) 30, ed. 1868. (53) Lakel. 2 Spring waiter 
'at jikes when ye weshin 't. n.Lin. 1 , Oxf. (G.O.) (54) e.Yks. 1 
Twea pund, hahd weight, MS. add. (T.H.) Sus. I weighted a 
carp . . . and it proved 2lbs. hard weight, MARCHANT Diary 
(1714-28) in N. V Q. (1879) sth S. xi. 247. (55) Som. (W.F.R.) 
(56, a) Kcd. The whole of this is thickly planted with deciduous 
trees, or what is here called hard wood ; its distinction from the 
evergreens or firs, whose timber is comparatively softer and of 
less value, Agric. Surv. 343 (JAM.). Slg. Upwards of 200,000 
trees of various kinds, but chiefly of hard wood, that is oak and 
ash, ib. 220. n.Lin. 1 , w.Som. 1 (6) w.Som. 1 To be sold, about 
100 cords of hard wood, in lots to suit purchasers, Advt. nw.Dev. 1 
(57) Cum. 4 , w.Yks. 1 (58) Nrf. COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 
35- (59, fl ) Sc - Hard words break no bones (A.W.). Myo. Again 
he burst out at me ... he would send the hard word round the 
country about me and my leman ! STOKER Snake's Pass ( 1891) xvi. 
Lakel. 2 He gat t'hard-word frae t'maister. Cum. 4 (b) Wm. Ah 
assed him for a shillin', an' he gev mi t'hard-word atyance (B.K.). 

(c) IT. So I gives Jack the hard word, CAKLETON Traits Peas. 
(ed. 1843) I. 78. 

2. Phr. (i) hard about, (2) again, (3) at hand, (4) 
by, near, close to ; (5) enough, sure enough, without 
doubt, certainly ; (6) laid on, much oppressed or bur- 
dened with work, sickness, &c. ; (7) on, (a] see (4) ; (b) 
nearly, almost, approaching to ; (c) hard at work, in full 
swing ; (d) fast asleep ; (8) to, see (4) ; (9) upon, see 
(7,6); (10) a-gallop, galloping very fast ; (n) and fast, 
(a) safely secured, immovable ; (b) vigorously, with great 
energy ; with eagerness or determination ; (c) see (5) ; 

(d) see (7, d) ; (12) and heather bred, hardy, possessed 
of great vigour and activity ; (13) and sharp, (a) scarcely, 
hardly, with difficulty, barely ; (b) cruelly, harshly ; (c) to 

a nicety, just right ; (d) slightly short in the required 
weight or size ; (14) in the mouth, stubborn, obstinate ; 
(15) of belief, dubious, doubtful ; (16) of the feather, 
used in reference to fighting cocks, fully grown and not 
soft-feathered ; (17) to get it hard, to find it a difficult 
matter; (18) to be at hard canny, to have a struggle to 
make both ends meet ; (19) to be in hard earnest, to be in 
sober, downright earnest ; (20) to have the hard drop in 
one, to be penurious, miserly. 

(i) w.Yks. It's hard about yonder clump of trees (C.C.R.). (2) 
Lakel. 2 It's hard again t'fell sides. Cum. 4 Ye'll finnd t'hoose hard 
agean t'stayshin. n.Wm. Your stick is hard again your nief (B. K.). 
(3) Som. I was . . . thinken', mabbee, o' thik good-bye as was hard 
at hand, LEITH Verbena (1895) 99. (4) Abd. Hard by the house o' 
Robie Mill, FORBES Shop 31/1(1785) 14. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 5 Hard 
by t'owd church. Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. Yalthrup is hard by 
Bottesford (E.P.). Oxf. (G.O.) (5) n.Yks. 2 ; n.Yks. 4 He'll tell 
tha what he thinks, hard eaneeaf. ne.Yks. 1 Aye ! that's him hard 
eneeaf. w.Yks. (JE.B.) ; w.Yks. 5 ' I can du it hard eniff.' A man 
repairs a clock, and says, when he has concluded his task, ' Thear, 
it al go hard eniff now.' n.Lin. He'll goa hard enif if thoo nobbud 
axes him (M.P.). (6) Cum. 14 w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 A lad sent to 
work at the factory when very young is ' hard-laid on.' A man 
emaciated in appearance by illness has ' bin hard laad on, poor 
fellah ! ' n.Lin. 1 , Nhp. 1 (7, a) Lakel. 2 s.Lin. You'll be hard on 
it when you reach the next cross roads (T.H.R.). (b) Cum. 4 It'll 
be hard on till neet or we git heam. Wm. It'll be hard on ta ten 
mile ta Penrith (B.K.). Lei. 1 It's six o'clock, hard on. War. 2 
Hard upon three months ; War. 3 (c) Not. 1 Lei. 1 Ah'n bin aard 
on all dee. Shay's aard on at th' o'd man from mornin' to noight 
an' noight till mornin'. War. 3 , Oxf. (G.O.) (rf) w.Yks. 'Ist'barn 
asleep?' 'Ay, he's hard on' (^E.B.). (8) Cum. I wad fain a 
seen't cum hard tull us, Borrowdale Lett, in Lonsdale Mag. (Feb. 
1867) 309. (9) Slk. It is hard upon the gloamin', HOGG Tales 
(1838) 68, ed. 1866. Nhp. 1 Hard upon eighty. Hmp. ' How far 
is it to Christchurch ?' 'Oh, it's hard upon a mile' (H.C.M.B.). 
Som. Hard upon thirty year have I a-bin clerk, RAYMOND Love 
and Quiet Life (1894) 107. (10) nw.Dev. 1 He raud roun' the 
cornder 'ard-a-gallop. (n, a) n.Yks. 2 (b) n.Cy. Yah, ye mun hit 
it hard an' fast as weel, ta mack a wage (B.K.). Chs. GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (M.) (c) n.Yks. 2 It is so, hard and fast, (d) 
n.Cy. Ah was hard an fast asleep (B.K.). w.Yks. (JE.B.) (la) 
Nht>. ' Hard and heather-bred ' ran the ancient North-Tyne slogan ; 
'hard and heather-bred yet yet yet,' PEASE Tales (1899) 5; 
The slogan is actually 'Hard a d' (in allusion to constant 
training in the saddle) 'and heather-bred, yit, yit, yit ! ' (R.O.H.) 
(13, a) w.Yks. Ah catched t'train, but it wor hard and sharp (J.T.) ; 
w.Yks. 1 Hesto mesur, naa matters, it's nobbud hard and sharp. 
n.Lin. 1 I did catch th' traain, bud it was hard an' sharp, she was 
movin' when I got in. s.Cy. HOLLOW AY. w.Som.iEes, mum, we 
was there, but 'twas hard and sharp ; the train was jis pon comin' 
eens we stapt. (b) Ayr. Ne'er grudge an' carp Tho' fortune use 
you hard an' sharp, BURNS Ep. J. Lapraik (Apr. 21, 1785) St. 8. 
w.Yks. 1 Not often used in this sense, (c) w.Yks. 5 A shop-keeper 
who gives standing weight and not a draw, manages matters 
'hard an' sharp.' A policeman who lays his hand upon the 
shoulder of a man stepping into a railway carriage, as the train is 
beginning to move, is ' hard an' sharp upon his customer,' or, the 
capture is a 'hard an' sharp' one, done to a nicety, (d) Wm. 
He sez ther's a steean o' taties e that pooak, but they'll be hard 
an' sharp seea many (B.K.). n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 There was hard 
an' sharp of a bushel of them, MS. add. (T.H.) (14) Glo. Noa, 
thay 'oodn't 'gree to't, not they. 'Ye be dalled hard in the 
mouth,' says Willum, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn (1890) iv. (15) 
n.Yks. (T.S.) ( 1 6) Cum. 1 (17) Wmh. Did you get it hard to pay 
yourrint? (S.A.B.) (i8).n.Yks. 2 Aperson issaidtobeathardcanny, 
who has to struggle ' to make ends meet.' (19) s.Dur. He's in hard- 
earnest (J.E.D.). (20) Ir. An' would stand his treat as well as 
another ; but now see what he is ! . . It was ... no aisy matther 
to get him into a trate ; ... he had always the hard drop in him, 
CARLETON Fardorougha (1848) Introd. n. 
3. adj. Hardy, enduring ; not sensitive to pain ; daring, 
bold, resolute. 

Cum. 1 He's as hard as a fell teadd ; Cum. 4 n.Yks. 1 He's bodden 
a vast ; he wur a desput hard man iv's yowth. ' Thae's hard 
lahtle chaps ; they heed it na mair an nowght ' ; of some young 
boys who had had several teeth out without a cry or a wry face. 
e.Yks. As hahd as a grund tooad, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 19. 
w.Yks. (C.C.R.) ; ' It al mack uz hard, this will,' answered Polly, 
TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. (1852) 43. s.Chs. 1 Aa-r yung 




Ben)z uz aa-rd Oz nee-lz; yfl mi run u pin in-tCi im fin ey wii)n-fl 
shuwt [Ahr young Ben's as hard as neels ; y6 may run a pin into 
him an hey wunna showt], nw.Der. 1 

Hence Hardness, sb. strength, applied to the voice. 

n.Lin. 1 'I sljpoted wi' all my hardness, that is, I called as load 
as I could. 

4. Big, strong, robust, well-grown ; growing, full-grown. 
s.Cy. (HALL.) I.W. 1 ' He's a gurt hard bwoy,' he's a strong 

robust lad ; I.W. 2 Dor. The youngest son hizzelf a hard bwoy o" 
nine, Why John (Coll, L.L.B.) ; A ' hard boy ' means a boy of such 
an age and stoutness as to be able to do almost or quite a man's 
work, a boy from 16 to 19 years of age (O.P.C.) ; BARNES Gl. 
(1863). Som. Hard people, adults, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. 
(1825) ; Full grown, as hard stock or sheep. Hardboy, a boy of 
about 13 years old, W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; (W.F.R.) w.Som. 1 The 
word does not mean full-grown it rather means growing. A 
' hard boy ' is a most common description of a strong lad, fit to 
work. So we hear of a ' hard colt,' ' hard slips ' (young pigs of 
either sex), a ' hard maid' this means a strong, growing lass. 

Hence Hardish, adj. strong, robust, well-grown. 

Wil. When I wur up a ardish bwoy, Rhymes, 5th S. 136; 
(G.E.D.) Dor. 1 When I'wer up a hardish lad, 254. Som. When 
he was up a hardish lad, and without thought, RAYMOND Love and 
Quiet Life ^1894) 207 ; Joseph Pierce ! whom he had known from 
the first who was up a hardish lad when he was a child, ib. Men 
o Mendip (1898) iii. 

5. Close-fisted, grasping, penurious, miserly ; covetous. 
Per. We a' ken ye for a hard thrifty body at winna spend yer 

ain, gin ye can finger ither folks, CLELAND Inchbracken (1883) 60, 
ed. 1887. Ayr. As he grew up he was counted a hard man, 
SERVICE Notandums (1890) 9. Lnk. I'm surely no so desperate 
hard as a' that, ROY Generalship (ed. 1895) 120. Ir. I was never 
much acquainted with the Donovans. I'm tould they're a hard 
pack, that loves the money, CARLETON Fardorougha (1848) i. 
N.I. 1 n.Yks. 4 He's a hard un ti bargain wi'. w.Yks. THOKESBY 
Lett. (1703) ; w.Yks. 4 

6. Of spirits: strong, undiluted, raw. 

Abd. Ye're maybe jist as weel nae to meddle wi' the hard stuff 
till your beard's a bit langer, GREIG Logic o' Buchan (1899) 10. 
Ir. You must put a grain o' shugar an' a dhrop o' bilin' wather to 
it. It may do very well hard for the servants, CARLETON Far- 
dorougha (1848) i. N.I. 1 [Aus. To those who are used to it cool 
bitter beer goes well in any kind of weather. Anything is better 
than the confounded hard stuff! BOLDREWOOD Colon. Reformer 
^1890) I. viii.] 

Hence Hard, sb. whisky, esp. in phr. the hard. 

Inv. (H.E.F.) Lnk. Ne'er a sup o' saft or hard to drink But 
ginger, lemonade, an' sic-like trash, COGHILL Poems (1890) 129. 

7. Of ale or beer : sour, acid, sharp. 

Sc. (A.W.) Lakel. 2 Thisyal'sashardasawhinstun. Cum. 1 Wm. 
T'leetnin' turned t'yal hard (B.K.I. n.Yks. 1 . w.Yks. 1 , Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 , 
Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. ' This aale o' yours is uncommon hard. s.Lin. 
The aale's gone that hard the men saa' they weant drink eny moore 
on it (.T.H.RA Nhp. 1 The beer is hard. War. 3 , Hnt (T.P.F.) 
w.Som. 1 Good hard cider's best to work by. 

8. Half-drunk. Yks. (HALL.), w.Yks 4 

9. A term used in fitting in joinery, masonry, &c. ; see 

Cal. 1 Having certain inequalities of surface which prevent close 
contactat parts. At such places the surfaces are said to be hard, i. e. 
something must be pared off to make a perfect fit. Abd. When 
two pieces of wood, &c. that are to be fitted together, are close at 
one place and not at another, they are said to be hard where they 
thus come into close contact (JAM.). 

Hence Hard, sb. the place where two pieces of wood 
join too closely together. Abd. (ib.) 

10. Convex as opposed to concave. 

w.Som. 1 In planing a true surface, any convex part is said to be 
hard ; if concave, 'slack.' nw.Dev. 1 Used in mow-making in the 
sense of convex. ' I zim the moo's purty hard jis' yur,' i. e. certain 
sheaves project at this point. 

11. adv. Of the wind : fiercely, strongly. 

Sc. (A.W.) Lakel. 2 When t'wind blows hard frae Stowgill eyast. 
Cum. 4 , Yks. (J.W.) 

12. Tightly, firmly, securely. 

Sh.I. He put on his waescot, an' tied da tow o' his left rivlin a 
corn harder, Sti. News (Aug. 7, 1897). e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flt-Sp. 
(1889) 66. 

13. Quickly, very fast. 

N.I. 1 Now run hard. e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 66 

w.Yks. (J.W.) n.Lin. 1 Th' gress'll graw hard enif noo this sup o' 
raain's cum'd. ne.Wor. He allus goes as "ard as 'e can tear 
(J.W.P.). Cor. Then I up on my horse and galloped away as hard 
as I could, BARING-GOULD Vicar (1876) vi. 

14. Loudly, out loud ; aloud. 

Dev. A farmer, on being asked to read through a document 
before signing it, said to me, ' Must I read it hard ? ' Reports 
Provinc. (1897) ' Speak harder for I can't hear you, ib. (1884) 20; 
' Whot's Bet blazing about now, then ? ' ' Aw, I dawn't know ; 
'tez the likes ov she tfi holly za 'ard's "er can,' HEWETT Peas. Sp. 
(1892) 53 ; Dev. 1 Than telling to hiszell, and bamby out hard, 2. 
nw.Dev.' Spaik harder ; I can't yur ee. 

15. Much. 

n.Yks. 4 It ficked that hard, whahl Ah c'u'dn't ho'd it. w.Yks. 
(J.W.) Chs. 3 Oo fretted very hard. 

16. Obs. Too. 

Hrf. ' Hard high,' too high. ' Hard low," too low, RAY (1691) 
MS. add. (J.C.) 101. 

17. sb. Fig. Difficulty, hardship, esp. in phr. to come 
through the hard, to encounter difficulties, experience 
adverse fortune. 

Sc. (JAM.) Abd. A plain North-country bard, Who fain would 
cripple thro' the hard, SHIRREFS Sale Calal. (1795) 3. Lnk. The 
bits o' bairns run a great risk o' coming through the hard, ROY 
Generalship (ed. 1895) 73. 

Hence Hardship, sb. a difficulty, strait. 

Sh.I. He was tellin me what a hardship he was in fir meal dis 
year, afore he got it aff da eart, STEWART Tales (1892) 17. 

18. pi. That part of boiled food which sticks to the pot ; 
thin, hard cakes that come off the sides of a pot in which 
porridge, &c. has been prepared. Also in form hardens. 
Lnk. (JAM.) 

19. pi. The calx of coal from a forge ; very hard iron 
cinders. e.An. 1 , Suf. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.) 

20. A firm foreshore or gravelly landing-place in a 
harbour or creek ; a wharf, landing-place. 

Nhb. The ' Brotherly Love ' wis lyin on the hard at Alum House 
Ham (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 Ess. Under the cliff was a good beach, 
termed a ' hard,' BARING-GOULD Mehalah 1.1885: 3. Hmp. 1 Cor. 
Tarring of boats on the hard, PEARCE Inconsequent Lives, 22. [At 
lour minutes to three the Cambridge crew left the Leander hard, 
Standard (Mar. 28, 1887) 3.] 

21. A hard patch of land in a marsh ; land bordering the 
turf-moor marshes. Also used attrib. 

Nhp. 2 Applied in the fenny districts to those patches of land 
which, from superior elevation, or other causes, remain hard and 
dry during the winter season. Cmb. Leaving the hurds of Denny 
Abbey upon the east, Reports Agric. (1793-1813) 129. Nrf. That 
warn't no swamp mash, but a hard mash, EMERSON Son of Fens 
1,1892) 197 ; The swan dearly loves a 'hard' covered with weed, 
ib. Birds (ed. 1895) 215; (P.H.E.) [It consists of a flat, inter- 
spersed with small elevations and hills, which, to distinguish from 
the flat are called hard lands, STEPHENS Fa>mBk.(cd. 1849) 1.490.] 

22. The stoned part of a road as distinguished from the 

Lin. The middle of a road is ... called ' the hard ' to distinguish 
it from the sides, which are not stoned. There was a trial at 
Lincoln assizes concerning certain encroachments . . . made on a 
highway. . . One chief matter in dispute was whether land had 
been taken in within fifteen feet of the middle of the ' hard.' The 
' hard ' is sometimes used to distinguish a raised footpath from the 
rest of the highway. This however is uncommon, N. (f Q. (1881) 
6th S. iv. 38. n.Lin. 1 

23. A small marble. Som. (HALL.) 

24. pi. Torches made of rags dipped in tar. 

Sc. When rags dipped in tar are employed [as torches] they are 
called Hards, probably from the French, SCOTT Guy M. (1815) 
xxvi, note. 

HARD, see Earth, sb. 1 , Herd, sb. 

HARDAH, sb. Cor. 12 Elvan rock. 

HARDEN, sb. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Not. Lin. 
Lei. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Also in forms hardest Sh.I. ; 
hardin Sc. QAM.) Abd. Lakel. 2 n.Yks. w.Yks. 2 ; harding 
n.Yks. 14 ne. Yks. 1 m. Yks. 1 w.Yks. 8 ; hardowSh.L; haren 
Nhb. 1 ; harn Sc. QAM.) Cai. 1 N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 n.Yks. 124 m.Yks. 1 ; 
harran e.Fif. ; barren N.Cy/ ; hearn Nhb. 1 ; herden 
se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 ; burden Lei. 1 War. 28 Wor. Shr. 1 Hrf. 2 
|h)a'rdon, harn, h)srdin.] 1. Very coarse cloth made 


[6 5 ] 


from the refuse or 'hards ' of flax and hemp ; sack-cloth. 
Also used attrib. and Jig. See Hards. 

Sh.I. Before the introduction of cotton goods, linen and hardow 
were the only bed and body material in the house. Hardow cloth 
was made from lint, very imperfectly dressed, a great portion of 
the rind still adhering to the fibre, Sft. News (Aug. 7, 1897). ne.Sc. 
With regard to the weather, the saw is : 'A harn Monanday 
macks a linen week,' GREGOR Flk-Lore (1881) 149. Cai. 1 Bnff. 
Gallowses, Hams, Beet Hose . . . were ingeniously arranged, 
GORDON Chron. Keith (1880) 74. Abd. His hardin sark as white 's 
the driven snaw, Guidman Inglismaill (1873) 3 2 - Frf - His bare 
elbows were seen through his frockie o' harn, WATT Poet. Sketches 
(1880) 54. Per. Seyin' sowens and spinnin' harn, SPENCE Poems 
(1898) 142. e.Per. As coorse as Coupar harn (W.A.C. j. Fif. 
Item For harden to be jumps to them, 3 los. od., ANDREWS 
Bygone Cli. Life (1899) 189. Dmb. Weel fed wi' brose and sarked 
wi' harn, SALMON Gowodean (1868) 12. Ayr. Her cutty sark o' 
Paisley harn, BURNS Tarn o' Shanter (1790) 1. 171. Lnk. A good 
stock of harn and linen cloth, HAMILTON Poems (1865) 201. Edb. 
Ye ne'er wad gat mair leave to skip On skin or harn, LIDDLE 
Poems (1821) 51. Slk. A strong harn shirt, clean as a lily, CHR. 
NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) II. 337. n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 
Nhb. BRAND Pop. Antiq. (ed. 1870) I. 208 ; Nhb. 1 Sometimes applied 
to a coarse thread. Dur. 1 Lakel. 1 Very rough and coarse linen 
used in the last century for jackets and overcoats ; Lakel. 2 n.Yks. 
A bit 9 kuors harden maksgiudruftuils (W.H.) ; n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 
'A wide-setten harn appron,' a rough apron of open texture; 
n.Yks. 4 ne.Yks. 1 Wheer's my au'd hard'n appron ? e.Yks. 1 , 
m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Hawkin harden o'ther awn manifacter, LUCAS 
Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 217 ; A rough harden apron is much 
used by cottage housewives to cover up the dress, while working 
(J.T.) ; w.Yks. 12 ; w.Yks. 5 A finer kind of canvass, of which 
towels, aprons for house-work, and ' brats,' too, sometimes, are 
made, &c. s.Not. (J.P.K.) Lin. THOMPSON Hist. Boston (1856) 
709 ; Lin. 1 , sw.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 War. 2 Flower [flour] of England, fruit 
of Spain, Met together in a storm of rain, A hempen shirt, and a 
hurden cravat, If you're a wise man, tell me that, Old Riddle. 
Ans. A plum-pudding; War. 3 Wor. An undergarment, called in the 
country language a ' hurden,' or 'hoggen' shirt, made of the coarsest 
of the hemp, Wil. Arch. Mag. XXVI. 7. ne.Wor. ( 1 
Shr. 1 The waiver's maden a nice piece o' 'uckaback of the 'erden 
yorn it'll do mighty well for the men's tablecloths. Hrf. 2 A hurden 
mother isbetterthanagolden father [aroughhard-workingmother]. 
Hence Harn'd, adj. made of strong coarse linen. 
Rnf. Hetook hisweelharn'd weddin'sark,BARRPo,s(i86i)5o. 
2. Comp. (i) Harden- or Harn-brat, a long pinafore or 
outer garment made of ' harden ' or coarse hempen cloth ; 
(2) -cloth, a coarse hempen cloth used in wrapping bales, 
& c - ! (3) -gown, a sackcloth or coarse linen garment worn 
as a penitent's gown; see below; (4) -jacket, (a) a loose 
and light jacket worn over the shirt when stripped for 
work ; (b) a top shirt made of coarse linen ; (5) -kytle, a 
loose jacket worn by girls when employed in tending 
cattle or in outdoor work ; (6) -pock or -poke, a bag or 
sack made of coarse cloth ; (7) -sark, (a) a coarse linen 
or hempen shirt ; (b) a kind of overall made of coarse 
linen ; (8) -wab, a web of coarse cloth. 

(i) Lakel. 2 m.Yks. 1 A harding brat, hempen pinafore ; or a 
long outer garment of the kind, with or without sleeves, and only 
seen in town districts. (2) Cum. The Cumberland clergyman in 
former times received as part of his remuneration a ' sark of 
harden cloth,' SULLIVAN Cum.andWm. (1857) 87; Cum. 4 Not much 
used now. Wm. Shirts of this cloth were apt to make too free 
with the skin, from their natural inflexibility. To render them a 
little more tractable and kindly, they were taken to some neighbour- 
ing brook, where there was a battling stone : . . being steeped in 
the water, were laid in folds upon the stone, and beat with a 
battling wood, Lonsdale Mag. (1822) III. 291. (3) Sc. An offender, 
judged to perform a public penance on this [repentance] stool, 
was first clothed in an appropriate habit, the Scottish representa- 
tive of the traditional white sheet, which consisted of a cloak of 
coarse linen, known as the ' harden goun,' the ' harn goun,' or 
the 'sack goun,' ANDREWS Bygone Ch. Life (1899) in; The 
' sacken sark' had a variety of names, such as the ' harden gown,' 
the ' sack gown,' the ' harn gown,' and ' the linen.' Each parish 
was supposed to have one of these habits, GRAHAM Writings 
(1883). (4, 5) Cum. 14 (6) Per. (W.A.C.) e.Fif. Drawin' frae 
his oxter pouch a dirty harran-poke, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) iv. 
Lin. The mice charmed the harden poke and let out the chisels, 
MILLER & SKERTCHLY Fenland (1878) iv. (7, a) Sc. The hard 

harn sark plaid clash between his legs like a wet dish clout, 
GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 37 ; The whole front of his pure 
white harn sark, OCHILTREE Redburn (1895) ii. Sh.I. Perhaps 
very few people living in this Diamond Jubilee Year, have ever 
seen a hardest sark, Sh. News (Aug. 7, 1897). Or.I. The limpet 
bro' began to rin Atween his harn sark an' his skin, Paety Toral 
(1880) 1. 100, in ELLIS /Voir. (1889) V. 800. Kcd. Wi' naething 
save his harn sark Upon his dreepin' back, GRANT Lays (1884) 4. 
(A) Dur. 1 , Lakel. 1 Cum. Originally the Westcote priest had been 
paid by ' clog-shoon, harden-sark,whittle-gait,and guse-gait,' LINTON 
Lizzie Lorton (1867) xiv. (8) w.Sc. Every sparge that gaed frae 
my fit was like a harn-wab, CARRICK Laird of Logan (1835) 162. 
3. The tarred tow or oakum used for caulking the seams 
of ships. Nhb. 1 

HARDEN, v. and adj. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. 
Lan. Stf. Lin. War. Shr. Hrf. Oxf. Brks. Also in forms 
hairnCum. 14 ; harn N.I. 1 Uls. Cum. 14 ; haurn Sc. QAM.); 
hurden War. 24 s.War. 1 Oxf. Brks. 1. v. To be obdurate, 
incorrigible. Used in pass. 

m.Yks. 1 A motherwill exclaim, on observing a toddling child dip- 
ping its fingers in a cream-bowl,' He's hardened to the haft.' s.Stf. 
Yo' ca' talk him o'er, he's tu hardened, PINNOCK Blk. Cy.Ann. ( 1895) . 

Hence Hardened,///, adj. used as a term of reproach. 

m.Yks. 1 Very common in opprobrium. ' Thou harden'd thief." 
w.Yks. (J.W.), Oxf. (G.O.) 

2. To encourage, incite, urge on. Gen. with on or up. 
Also used reflex. 

n.Yks.Thoo harden'd om on (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 1 ' He hardened him 
on tiv it '; of a person reluctant or afraid to act, but encouraged 
by another to the venture. ' Poor lahtle chap ! he ommost brak' 
out when tahm cam' te gan i' airnest ; but he hardened hissel' 
oop an niver grat nae mair an nowght ; n.Yks. 2 ; n.Yks. 4 Ah 
deean't leyke t'job, bud Ah s'all a'e ti harden mysel til 't. ne.Yks. 1 
He hardened hissen up at last. He's awlus hardenin 'em on intiv 
a mischief. e.Yks. When lads was fightin, Tom harden'd em on 
all he could, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 66. w.Yks. They're ready 
enough abaht hard'nin 'em on, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865; ; w.Yks. 2 
Lan. Hardenin me on to make a bigger foo of misel, CLEGG 
Sketches (1895) 472. sw.Lin. 1 They harden one another on. 
George kep' hardening on him on to come. 

3. To roast on the embers ; to toast bread on a griddle. 
Sc. Oh to be haurning bread at my aunt's hearthstane, Blackw. 

Mag. ^May 1820, 165 (JAM.). Bwk. Knuckled Cakes . . . haurned, 
or havered [toasted] on the decayed embers of the fire, HENDER- 
SON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 66. Slk. She . . . has a gift at haurning 
bread, HOGG Tales (1838) 282, ed. 1866. Dmf. Knuckled cakes, 
made of meal, warm from the mill, haurned on the decayed embers 
of the fire, and smeared with honey, CROMEK Remains (1810) 
337; A common term in Nithsdale (JAM/,. N.I. 1 Uls. Hardening 
bread, cooking it against the mudyarn before the fire, or on a 
griddle, Uls. Jrn. Arch. (1853-1862) V. 99. 

4. To dry or air clothes, &c., by holding them to the fire, 
or by hanging them out in the open air. 

Cum. 14 , ne.Lan. 1 Shr. 1 Mind as yo' 'ard'n them things afore 
yo' putten 'em away; Shr. 2 Shr., Hrf. BOUND Provinc. (1876). 
Oxf. ' Harden ' is com. used on days which are not good for dry- 
ing. ' I think I will hang the clothes out : if it don't dry it will harden 
them.' Clothes are not dry when hardened : just the worst of the 
wet taken out of them. The drying is completed by hanging them 
in front of a fire (G.O.) ; Oxf. 1 'Ang the things out, Nancy; if it 
dun't wet um '11 'arden, MS. add. 

5. Of the weather : to clear up and become settled after 
rain. Gen. with out or up. 

Cai. 1 Bnff. 1 We've hid eneuch o' rain noo. A howp it'll 
harden up. n.Yks. I think it will harden out innoo (I.W.) ; 
n.Yks. 1 ' It's to be hoped 't will harden out ' ; said when a rainy 
fit in harvest-time appeared to be likely to giveway to fair weather; 
n.Yks. 2 'The day will harden out,' the rain will keep off. ' We 
want t'weather te harden up a bit,' to become dry ; n.Yks. 4 It's 
neea ewse to'ning t'hay, whahl it hardens up a bit. ne.Yks. 1 It'll 
a'e ti harden oot afoor wa git onny matters o' sun. w.Yks. 
(C.C.R.), w.Yks. 3 

Hence Hardening of the drouth, phr. a continuance or 
settlement of dry weather. 

Cld. This term is used by country people, when, during a time 
of drouth, a dull threatening day has become clear and settled : 
It was jist a hardenin' o' the drouth ' (JAM.). 

6. Of prices : to advance, grow dear, heighten. 
Sc.(A.W.) n.Cy. BAILEY (1721); GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy. 2 

The market hardens,' things grow dear. Nhb. 1 w.Yks. 1 T'corn 





rayther hardens; w.Yks. 8 'Wheat's hard'ning agean ah reckon,' 
getting up again I suppose. 

7. arf/.CbwA.(i)Harden-face,a bold, brazen-faced person; 
(2) -faced, (a) impertinent, brazen-faced; hard-hearted; 
(b) oftheweather: threatening,lowering,gloomy,unsettled. 

(i) m.Yks. 1 ,2, a) n.Yks. 2 'A harden-faced fellow,' a delin- 
quent without showing signs of repentance. m.Yks. 1 Thou 
harden'-faced brute ! thou's no pity in thee ! Lin. STREATFEILD 
Liu. and Danes (1884) 336. n.Lin.* A harden-faaced huzzy. 
s.Lln. Yah'd better mind, or I'll gi'e you a taaste o' my strap, yah 
young harden-faSced rascal. He's a harden-faaced skin-flint 
(T.H.R.). (A) n.Yks.1 ; n.Yks. 2 The sky looks a harden-faced 
look ; n.Yks. 4 , m.Yks. 1 

8. Of the weather : windy, drying ; cold, bleak. 

War. Leamington Courier (Mar. 13, 1897) ; War. 24 s.War. 1 It's 
hurden weather now. Oxf. It is such hurden weather (M.A.R.). 
Brks. (W.H.Y.) 

HARDENING, vbl. sb. Chs. 1 Same as Basoning (q.v.). 

HARDENS, sb. pi. Bdf. Small pieces of sward at the 
ends of ploughed land, on which the horses turn. 

BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809) 135. 

HARDESS, sb. Irel. The hard-twisted and gummed 
silk thread usedfornetting. Ant. GROSE ( 1790) MS. add. (C.) 

HARDEST, see Harden, sb. 

HARDFULLY, adv. Cum. Industriously. 

Cum. 1 He gits his leevin reel hardfully ; Cum. 4 

HARD-HEAD(S, sb. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and 
Eng. 1. A boys' game ; see below. Cf. hardy-nut. 

w.Yks. Two lads have each a chestnut, or a cork, strung on a 
string, and take alternate turns at striking at each other's chestnut 
with a view to breaking it (H.L.). 

2. A hard felt hat. 

Der. The miller's Sunday hard-head was on its proper hook, 
GUSHING Voe (1888) II. iii. 

3. A hard cinder found in furnaces. Also called crozzil 
(q.v.). w.Yks. 8 4. The refuse of tin after smelting. Cor. 12 

5. A small coin of mixed metal. 

Sc. An ancient Scotch coin value three pennies Scotch or one 
farthing Engl. (De Cardonnel's Numism. Scotiae), GROSE (1790)^/5. 
add. (C.) Ayr. Bonnet Pieces, Testoons, Hard Heads or Non 
Sunts, and Bawbees, SERVICE Notandums (1890) 68. 

6. The grey gurnard, Trig/a gurnardus. 

Fif. NEILL Fishes (1810) 14 i JAM.). [ SATCHELL (1879).] 

7. A kind of sea-scorpion, prob. the fatherlasher, Coitus 

Fif. Scorpius major noslras; our fishers called it Hard-head, 

SlBBALD Hist. Fif. (1803) 128 (JAM.). 

8. The lake-trout, Salmo lacnstris. 

Cum. We conjecture that this is the fish called in the Lakes of 
Derwent, Bassenthwaite, &c.,Hard Head, HUTCHINSON Hist. Cum. 
( X 794) ' 46; Cum. 1 ; Cum. 4 A large (out-grown) kind of trout 
found in the Esk, Irt, Mite, Bleng and Calder rivers. It has also 
been caught in Wastwater. 

9. The black knapweed, Centaurea nigra. 

Nhb. 1 Called also 'horse-nobs.' Cum. 4 , w.Yks. (W.M.E.F.), 
w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 , n.Lin. 1 , Wor. (J.R.W.) Shr. 
Why it brings nowt but snizzle grass and hardyeds, Science Gossip 
( 1870) 337 ; Shr. 1 The hard globose heads of Centaurea nigra, black 
Knapweed. s.Ptm. (W.M.M.\ Glo. 1 , Wil. 1 Wil., Dor. Hard- 
heads ... is at Lyneham and Whitchurch given to the Knapweeds, 
Sarum Dioc. Gazette (Jan. 1891) 14, col. 3. Dor. (G.E.D.), Cor. 12 

10. The greater knapweed, Centaurea Scabiosa. Glo. 1 

11. The plantain, Plantago major and P. lanceolata. 
w.Yks. (W.M.E.F.) ne-Lan. 1 The seed-heads of plantain. 

Wor. (J.R.W.) Wil. Spear-plantain ... the Hawkchurch name 
of the plant [is] Hard-heads, Sarum Dioc. Gazette (Jan. 1801) 14, 
col. a. Dor. (G.E.D.), Dev. 4 , Cor. 12 

12. The sneeze-wort, Achillea Ptarmica. Ayr. Agric. 
Surv. 675 (JAM.). 

13. The scabious, Scabiosa Succisa. Lan.* 14. The corn- 
cockle, Lychnis Githago. Nhb. (B. & H.) 15. The cow- 
parsnip, Heracleum Sphondylium. Glo. 1 

16. A large, sour apple. 

Lakel. 2 Sowen gurt apples, an' as hard as granite. 
HARDISHE, sb. Obs. Wxf. 1 A thing. 
O hardlshe o' anoor [One thing or another]. 
Harvest-shrew, Harl. 

HARDLEYS, adv. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Also written 
hardlies Sc. QAM. Suppl.) Nhb. 1 ; bardlys Nhb. m.Yks. 1 ; 
and in forms hadleys n.Cy. (HALL.) ; hairly, barleys 
Cum. 14 Hardly, scarcely. Cf. hardlings. 

Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) n.Cy. (HALL.), N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Thoo's hardlys 
sae mazed, eftherarl, or thoo wouldn't could ha'thowt on,S. Tyne- 
dale Stud. (1896) Robbie Armstrong; Nhb. 1 He'd hardlies getten 
there when it happened. Ye's hardlies catch the train, aa doot. 
Cum. He hardleys can grease his awn clogs, ANDERSON Ballads 
(1805) 92; Cum. 1 ; Cum. 4 Tekin to keepin' another man's bairn, 
when he can arlies keep hissel, Rosenthal, 15. m.Yks. 1 I was that 
tired I could hardlys step a foot. 

HARDLINGS, adv. n.Cy. Dur. Lakel. Cum. Yks. Stf. 
Not. Lin. Also in forms ardlins Yks. ; haadlinse.Yks. 1 ; 
hadlins n.Cy. (HALL.); hardlins Dur. 1 Lakel. 2 n.Yks. 2 
e.Yks. w.Yks. 1 Stf. Not. n.Lin. [h)a-rd-, h)a'dlinz.] 
Hardly, scarcely. 

n.Cy. (HALL/, Dur. 1 , Lakel. 2 Cum. Ah'm hardlings worth 
savin'; Ah ken that, CLARE Rise of River (1897) 199; My hand 
can hardlins find it, GILPIN Pop. Poetry (1875) 55. n.Yks. 
Noo, my lad, thoo asn't ardlins iver seen ony partridges this 
mornin ommost? FRANK Fishing (1894) 30; Ah hardlins knew 
how te git yam efter't, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 36; 
n.Yks. 124 , ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. His ayms began ti wahk, whahl he 
cud hardlins bahd, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. V i889) 36; e.Yks. 1 Ah 
can haadlins crammle [crawl] alang. w.Yks. Aw can hardlins 
beleeve mi awn een, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1874) Pref. ; Ha doant 
naw ha foaks cud help it ardlins, ROGERS Nan Bunt (1839) a 
w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 Av hardlings gotten 't done yet. Its hardlings 
the thing ; hamsumivver lehr it goa ! Stf. I can hardlins move 
aboutattimes, FLETCHER l^apcntake (1895)23; Common near New- 

7~<i/(i886) 77; n.Lin. 1 Ther's hardlin'stime to catch th'packitnoo. 

HARDLY, adj. Yks. Lan. Hardy, robust, strong; hard. 

w.Yks. She was a very hardly woman, she used to come and 
scold at my mother when she was laid up with her headache and 
say, ' What, gurning [crying, shirking] again ' (E.L.) ; (C.C.R.) 
Lan. Being of a fresh complexion and not very hardly, 'twas much 
to be questioned whether the cittie aire would agree with her, 
Life A. Martindale (1685) 6, ed. 1845. 

HARDOW, see Harden, sb. 

HARDS, Sc.Yks.Chs. Midi. Stf. Der. Not. Lin. Lei. 
War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Rdn. e.An. AlsoinformsherdesShr. 1 ; 
herds nw.Der. 1 War. 2 w.Wor. 1 se.Wor. 1 Hrf. 2 ; huerds 
Chs. 1 ; hurds Yks. Stf. (K.) Lei. 1 War. 23 s.Wor. Shr. 1 Rdn. 1 
Nrf. [hardz, h)adz,adz.] The coarse refuse of flax or hemp, 
tow ; the worked fibre of flax or hemp. Rarely in sniff. 

Sc. (jAM.^Cai. 1 Kcd. She held the herd on the beam, And gar 'd 

the treddles ply, JAMIE Muse ,18441 135. Yks. (K.) w.Yks. Rags 

from closely woven cloth, that is of the kind gen. worn by men 

M.F.); w.Yks. 24 Chs.iNovvcalledyerds. Midi., Stf. (K.) nw.Der. 1 , 

"Not. 2 , n.Lin.', Lei. 1 , War. 2 ", w.Wor. 1 , s.Wor. (H.K.), se.Wor. 1 

Shr.Thesmall pieces of coarse matted linen used to stuff mattresses, 

the refuse of flax or hemp, the unravelling of twine, BOUND Provinc. 

^1876; ; Shr. 1 Obsol. Hrf. 2 , Rdn. 1 , e.An. 1 Nrf. GROSE (1790). 

[Hyrdys or herdys of flax or hempe, stuppa, Prompt. ; 
A sukkenye That not of hempene herdes was, CHAUCER 
R. Rose, 1233. OE. heordan (Corpus Gl.).} 

HARDY, adj. and sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. 
Stf. 1. adj. In comb, (i) Hardy-earnest, downright 
earnest ; (2) -nut, a boys' game ; see below. 

(I) s.Dur. He's in hardy-earnest (J.E.D.). (2) Nhb. 1 A boyish 
game played with nuts pierced with a hole for a string. Each 
alternately aims a blow at his opponent's nut so as to break it. 

2. Strong,robust,ofastrongconstitution; brave, enduring. 
Abd. Mary was never jist fat you wud ca' unco hardy, ALEX- 
ANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 34. Frf. 'Ay, she's hardy,' agreed the 
town, ' but it's better, maybe, for hersel',' BARRIE Tommy (1896) 
368. w.Yks. Applied to one who is resolute and intrepid, or 
inured to fatigue (C.C.R.). 

Hence Hardiness, sb. bravery, endurance. 
Fif. Eschew the feats and wark divine O' hardiness and weir, 
TENNANT Papistry (1837) 172. 

3. Frosty. Sc. (AW.) N.I. 1 It's a hardy mornin'. 

4. sb. pi. Broken stones, used as road metal. 
N.I. 1 ' Nappin' hardies. 1 breaking stones. 

5. A clay marble having a bright surface. Cum. 4 




6. A tool used in making nails by hand. 

s.Stf. Somebry had stole my hardy soo I couldner work, PIN- 
NOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). 

7. A fixed, shouldered chisel, placed upright in a square 
hole in a blacksmith's anvil, upon which he cuts hot iron. 

Nhb. 1 Dur. GIBSON Up-Weardale Gl. (1870). w Yks. 2 
HARDY-MOUSE, sb. Nhp. 1 The shrew-mouse, Mus 
araneus. See Harvest-shrew. 

HARE, sb. 1 Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. Also 
in form ar- Shr. 1 1. In comb, (i) Hare-bell, (a) the wild 
hyacinth, Scilla nutans; (b) the bluebell, Campanula 
rotundifolia ; (2) -bouk, the body of a hare ; (3) -'s-foot, 
the cotton-grass, Eriophorum vaginatum ; (4) -'s-foot 
clover, the trefoil, Trifolium arvense ; (5) -'s-foot fern, the 
Killarneyfern, Trichomanesradicans; (6) -gate, an opening 
in a hedge, sufficient for the passage of hares ; (7) -hole, a 
pitfall dugin the run of a hare; (8) -'s-meat, the wood-sorrel, 
OxalisAcetosella; (g)-nut,theearth-nut,BuniumjfIexuosum ; 
(10) -parsley, the cow- parsley, A nthriscus sylveslris ; (n) 
pied, resembling the colour of a hare; (12) -scaled, having 
a-cleft or hare-lip ; (13) -scart, (14) -sha, (15) -shard, (16) 
-shaw, (17) -shed, (18) -shie, (19) -shore, a hare-lip; (20) 
shorn or-shawn, (21) -shotten, see ( 12) ; (22) -skart. see 
(!9) ! (23) -smoot, see (6) ; (24) -snickle, a trap for hares. 

(i, a) Ldd. (B. & H.), Dev." (l>) Abd. The daisy white and 
harebells blue, CADENHEAD Bon Accord (1853) in. Per. The 
modest primrose set in green, And bonnie harebell blue, EDWARDS 
Stmthcarn Lyrics (1889) 50. Rnf. The bonnie harebell, that's fan'd 
by the breeze, ALLAN Poems (1836) 78. Bwk. The hinmaist hare- 
bell rings a knell For faded comrades, ance sae blue, CHISHOLM 
Poems (1879) 35. Gall. Harebells blooming bonnie, O, NICHOLSON 
Poet. Wks. (1814) 182, cd. 1897. ne.Yks., w.Chs. (B. & H.) Lan. 
N. if Q. (1869) 4th S. iii. 469. (a) s.Sc. The poor man cou'd have 
ment a meal Wi' a hare-bouk or sa'mon tail, T. SCOTT Poems 
('793) 329- (3) w.Yks. LEES Flora (1888) 457. (4) w.Som.l (5) 
Ker. (6) Lan. The hedge on each side was full of holes and ' hare- 
gates,' and tunnels, and runs, WAUGH Chim. Comer (1874 5, 
ed. 1879; Lan. 1 ' He knows both th' hare an' th' hare-gate,' i.e. 
he knows both the hare, and the way the hare runs a proverbial 
saying commonly applied to a person who is supposed to be 
thoroughly acquainted with any particular matter. (7) Ir. There 
was Mrs. Rooney up to her arm-pits in a hare-hole, Paddiana 
(ed. 1848) I. 86. (8) Cor. 12 (9) Wxf. 1 Zim dellen harnothes 
w'aar nize [Some digging earth-nuts with their noses], 86. w.Yks. 
He'll use it for diggin" up harenuts, HARTLEY Lunctun, 93 ; 
THORESBY Lett. (1703) ; w.Yks. 2 *, e.Lan. 1 Dor. Hares arc fond of 
its green leaves, w.Gasctte (Feb. 15, 1889) 7, col. i. (10) Som. 
Sprinklen' the hare parsley with dewdrops, LEITH Verbena (1895) 
98. (n) Dev. Hare-pied in colour. Mem. Rev. J. Russell (1883) 
283. (12) w.Yks. 3 (13' N.I. 1 Ant. ' Ballytttena Obs. (1892). (14) 
Nhb. I cursed the deep scheeming o' hare-sha'-lip'd Nan, PROUD- 
LOCK Borderland Muse (1896) 35. (15, 16) Sc. (JAM.) (17) Nhb. 1 
(18) Sc. He tell'd me too that my wee namedochter had gotten a 
harshie lip, WHITEHEAD Daft Davie (1876) 221, ed. 1894. (19) 
se.Wor. 1 (20) e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Oi could na mak aht a word he said, 
for he's hare-shawn. Not. 1 , Lei. 1 , War. 2 , Shr. 1 (21) Shr. If a 
hare crosses the path of a woman with child, she must instantly 
stoop down and tear her shift, or her child will have a hare-lip 
an ' ar-shotten ' lip, as it is called in the Clun Forest neighbour- 
hood, BURNE Flk-Lore (1883) 213; Shr. 1 (22) Rnf. QAM.) (23) 
n.Yks. 2 (24^ w.Yks. Patridge-nets, hare-snickles, burd-caiges, 
pumils, &c., TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Thowts (1845) 39. 

2. Phr. (i) to make a hare of a man, to get the better of, 
overcome in argument, &c. ; (2) not to care whether the dog 
catch the hare or the hare catch the dog, said of a person who 
is utterly thoughtless or reckless of consequences. 

(i) Ir. If you had hard Mat and Frahzcr the other evening at it. 
What a hare Mat made of him '. CARLETON Traits Peas. (ed. 1843) 
I. 272. (2) w.Yks. 1 

HARE, sb. 2 Irel. Der. 1. The last handful of growing 
corn cut at harvest. Also called churn (q.v.). 

N.I. 1 Der. 1 The finishing the cutting of the corn they call getting 
the hare. Obs. 

2. Comp. Hare-supper, a supper given to the servants 
and labourers when the harvest is got in. Der. 12 , nw.Der. 1 

HARE, v. Obs. Oxf. s.Cy. To tease, harass, make 
wild ; to frighten. 

Oxf. You hared me out of my wits (K.). s.Cy. RAY (1691); 
GROSE (1790). [To hare one,perterrefaa'o, COLES (1679).] 

HARE-HUNT, sb. Dev. See below. 

A stag and a hare hunt are the rude means employed by a village 
community for maintaining its standard of morals or expressing its 
disapprobation of petticoat rule. . . The hare-hunt, now extinct, 
was intended to ridicule the man who submitted to a rough woman's 
tongue, BARING-GOULD Red Spider (1887) xxiv; The hunt ends 
with the stag or hare, one or the other, being fagged out, and 
thrown at the door of the house whose inmates' conduct has 
occasioned the stag or hare hunt. . . If the hunt be that of a hare 
the pretence is or was made of knocking it on the head, ib. xxvi. 

HAREY, see Hairy. 

HARFISH, sb. Pern, [a-fif.] The razor-fish, Ensis 
Slhqua. s.Pem. LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 420. 

HARG, v. Hmp. 1 Same as Argue, v. (q.v.) 

HARIE, see Harry, sb. 1 

HARIGALD, sb. Sc. In phr. Head and harigald 
money ; see below. 

They [the colliers and sailers] esteemed the interest taken in 
their freedom to be a mere decree on the part of the proprietors 
to get rid of what they called head and harigald money, payable 
to them when a female of their number, by bearing a child, made 
an addition to the live stock of their master's property, SCOTT Redg. 
(1824) xxi, note E. 

HARIGALDS, sb. pi. Sc. Also in forms haricles (JAM.) 
Ayr. ; harigals Ayr. ; harigells Edb. ; harragles Dmb. ; 
harrigals Gall, [ha'ri-, ha'raglz.] 1. The viscera or 
pluck of an animal. 

Sc. He that never eats flesh thinks harigalds a feast, RAMSAY 
Prov. (1737); The dowg's awa'wi'the head and harrigals, HISLOP 
Anecdote (1874) 168. Dmb. Ye're no rinnin the same risk o' 
getting a swurd in yer kyte or a ball through yer harragles, CROSS 
Disruption (1844) xxxvii. Ayr. The head and harigals of the sheep 
. . . were served up, GALT Entail ( 1823) vii ; Wha likit could gang 
for the rest o' the slot, The lieid, feet, an' haricles, LAING Poems 
(1894) no. Gall. May they burn back and front, ingate and out- 
gate, hide, hair, and harrigals, CROCKETT Standard Bearer ( 1898) 301. 
2. Fig. Locks of hair. 

Sc. Used metaph. and ludicrously ; being applied to the tearing 
of one's hair, a rough handling, &c. (JAM.) Lnk. I think I've 
towzl'd his harigalds a wee, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. ',1725) 87, ed. 
1783. Edb. Madge ance Bauldy sent away With touzlcd harigells, 
Carlop Green (1793) in, ed. 1817. Slk. Scowder their harigalds, 
De'ils wi' a bleery, HOGG Talcs (1838) 17, ed. 1866. 

HARISHER, sb. Nhb. 1 A large quantity; used to 
express number in disarrangement. 

HARK, v. and sb. 1 Sc. Irel. Lakel. Cum. Yks. Stf. Not. 
Lin. Lei. War. Won Shr. Wai. Hrt. Nrf. Ken. Som. Dev. 
Cor. Amcr. Also in forms ack w.Yks. 2 ; ak Hrt. ; heark 
Won [h)ark, ak.] 1. v. To listen, hearken. 

Frf. To his master's council harkit, An' wagged his tail, SMART 
Rhymes( 1834)118. Ayr. Had I to guid advice but harkit, BuRNsK('s(b, 
St. 5. Lakel. 2 Harks-ta at that noo, is that thunner? Cum. Gl. (1851). 
n.Yks. ' Harks theh,' listen, pay attention (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 4 ' Hark ya,' 
hearyou! listen! ne.Yks. 1 'Hark yer,' sometimes repeated, as 'just 
fancy that.' w.Yks. 2 Ack thee, Tom, what's that? Lin. Hark at 
him! . . . young squire ar'n't going to eat any more bacon, 'cause 
it's cruel to kill the pigs, FENN Dick o' the Fens (1888) vii. Hrt. 
Seldom used except in the imperative, CUSSANS Hist. Hrt. ^1879-81) 
III. 320. Som. Speak her will, an' it d' be thy bounden duty 
t'hark t'her, LEITH Verbena (1895) 78. w.Som. 1 I cant never 
abear to hark to jis stuff. Don't you harky to he. Cor. 1 1 wouldn't 
hark to her nonsense. 

Hence (i) Harker, sb. a listener ; (2) Harky, int. listen, 

(i) Sc. Still commonly used in the prov. 'Harkers never heard 
a gude word of themselves' QAM.). (2) w.Yks. (C.C.R.), Ken. 
(G.B.), Ken. 1 

2. Phr. hark the robbers, a children's game ; see below. 
Ir. The Belfast version is practically the same [as the Deptford 
one] except that the verses are not sung as a dialogue, but by all the 
players together, and the prisoner, when caught, has the choice 
of sides, by being asked ' Which will you have, a golden apple or 
golden pear?' GOMME Games (1894) 197. w.Yks. ib. 196. Shr. 
The first six verses are sung by the alternate parties, who advance 
and retire tramping their feet, at first, to imitate the robbers. The 
last verse is sung altogether going round in a ring, ib. 198. Nrf. 
Two girls take hold of hands, and another, the prisoner, stands 
between them. The rest form themselves into a line opposite, and 
advance and retreat while singing the first verse, the gaolers 

K 2 




singing the next verse, and so on alternately, Hi. Ken. In the 
Deptford version two girls join hands, holding them up as an arch 
for the other players to tramp through. The first two verses are 
sung first by one and then by the other of the- two girls. At the 
finish of these the girl then going through the arch is stopped, and 
the third, fourth, and fifth verses are sung by the two girls 
alternately. Then finally both girls sing the last verse, and the 
child is sent as prisoner behind one or other of the two girls. . . 
The two sides thus formed then proceeded to tug against each 
other, and the strongest side wins the game, ib. 197 ; In the Shipley 
version, the children form themselves into two lines, while two 
or three, representing the robbers, swagger along between them. 
When the robbers sing the last verse they should have attained 
the end of the lines of children, as during the parley they were 
safe ; having pronounced the defiance they run away. The 
children in the lines rush after them, and should catch them and 
put them in prison, ib. 198. [For further details see GOMME ib. 

3. To look out ; to make inquiries. Stf. 1 Cf. hearken. 

4. To smell. 

s.Wal. I was once invited by a South Wales collier to ' Hark 
that smell !' (T.C.P.) 

5. With back: to retrace one's steps; to go back and 
try again. 

n.Yks. 4 , w.Yks. 2 , Not. 1 , Lei. 1 War. My memory harks back, 
Midi. Counties Herald(Dec. 31, 1896) ; War. 3 Wor. You've read too 
fur, you must hark back a bit (J.W.P.). w.Som.'The phr. is taken 
from hunting talk, when if the hounds lose the scent they are 
made to hark-back, i. e. go back to a spot where they had the 
scent, and try to get it again ; in fox-hunting more gen. they have 
to ' hark-forard.' Dev. Hark back, Tancred ! Tarquin ! Tarquin ! 
hark back! WHYTE-MELVILLE Katerfelio (1875) xxii ; We must 
hark back a good many years, O'NEILL Dimpses (1893) 61. [Amer. 
Dial. Notes (1896) I. 389.] 

6. To whisper ; to guess. Cf. hearken. 

Sc. Bob harked in the young laird's lug, PENNECUIK Collection 
(1787) 44. Sh.I. I laached, an harkit ' Tanks,' BURGESS Rasntie 
(1892) 25. Cai. 1 Bch. Then whispering low to me she harked, 
FORBES Dominie (1785) 38. Fif. Tho' I hark it in your lug, Ye 
needna tak' offence, DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 51. Edb. He said to 
me, it's bawdy, I had best hark it, PENNECUIK Tiiiklarian (ed. 1810) 
6. Cum. While to a corner snug I git, And kiss and hark wi' 
Sally, RELPH Misc. Poems (1743) 118 ; Fwok harkt an' guesst an' 
guesst agean, GILPIN Sngs. (1866) 278; Cum. 4 Obsol. 

Hence Harking, vbl. sb. a whispering. 

Sh.I. Yon's da end o' your harkin' i" Friday night, S/i. News 
(May 29, 1897). 

7. sb. Phr. on the hark, on the watch, look out, qui vive. 
Wor. Thedoghasbeenonthehearkforyouforsometime(W.A.S.). 

8. A whisper ; a secret wish or desire. 

Slk. Take heart till I tell you the hark of my mind, HOGG Poems 
(ed. 1865^ 287. Rxb. (JAM.) Gall. To crown a' his hopes in a 
hurry, She haflins said aye in a hark, NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. 
(1814) 195, ed. 1897. 

HARK, sb. 2 Ess. [Not known to our other corre- 
spondents.] In phr. to come down with a hark, to come 
down with a run, to fall suddenly. 

An old woman who had had a fall, said, ' I came down with 
a hark' (S.P.H.). 

HARKANY, sb. e-An. 1 [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] A job. ' I have finished my harkany.' 

HARKAUDIENCE, sb. n.Lin. 1 An accordion. 

HARKIE, sb. Sh.I. [ha'rki.] A pig ; a boar-pig. 

JAKOBSEN Norsk in Shell. (1897) 91 ; S. & Ork. 1 

[Cogn. w. Norw. dial, hark, a rattling sound in the throat, 
a grunt (AASEN).] 

HARKLE, v. Nhp. 1 Also in form hartle. To make 
an incision in one hind-leg of a hare or rabbit, that the 
other may be insinuated for the purpose of suspension. 
See Harl, v. 3 ; cf. hock, v. 1 5. 

HARL, v. and sb. Lin. Oxf. Brks. Hmp. I.W. Wil. 
Dor. Som. Also in forms hardle Wil. 1 Som. Dor. ; haul 
Hmp. 1 ; horl I.W. [51, a-dl.] 1. v. To entangle; to 
become knotted or entangled. Also with up. 

Brks. Gl. (1852) ; Brks. 1 , Hmp. (J.R.W.), Hmp. 1 I.W. Also 
to be crowded up by superabundance of anything, so that one 
hardly knows how to get out of the tangle (J.D.R.); I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 
The keert rope es all harled up. Wil. 1 Dor. BARNES Gl (1863 ; 
Gl. (1851). 

2. Fig. To be in a state of confusion or perplexity. 
Also with up. 

I.W. In the vain attempt to be in five places at once, . . the land- 
lady became ' that harled,' as she expressed it, GRAY Annesley 
(1889) I. 240 ; I'm that harled up with so many about, ib. Dean 
Maitlanii, 107. Dor. (G.E.D.) 

3. To couple the hind-legs of a rabbit by threading one leg 
through the ham-string of the other. Cf. harkle. 

n.Lin. 1 w.Cy. GROSE (1790). Wil. The keeper's boy . . . has 
imbibed all the ways of the woods, and is an adept at everything, 
from ' harling' a rabbit upwards. . . It is done by passing the blade 
of the knife between the bone of the thigh and the great sinew 
where there is nothing but skin and then thrusting the other 
foot through the hole made. The rabbit . . . can then be con- 
veniently carried by the loop thus formed, or slung on a stick, 
JEFFERIES Gamekeeper (1887) 35 ; Wil. 1 

4. sb. A confused, tangled mass ; an entanglement ; a 
state of confusion. 

Brks. 1 If 'e dwoant mind thee 'ooll get that string in a harl. 
Hmp. That thread of silk is all in a harl, HOLLOWAY ; Hmp. 1 ' It's 
all in a haul.' Spoken of entangled yarn, cotton, &c. I.W. 
(J.D.R.); I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 I never vound things in such a harl in my 
life. Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; SLOW Gl. (1892); Wil. 1 The 
thread be aal in a harl. His hair is all in a harl. Som. SWEET- 
MAN IVincanton Gl. (1885). 

5. Fig. A state of great excitement. 

n.Lin. 1 Jimmy H is e'such 'n a liarl as niver was aboot this 

here jewbilee. 

6. A couple and a half of hounds ; three hounds, beagles, 
&c. Oxf. (K.), (HALL.) 

7. The hock of a sheep; the hough of a cow or cart-horse. 
Hmp. WISE New Forest (1883) 283 ; (H.E.) ; Hmp. 1 

Hence Harlens, sb. pi. the hock-joints of a cow. 

I.W. 2 The wold cows got stuck in the keert loose up over their 

[1. pe hasel & |>e haj-borne were harled al samen, 
Gawatne (c. 1360) 744.] 

HARLAN, sb. Irel. The fresh-water duck, the pintail, 
Dafila acuta. Wxf. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 155. 

HARL(E, sb. 1 Sc. Nhb. Wm. Yks. Chs. Der. Also Cor. 
Also in forms herle Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; hurle Cor. 12 [harl, 
al.] 1. The filament of flax ; the reed or brittle stem of 
flax separated from the filament. 

n.Sc. These broken pieces of straw, hanging in a great measure 
loose upon the harle or flax, MAXWELL Scl. Trans. (1743) 331 
(JAM.). Mry. Gl. Surv. (JAM.) Cor. 1 As dry as hurle; Cor. 2 
[In the natural state the fibres of the harl are attached firmly . . . 
to each other, STEPHENS Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) II. 324.] 

2. The side-fibre of a peacock's tail feather, used for 
dubbing flies in angling ; the feathery part of a quill- 

Slk. Ye ken little about the Kirby bends, gin ye think the pea- 
cock's harl and the tinsy hae slipped frae your jaws, CHR. NORTH 
Nodes (cd. 1856) III. 301. Nhb. 1 Particularly applied to that of 
the tail feathers of a peacock when employed in giving an irri- 
descent appearance to the bodies of artificial flies, in which case it 
is called ' peacock harle.' Wm. (J.H.), Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 

3. Hair, wool. 

w.Yks. 1 His harl sticks up, for au t'ward, like an urchin back, 
ii. 289. 

4. A small portion of hay or straw. 

s.Chs. ' Taak- dhu os - -ree'k in'tu)th fuur ee'-feyld, un mahynd 
yi ree'kn evri aa~rl on it iip [Tak the hoss-rcek (horse-rake) into 
th' fur hee-feild, an* min ye reeken every harl on it up], 

[1. EFris. harl, harrel, a filament of flax (KOOLMAN) ; so 
LG. (BERGHAUS), MLG. (ScHiLLER-LiiBBEN, s.v. Herle).} 

HARL(E, sb? n.Cy. Lin. [51.] A mist, a fog or 
drizzlecomingup with the tide from the sea. See Haar, sb. 1 

n.Cy. (K.); BAILEY (1721) ; GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 2 Lin. 1 I saw 
the harle on the 3rd June last. sw.Lin. 1 There was a kind of 
harle came up. I think it's no-but a sea-harle. 

HARL(E, v. and sb? Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Nhb. 
Also Glo. ? Som. Also written harrl Sh.I. ; and in form 
haurl Sc. (JAM.) Nhb. 1 [harl, 51.] 1. v. To drag, pull, 
tug ; to trail along the ground ; to haul. 

Sc. It's an unco thing that decent folk should be harled through 
the country this gate, SCOTT Old Mortality (\&i(>) xiii. Cai. 1 Abd. 
Strauchtway they harle him "fore the royal chair, Guiilman Inglis- 




maill(i8i3) 58. Kcd. [He] ceased to speak, began a-snorin', Was 
by Knappy harl'd to bed, GRANT Lays (1884) 41. Fif. Some haurl'd 
at cart and barrow trams, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 53. e.Fif. 
They harled me awa to a laigh bit hoosie, LATTO Tarn Bodkin 
(1864) vii. Slg. The horses harl'd them thro' the water, Muiu 
Poems(i8i8} n. Dmb. It wadna be lang o' being haurled through 
my fingers if it were kent I had it, CROSS Disruption (1844) xviii. 
Rnf. Bess . . . harl't out my very hair, WILSON Watty (1792) 5. 
Ayr. I haurled the whole lot of the dishes to the flure, SERVICE 
Notandums (1890) 28. Lth. He harl'd her bits o' things awa, 
SMITH Merry Bridal (1866! 193. Rnf. Others mind yc o' a rat, 
Harl't thro' the dirt in teeth o' cat, BARR Poems (1861) 33. Lnk. 
Wha lets her laddies harl me doun the stair ? NICHOLSON Idylls 
(1870) 88. Edb. Harling them away to the college, MOIR Mansie 
Wauch (1828) x. Feb. Ilka buik except the bible, Frae the house 
you've harl'd for drink, AFFLECK Poet. Wks. ^1836) 132. Slk. 
Matthew Ford harled him into the shallow, HOGG Tales (1838) 
150, ed. 1866. Rxb. It harles the whole heart out o' her, RIDDELL 
Poet. Wks. (ed. 1871) II. 342. Dmf. Sad wights Wi' ribs baith 
black an' blae Were harlit hamc, MAYNE Siller Gun (1808 8. 
Gall. I'll come doon and harl ye in mysel', CROCKETT Cleg Kelly 
(1896) 202. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) Nhb. They harled 
her through the paddock-peul, RITSON N. Garl. (1810) 54. ?Som. 
Whenever they'd a chaance the neighbours was harlen' an' car'ren 
down to moor, LEITH Verbena (1895) 43. 

Hence (i) Harlin, (2) Harlin-favour, sb. some degree 
of affection, a penchant, inclination towards ; (3) Haurl-a- 
hame, adj. selfish, grasping. 

(i) Sc. Wha for the bardies has a harlin, NICOL Poems (1805) 
I. 120 GAM.). (2) Bch. I canna say bat I had a kirnen wi' her 
an' a kine o' harlin favour for her, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 7. (3) Rnf. 
On his [the devil's] haurl-a-hame manner were a' agree't quite, 
NEILSON Poems (1877) 112. 

2. intrans. To drag, trail, draw with difficulty; also used/,?-. 
Sc. Amang such rugh rigs, highs an' hows as I hae to harl 

through, GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 43 ; To move onward with 
difficulty, implying the idea of feebleness (JAM.) ; To draw oneself 
by griping or violent means (ib.~). Abel. For cadgers . . . Maun 
ay be harlin in their trade [must talk 'shop'], SKINNER Poems 
(1809) 40. Frf. Hameward, hoolie, they gaed haurlin', WATT 
Poet. Sketches (1880) 23. Dmf. The cauld snell blast o' the uncivil 
warld, Through whilk sac lang thin-cled I've harl'd, THOM Jock'o 1 
Knowc (1878) 26. 

3. Phr. (i) to harl about, to move about feebly ; to crawl, 
creep ; (2) away, to drive away, drive off; (3) outer, 
to overhaul, examine, look into. 

(i) Sc. Lat them harl about for meat till eat, WADDELL Ps. (1871) 
lix. 15 ; To harle about, to go from place to place. It gen. con- 
veys the idea of inconstancy, of feebleness, or of some load or 
incumbrance (JAM.). Cai. 1 (2) ne.Glo. I think he've harled George 
away; the lad often said as he'd runaway, and I think he've done 
it now, Household Wds. (1885) 142. (3) Sc. They'll just harl ower a' 
thir petitions, pick out my name, and the like o' me, Sc. Haggis, 32. 

4. To scrape or rake together ; to peel, come off in pieces. 
Also used Jig. and intrans. 

Sc. (JAM.) Rnf. A wedge o' broun saip would be better, To 
harl the dirt aff her hide, BARR Poems (1861] 118. Ayr. Till skin in 
blypes cam haurlin Aff's nieves that night, BURNS Halloween (1785) 
st. 23. Gall. To harl the pow is to scratch the head (A.W.). Nhb. 
Aa've been haurlin steyens together (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 To harle 
the road. 

5. To roughcast a wall with lime. 

Sc. An old turreted house in Huxter Row was being newly 
harled, HISLOP Anecdote (1874) 382. Sh.I. The walls were harried 
with systematic regularity, CLARK Gleams (1898) 221. Cai. 1 Inv. 
HERD Coll. Sngs. (1776) Gl. Bnff. When the walls were 'harled,' 
it was always left untouched, GORDON Cliron. Keith (1880) 35. 
Abd. The ruins of the ancient church have actually been ' harled,' 
SMILES Natur. (1893) 135. 

Hence (i) Harled, ppl adj. roughcast with lime ; (2) 
Harling, vbl. sb. the act of roughcasting with lime, &c. ; 
lime or roughcasting ; (3) Joint harl, phr. to point walls. 

(i) Sc. Droning psalms in a gray harled kirk, KEITH Indian 
Uncle (1896) 256; Its harled walls tinged with green towards 
their base, HUNTER /. Armiger's Revenge (1897) iv. Gall. That 
grey kirk of rough harled masonry, CROCKETT Stidrit Min. (1893) 
236. (2) n.Sc. Face the work all over with mortar thrown against 
it with a trowel, which they call harling, Lett, from Gentleman 
(1754) I. 65 QAM.). Gall. They are set without lime under the 
harling, CROCKETT Grey Man (1896) 30. (3) Cai. 1 

6. sb. The act of dragging or trailing. 

Sc. Of a paralytic person, it is said, ' He has a harle with the 
left leg' (JAM.). 

7. A haul, a collection, that which is gathered together ; 
money or property obtained by dishonourable means. 
Also used Jig. 

Sc. He gat a harle of siller QAM.) ; The time was when I could 
hae taen a harle o' onything that was gaun, FORD Thistledown 
(1891) 242. Rnf. O' rhymes he gather'd sic a harl', FINLAYSON 
Rhymes (1815) 165. Ayr. I had a bit haurl o' fifty pounds to carry 
me on for the next winter, SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 69. 
Lnk. She's fond to git a haurl O' warldly wealth, and pomp, and 
glory, RODGER Poems (1838) 140, ed. 1897. 

8. A small quantity of anything ; anything obtained with 
difficulty and on rare occasions. 

Sc. See if I cannae get a little harle of justice out of the ' military 
man notoriously ignorant of the law,' STEVENSON Catiiona (1893) 
ix. Cai. 1 A small quantity of any substance composed of loose 
particles, e. g. meal, salt, &c. Fif. Gie's a harle o' meal (JAM.). 
e.Fif. See ! there's a wee harlie o' sugar to put i' yer gab, LATTO 
Tain Bodkin (1864) viii. s.Sc. Indeed, ony haurl o' health I had 
was aye about meal-times, Blackw. Mag. (Jan. 1821) 400 (JAM.). 
Ayr. Ony harl of health he has is aye about meal-time, GALT Sir 
A. Wylie (1822) Ix. 

9. A drag or mud-rake used for scraping a road, &c. ; an 
instrument for raking or drawing together soft manure. 

Rxb. Used esp. in the cow-house (JAM.). Nhb. 1 A kind of 
scraper with a long handle. [The men should each take a mud 
hoe or harle, STEPHENS Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) I. 470.] 

10. A slattern; a big, untidy, coarse, cross-grained 
person ; a rough field-labourer'. 

Rnf. She maun be a tasteless haurl 'Twad face the gleg e'e o' 
the warl', An' cause gie to its bitter gab To curse her for a hanless 
drab, YOUNG Pictures (1865) 162. Ayr. Ane of them . . . was a 
great muckle haurl of a dirty fum, SERVICE Dr. Duguid (ed. 1887) 
169. Dmf. SHAW Schoolmaster (1899) 349. Gall. MACTAGGART 
Encycl. (1824). N.I. 1 Ant. A rough worker, who will do a lot 
but do it badly, Ballymena Obs. (1892). 

H. A mixture of lime and sand, used for roughcasting 
or coating the outside of a building. Also used Jig. 

Sc. Plastered with harl, COBBAN Andaman (1895) i. Sh.I. The 
gable was white, for the ' harl ' had been picked off in the spring, 
BURGESS Tang (1898) 23. e.Ltlf An' the way he splairges ye wi' 
butter layin't on in clauts an' harles, HUNTER J. Inwick 1895)93. 

[1. The hors him harland behynd the woid cart, DOUGLAS 
Eneados (1513), ed. 1874, n. 48; Hii harlede him out of 
churche, R. Glouc. (c. 1300) fo. 151 b.] 

HARLE, sb. Sh. & Or.I. Nrf. [harl, 51.] 1. The 
goosander, Mergus merganser. Also in comp. Harle-duck. 

S. & Ork. 1 Or.I. The goosander, the harle of this country, 
remains with us constantly, BARRY Hist. (1805) 302 (JAM.). 

2. The red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator. Also 
in comp. Harle-duck. Cf. earl-duck. Or.I. SWAINSON 
Birds (1885) 164. 

3. The grey duck or gadwall, Chaudelasmus streperus. 
Nrf. COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 45. 

[1. Fr. harle or herle, a merganser, see BELON Hist, dc la 
nature des Oyseaux (1555) 164, in NEWTON & GADOW (1896) 
407 ; Harle (herle), a kind of sheldrake (CoxGR.).] 

HARLED, ppl. adj. n.Cy. Yks. [arid, aid.] Mottled, 
speckled, as cattle. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). n.Yks. 124 e. Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. 
(1788!. w.Yks. 1 'Shoe's a feaful hask harl'd an' ; that is, the 
cow has harsh hair, always an unfavourable symptom of fattening. 

HARLED, adj. Wil. In comb. Well-harled, of oats : 
well-eared. DAVIS Agric. (1813) ; Wil. 1 

HARLEY, sb. Frf. The swift, Cypselus apus. SWAIN- 
SON Birds (1885) 96. 

HARLEY-HARTHER, int. Nrf. A call to horses to 
go to the left. Arch. (1879) VIII. 170. 

HARLICAN, sb. Dor. [alikan.] A term of abuse. 

Bring on that water, you idle young harhcan ! HARDY Jude 
(1896) pt. i. i. 

HARLIKINS, sb. pi. Sh.I. Tight pantaloons opening 
behind, worn by children. S. & Ork. 1 

HARLIN, adj. Cum. Difficult, close; exhausting, severe. 

Cum. An' monie a harlin reace they hed, STAGG Misc. Poems 
(ed. 1807) 3 ; Cum. 4 



HARLOCK, sb. Ess. The charlock, Sinapis arvensis. 

HARM, sb. Glo. w.Cy. Som. [am.] 1. Any contagious 
or epidemic disease, not distinguished by a specific name ; 
a fever. 

Glo. (J.S.F.S.), w.Cy. (HALL.) Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Ene. 
(1825); (F.A.A.) 
2. The distemper in dogs. 

w.Som. 1 In buying a young dog it is usual to ask, ' Have 'er had 
the harm ? ' 

HARM, v. Sc. Yks. Lan. Also in forms aam Lan. 1 ; 
ahme.Lan. 1 ; hairmCld. (JAM.); hirm w.Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) 
[harm, am.] 1. To fret, grumble ; to be peevish or ill- 
natured. Or.I. (JAM. Suppl.}, w.Sc. (ib.) Hence Harm- 
ing, sb. fretfulness, peevishness, grumbling. Or.I. (ib.) 

2. To dwell upon a trifling fault or misfortune, con- 
tinually upbraiding the defaulter or sufferer. Hence (i) 
Hairmer, sb. one who acts in this manner ; (2) Hairming, 
vbl. sb. the act of continually dwelling upon a fault, &c. 
Cld. (JAM.) 

3. To mock or imitate in speaking ; to mimic. Also with 
at and after. 

Yks. (HALL.) [Not known to our correspondents.] Lan. I 
connaw be angurt ot tee ... os lung os to boh harms after other 
fok, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (ed. 1806) 67 ; Lan. 1 A person re- 
peating another's words in an ironical manner is said to be 
' aamin ' after him. e.Lan. In use to-day (S.W.) ; At one time a 
very common word and is still used, though not so frequently as 
formerly. Used in connection with the affix ' at.' ' He wor 
aamin' at me, 1 Manch. City News (Jan. 4, 1896) ; e.Lan. 1 s.Lan. 
Commonly used in the neighbourhood of Oldham and district 
when I was a boy. Thus, if a boy mocked another, the one 
mocked would say, ' He keeps aamin' after me,' Manch. City News 
(Jan. 4, 1896) ; Obsol. (F.E.T.) 

[1. LG. harmen un karmen, ' ha'rmen und wehklagen, 
sich angstlich qualen ' (BERGHAUS). 2, 3. Norw. dial. 
herma, to repeat anything; to ape, to mimic (AASEN).] 

HARM, see Haulm. 

HARMING, sb. Pem. Harm, hurt, injury. 

s.Pem. He'll keep us from all harmin' (W.M.M.). 

HARMLESS, adj. Sc. Sur. Sus. 1. Obs. Unharmed, 
safe, secure. 

Abd. That he, his men, tenants, and servants, should be harm- 
less and skaithless in their bodies, SPALDING Hist. Sc. (1792) I. 43. 

2. Fair to both parties, just. 

Snr. 1 If you make twenty-eight shillings of the pig it will be a 
harmless price between buyer and seller. 

3. See below. 

Sus. ' Our Rosie be a very harmless child.' . . . The remark 
merely means that she has a certain friendly and winning way 
with her that goes straight to people's hearts and makes her a 
favourite everywhere, O'REILLY Stones (1880) I. 233-4. 

HARMLY, adj. n.Yks. 2 Hurtful, harmful ; annoying. 

HARMONY ,sb. e.Suf. Uproar, noise, disturbance. (F.H.) 


HARN, sb. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Also in 
forms hairn Edb. Bwk. Dmf. Nhb. 1 ; harran Sh.I. e.Fif.; 
barren Fif. ; haurn Lnk. Gall. ; hern Sc. [harn, hern, 
an.] 1. pi. Brains. Also usedy?^. 

Sc. Kilmadie barns, Where many shot were thro' the herns, 
GRAHAM Writings (1883) I. 152; It will knock its harns out, 
SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xv. Sh.I. If he had blown the ' harrans ' 
out of his old 'moorit' sheep, BURGESS Sketches (2nd ed.) 25. Or.I. 
(S.A.S.) Bch. For fear I shou'd hae gotten my harns kleckit out, 
FORBES Jrn. (1742) 16. Abd. Ye may comfort yersel' that they 
warna dishes wi' harns i* them, MACDONALD Malcolm ( 1875) I. 243. 
Frf. My lugs and harns wi' rage maist bizzin', SANDS Poems (1833) 
iai. Ptr. Johnnie's harns grew dazed and giddie, SPENCE Poems 
(1898) 187. Fif. The barrens o' the clerk Were sae commovit 
wi' the werk O' harnessin' and weir, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 
126. e.Fif. A cockit pistol in his neive ready to blaw oot my 
harns, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) vii. Ayr. Till our harns are 
spattered at the bottom o' the well o' despair, GALT Entail (1823) 
Ixxviii. Lnk. Oot fell the haurns o' my muckle meal-pock, 
NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) 104. Lth. There's naething here our harns 
to daver, MACNEILL Poet. Wks. (1801) 173, ed. 1856. e.Lth. He 
was sittin amang his buiks . . . howkin his harns for a sermon, 

HUNTER J. Inivick (1895) 44. Edb. If harns and pens can do 't 
aright, LIDDLE Poems (1821) 114. Bwk. Ance we get another 
Willie We'll knock out auld Willie's hairns, Dcnham Tracts (ed. 
1892) I. 171. Dmf. Their heads had aye mair hair than hairns, 
SHAW Schoolmaster (1899) 371. Gall. Wi' frothy haurns and 
goarling baird, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 333, ed. 1876. n.Cy. 
BAILEY (1721) ; N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Nearly out of use except by old 
people. Cum. RAY (1691) ; GROSE (1790) ; Cum. 4 Cum., Wm. 
NICOLSON (1677) Trans. R. Lit. Sac. (1868) IX. Yks. ' He ding 
out your harns,' He beat out your brains (K.). n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 
THORESBY Lett. (1703) ; w.Yks. 1 Pash'd an bray'd his harnes out, 
i'. 303 ; w.Yks. 4 , ne.Lan. 1 

Hence Harnless, adj. brainless. 

Sh.I. A harnliss snUl, BURGESS Rasmie (1892) 92. n.Yks. 2 
2. Comp. Harn-pan, the brain-pan, skull. 

Sc. In the pingle or the pan, Or the haurnpan o' man, FORD 
Thistledown (1891) 261 ; Weize a brace of balls through his harn- 
pan, SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xxxiii. Cai. 1 Abd. He sware he'd 
gar their harnpans ring, SKINNER Poems (1809) 16. Frf. Quit, or 
I'll brak' your harn pan, MORISON Poems (1790) 25. e.Fif. Oon- 
less he has within his harran-pan the stuff philosophers are made 
of, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xxvi. Rnf. Leeze me on the harn 
pan, WEBSTER Rhymes ( 1835) 155. Ayr. We think his harnpan's 
surely dunklet, GALT Sir A. Wylie (1822) ciii ; (J.M.) Lnk. I 
spat by turns on ilka loof, Haw'd first my harn-pan, syne my loof, 
COGHILL Poems (1890) 66. e.Lth. He didna think there was 
anither harn-pan in the pairish wad ha stude it, HUNTER J. Inwick 
(1895) 241. Edb. A hag sailt i' his loom hairn-pans Awa' to 
France, LEARMONT Poems (1791) 24. Slk. ' This to thy harnpan,' 
said Gabriel, drawing his sword, HOGG 7afes(i838) 660, ed. 1866. 
Gall. His haurn pan was aye sae fu', MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 
189, ed. 1876. Nhb. 1 , w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

[1. My harms trimblit besily, DOUGLAS Pal. Hon. (1501), 
ed. 1874, 78 ; He the hed till harnys claf, BARBOUR Bruce 
(1375) xii. 56. OE. ha>mes (Citron, an. 1137). 2. It ... 
persit the harnpan, DOUGLAS Eneados (1513) 11. 252.] 

HARNESS, sb. _Sc. Nhb. Yks. Brks. e.An. Sus. Dor. 
Som. Aus. [haT-, a'nis.] 1. In comp. (i) Harness-cask, 
a receptacle on board ship, where the meat, after being 
taken out of the pickle-cask, is kept ready for use ; (2) 
lid, a lid or covering to a ' harness-cask ' ; (3) -plaid, a 
special kind of plaid ; see below ; (4) -tack, a swinging 
cross-tree in a stable on which harness is hung. 

(i) Abd. One that has a lid, guarded by a rim which comes a 
small way down on the outside of the vessel (JAM.) ; Some thieves 
. . . breaking open a harness cask . . . stole about i cwt. of beef, 
Abd. Jrn. (Dec. 2, 1818) (ib.). Nhb. It is an upright cask with 
straight, tapering sides, narrowing to the top, which closes with a 
hinged lid and padlock. A brass or iron hoop surrounds the 
former, and is made wider than the thickness of the lid, so as to 
overlap the head of the cask (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 [Aus. The steer 
was cut up and salted and in the harness-cask soon after sunrise, 
BOLDREWOOD Robbery (1888) I. ii.j (2) Abd. QAM.) (31 Sc. She 
had just taken off her bonnet and harness-plaid, OCHILTREE 
Redburn (1895) vi. w.Sc. Until very recent times no Scotswoman 
was considered respectably married unless her trousseau included 
a plaid of specially fine manufacture fit to appear in at kirk or 
market. It, with the bonnet, was a badge of marriage, hence the 
term ' harness ' denoting the yoke. Paisley was famous for harness 
plaids (G.W.). (4) Brks. 1 

2. Weaving term : the ' heald ' or arrangement of loops 
of twine, by which the threads of the warp are changed 
in position at every passage of the shuttle. 

w.Yks. It enables a much larger pattern to be woven than is 
possible with plain gear (J.M.). w.Som. 1 It is adjusted into the 
loom along with the warp to which it belongs. 

3. The apparatus required for making cider. 
Dor. BARNES Gl. (1863). Som. (W.F.R.) 

4. Leather defences for the hands and legs of hedgers, 
to protect them from the thorns. e.An. 12 

6. Temper, humour. 

a.Cy. (HALL.) Sus. ' He is in a pretty harness,' he is in a rare 
bad humour, HOLLOWAY ; Sus. 1 Master's in purty good harness 
this morning; Sus. 2 

HARNISHIN, sb. N.I. 1 Harness. 


HARP, sb. 1 and v. 1 Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. Der. 
Not. Lin. Lei. Nhp. Wor. Oxf. Brks. Hnt. Nrf. Sus. Hmp. 
I.W. Also in forms hirp Rnf. ; yerp e.Lth. [harp, ap.J 



1. sb.Obs. An Irish shilling. Also in comb. Harp-shilling. 
Ir. AT. & Q. (1885) 6th S. xi. 296. N.I. 1 Equal only to gd. 

sterling money. 

2. Phr. Head or harp, head or tail. 

Ant. The reverse of Irish copper coins formerly bore a harp. 
' Head or harp,' the call in playing pitch and toss (W.H.P. ). 

3. An instrument used in sifting or ' riddling.' 

Sc. The mason sets his harp upon en', An' harls the fire-noose 
gable, MURRAY Spring in Blk. and White (Apr. 18, 1896) 490. 
Dmf. Evidently suggested by the shape of the instrument used in 
riddling or separating sand and gravel, which is of an oblong 
shape, containing wires enclosed in a wooden frame, SHAW 
Schoolmaster (1899) 349. [A portable screen or harp for riddling 
and depositing the stones, STEPHENS Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) II. 637.] 

4. That part of a mill which separates the 'dust' of grain 
or meal from the ' shilling.' 

Sc. An instrument for cleansing grain, a kind of ' scarce ' (JAM.). 
Cai. 1 The wire-cloth frame by which grain or meal is sifted in the 
various processes of milling. Abd. (JAM.) 

5. v. To constantly dwell on one topic, refer constantly 
to an unpleasant subject; to grumble. Gen. with on, esp. 
in phr. to harp on one string. In gen. colloq. use. 

Cai. 1 Rnf. I hae a richt to hirp an' murn [mourn] Oure that 
death-dealin' blast, YOUNG Pictures (1865) 13. e.Lth. He had been 
guzzling toddy and yerping about Spiritual Freedom with a Free 
Church tailor, MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes (1885) 141. Edb. ' I'se tell 
ye what ' That harps, whate'er ye, ' I'se tell ye what, and there's 
that in't,' Carlop Green (1793) 125, ed. 1817. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. He 
kept harp, harpin on till aa wis fair sick o' hearin 't (R.O.H.). 
Cum. 1 n.Yks. 4 Sha nivver let's t'thing dee, sha's awlus harping on 
aboot it. e.Yks. THOMPSON Hist. Welton (1869) 170 ; e.Yks. 1 MS. 
add. (T.H.) w.Yks. Aw, be heng'd to that tale ; he's allus 
harpin' o' that string (JE.B.*). Lan. (S.W.), nw.Der. 1 , Not. 1 , 
n.Lin. 1 Lei. 1 Shay aarped o' seein 'im again so mooch. Nhp. 1 , 
s.Wor. (H.K.) Oxf.'Ther you be agen, 'arp, 'arp, 'arp, MS. add. 
Brks. 1 , Hnt. (T.P.F.) Nrf. You continue to harp upon the same 
string (W.W.S.). Sus., Hmp. HOLLOWAY. I.W. 1 

6. Phr. to harp against a person, to insinuate to his dis- 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781). 

7. To riddle or sift with a ' harp.' Abd. (JAM.) 
HARP, v. 2 and sb. 2 Wor. Also written arp. [ap.j 

1. v. To listen to, hearken, pay attention. 

s.Wor. Folks talks but I doesn't harp. Folks wuz alistenin' an' 
'arpin' hiver so, an' a didn't 'ear nothin' (H.K.); A on't 'arp 
'owever 'ardly noanc on 'em, Vig. Man. in Berroiu's Jrn. (1896) xvii. 

2. sb. Phr. all of a harp, all on the qui vive. 

s.Wor. A knaowed as summat ar another wuz agate, an' a wuz 
a' ov a 'arp (H.K.). 

HARPEN, v. Nrf. With on : to encourage, cheer on 
to fight. 

John and Tom were quarrelling and Will harpen'd them on till 
he got them to fight (W.W.S.). 

HARPER, sb. Sc. In comb. Harper crab, the crab, 
Cancer varius Gesneri. Also called Tammie Harper. 

Fif. SIBBALD Hist. Fif. (1803) 132 (JAM., s.v. Tammie Harper). 

HARPING, adj. Nrf. In comb. Harping Johnny, the 
orpine, Sedum Telephium. (B. & H.) 

HARPLEAT, sb. Wxf. 1 A snipe, 'bleater.' 

HARPOON, v. Irel. In phr. to harpoon a bottle-nose, 
to make a gross mistake. 

I harpooned a bottle-nose, LEVER Con Cregan (1849-50) xiv. 

HAR(R, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Also Mid. e.An. Hmp. Wil. Som. Also in forms harl- 
n.Yks. ; haur Sc. (JAM.); haw- Nhb. 1 ; her Hmp. [bar, 
a(r.] 1. The upright part of a gate or door to which the 
hinges are fastened. 

Sh.I. We took a door aff da harrs, CLARK Gleams.(i8g8~) 106. 
S. & Ork. 1 , Dmf. GAM.), N.Cy. 1 Nhb. The back and breast of a 
gate are called the back bar and fore har (J.H.) ; Nhb. 1 Dur. The 
hole in a stone in which the spindle of a door or gate resteth 
(K.,. Cum. 1 Wm. A door-harr (K.). w.Mid. (W.P.M.), Hmp. 
(H.C.M.B.) Wil. 1 We wants some more heads and hars cut out. 
Som. (W.F.R.) ; W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

2. Comp. Har-tree, the strong end of a gate to which the 
bars are secured. 

Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 , s.Dur. (J.E.D.), Cum. 1 n.Yks. The bars are gen. 
made either of fir or ash, and the harltree and head, of oak or 

ash, TUKE Agric. (1800) 98; n.Yks. 4 , ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. MARSHALL 
Rur. Econ. (1796) I. 192. w.Yks. 2 , ne.Lan. 1 , e.An. 12 

3. A hinge, joint. Used _/?. 

Dmf. To ruse one's arse out o har, to praise a person till he be 
too much elated (JAM.). Wxf. 1 Ingsaury neileare (pidh ?) his niz 
outh o' harr, 100. 

4. The shank of a button. Wxf. 1 

[1. Ther nas no dore that he nolde heve of harre, 
CHAUCER C. T. A. 550. OE. heprr, a hinge ; cp. Du. harre 
aen een deure, the post and hinge of a doore or a gate 

HARR, see Haar, sb. 1 , Hurr, v? 

HARRAGE, sb. Sc. Also in forms arage, arrage, 
aryage, auarage, average, harriage GAM.). 1. Service 
due by tenants, in men and horses, to their landlords, 
' average.' 

This custom is not entirely abolished in some parts (JAM.). 
2. Phr. arage (and) carriage, a service in carts and horses. 

'Arage and carriage' is a phr. still commonly used in leases 
(JAM.) ; Regular payment of mail-duties, kain, arriage, carriage, 
SCOTT Midlothian (1818) viii. Per. With harrage, carriage, them 
he still molests. NICOL Poems (1766) 75. 

[1. Arage, vtherwaies Average, from Averia, quhilk 
signifies ane beast. . . Average signifies service, quhilk 
the tennent aucht to his master be horse or cariage of 
horse, SKENE Expos, (ed. 1641) 9. 2. I am maid ane slaue 
of my body to ryn and rashe in arrage & carriage, Compl. 
Scot/. (1549) 125. In Law Lat. cum Avaragiis & Cariagiis, 
Indenture (1371), in SKENE (I.e.). See Average.] 


HARRAGRAF, sb. Sc. A curling term : see below. 

Slg. Men that are not usually taken out to matches are called 
the harragraf of the Kippen Curling Club. As far as \ am aware 
it is not known in surrounding clubs (G.W.). 

HARRAN, see Harden, sb., Harn. 

HARRAS, see Harvest. 

HARRASKAP, sb. Sh.I. Character. S. & Ork. 1 

HARRAST, sb. Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 Fig. Delight. 

HARRAST, HARREST, see Harvest. 

HARREN, see Hairen, Harden, sb., Harn. 

HARRIAGE, sb. Nhp. e.An. Wil. Dev. Also in forms 
halledge Wil. ; hallege, harrige Wil. 1 ; harwich e.An. 1 ; 
herridge n.Dev. 1. A disturbance ; a bustle, fuss. 

Wil. 1 Occasionally used of a disturbance of some sort, as 'What 
a hallege ! ' what a row. n.Dev. Yer's a brave briss an' herridge, 
ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) st. 121. 

2. A moving, tumultu9us assemblage of rough people ; a 
rabble. Cf. haurrage. 

Wil. A'. & Q. (1881) 6th S. iv. 106 ; Wil. 1 Harrige seems to be 
the original form of the word, and is still occasionally heard ; but 
for at least seventy years it has been more commonly pronounced 
as hallege. Not used in s.Wil. ' Be you a-gwain down to zee 
what they be a-doing at theVeast?' 'No, /bean't a-gwain amang 
such a hallege as that ! ' 

3. Confusion, disorder. 

Nhp. 1 e.An. 1 ' They are all up at harriage.' In the south part 
of Suf. the phrase, ' He is gone to Harwich,' means he is gone 
to rack and ruin. Wil. 1 Were a load of top and lop, intended to 
be cut up for firewood, shot down clumsily in a yard gateway, it 
would be said, ' What a hallege you've a-got there, blocking up 
the way ! ' It sometimes appears to mean rubbish, as when it is 
applied to the mess and litter of small broken twigs and chips left 
on the ground after a tree has been cut and carried. 

[Prob. conn. w. ME. harageous, violent (Morle Arthur) ; 
OFr. orageux, stormy (HATZFELD).] 

HARRIAL, sb. ? Obs. Cum. 14 The payment of the 
best live beast or dead chattel of a deceased tenant to the 
lord of whom he held, a ' heriot.' 

[Herre3elda is the best aucht, oxe, kowe, or uther beast 
quhilk ane husbandman . . . hes in his possession, the 
time of his decease, quhilk aucht and suld be given to his 
Landis-lord, SKENE Expos, (ed. 1641). The same word as 
OE. heregield, the tribute paid to the (Danish) host 
(Charter of Cnut, an. 1018).] 

HARRIDGE, sb. Lakel. Yks. Also written harredge 
w.Yks. [h)a-ridg.] The angular edge of anything ; the 




turned edge of a sharp knife ; also used Jig. a sharp edge 
to one's appetite. See Arris. 

Lakel. 3 Wm. He could put an harridge on a scythe. Ah've neea 
harridge fer mi tea (B.K.). Yks. (HALL.), e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. (J.J.B.) 

HARRIGE, HARRIGOAD, see Marriage, Harry-gaud. 

HARRIMAN, sb. Shr. A lizard, newt. (HALL.), Shr. 2 

HARRISH, v. and sb. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. Lan. 
Wor. Also written harish Irel. [h)a'rij.] 1. v. To 
harass, worry, torment, trouble ; to ravage; to drive about. 

Ir. The poor woman was so harished, CARLETON Traits Peas. 
(ed. 1843) 95. Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 , Cum. 1 n.Yks. 1 All's harrished near- 
lings te deead by's ragally gannin's on ; n.Yks. 4 , w.Yks. 1 Lan. 
They mun be harrish't, an' parish't, an' hamper't, an' pincer"t, an' 
powler't about th' cowd world, WAUGH Cfiitn. Corner (1874) 141, 
ed. 1879; Oyned an' harrished whol life were a ruebargain, CLEGG 
Sketches (1895) 397; Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 s.Wor. They cattle bean't 
harrished about (H.K.). 

Hence Harrishin', vbl. sb. violent invasion, ' harrying.' 
Cum. 14 

2. To Starve with cold. w.Yks. 3 He harrished his colts. 
Hence Harrishing, **/. adj. cold and stormy. w.Yks. 


3. sb. Distress, worry, annoyance, trouble. 

n.Yks. 1 It's been a sair harrish tiv' 'im ; n.Yks. 4 It's a bit of a 
harrish, but then wa s' git ower't sumhoo. 

HARRISH, see Harsh. 

HARRISpN, sb. Chs. 1 [arisan.] In phr. Harrison's 
pippin, a variety of apple ; see below. 

Only seen in old orchards, and probably could not now be 
obtained from any nurseryman. It is large and handsome, a 
first-class table-fruit, and a fairly good cooking apple. 

HARRO, int. and v. Sc. Also in forms hary ; hirro 
(JAM.), Cai. 1 1. int. Hurrah, huzza ! 

Sc. (JAM.) Fif. ' Harro ! ' the folk o' Caryl [Crail] cry'd: 
' Hurra ! ' the Anster folk reply'd ; ' Harro ! ' cry'd wife and man, 
TENNANT Papistry (1827) 58. 

2. An exclamation of surprise ; an outcry for help. 
Sc. FRANCISQUE-MICHEL Sc. Lang. (1882) 168. Cai. 1 

3. v. To hurrah, huzza, halloo. Sc. (JAM.) 
HARROOST, HARROST, see Harvest. 
HARROW, sb. 1 and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. 

[ha-ra.] 1. sb. In comp. (i) Harrow-bills, the ribs of a 
wooden harrow ; (2) -breeth, the breadth of a harrow as 
shown by the mark on the land over which it has been 
dragged ; (3) -bull or -bulls, the longitudinal beams of a 
wooden hairow in which the iron teeth are inserted ; (4) 
-plough, a plough used for killing weeds in the dressing 
of turnips, &c. ; (5) -rest, the rest-harrow, Ononis arvensis; 
(6) -shaikle, the shackle by which a pair of harrows are 
linked together ; (7) -sheth, the transverse framework of 
a harrow ; (8) -slaying, the destruction of grass-seeds by 
rain, before they have struck root, when the mould has 
been too much pulverized ; (9) -teeth, the iron teeth of a 
harrow ; used Jig. ; (10) -tines or -tynes, the iron teeth of 
a harrow; (n) -tree, the piece of wood by which the 
harrow is yoked. 

(i) Cnm. 4 (2) Nhb. (3) Nhb. 1 , Cum. 14 , e.Yks. 1 n.Lin. 
You'd hcv no more thought about them papers then a hos- 
shoe hes about a harrow-bull, PEACOCK J. Markenfield (1874) 
I. 114; n.Liu. 1 (4) Lth. (JAM., s.v. Fotch-plough.) (5) n.Lin. 1 
(6, 7) Nhb. 1 (8) Sc. The mould . . . will be in danger of 
being washed from the grain, if rain comes before it strikes root 
fully ; which in that case will malt, then be scorched by the sun, 
and killed ; which is ... called harrow-slaying, MAXWELL Scl. 
Trans. (1743) 251 (JAM.). (g'l Dmb. It'll mak' nae difference if the 
Doctor gets me under the harrow-teeth o' the law, CROSS Disrup- 
tion (1844) vi. w.Yks. 'All of you masters,' as the toad said to 
the harrow-teeth, Prov. in Brighouse News (July 23, 1887). (10) 
ne.Sc. At times a bundle or two of harrow-tynes to dry and harden, 
GREGOR Flk-Lore (1881) 51. [The plough-irons new-laid the 
harrow-tines new-laid, sharpened, and firmly fastened, STEPHENS 
Farm Bk. (ed. 1849) I. 504.] (n) Nhb.i 
2. Phr. (i) to live or to lead a life like a toad under a harrow, 
to suffer from ill-treatment or ill-usage ; (2) to pass the 
harrow, see below; (3) to trail a light harrow, to be a 
bachelor ; to have a small family, have few worries or 
cares ; (4) to clear the harrows, to get one's object, attain 

one's desire ; (5) to have one leg over the harrows, to break 
loose, become unmanageable ; (6) to run away with the 
harrows, (a) to be in too great a hurry ; (b) to carry off the 
prize; to acquire superiority; (7) to run off with ihenarrows, 
(a) to go too fast ; to carry things too far ; (b) see (5) ; (8) 
to see or hear how the harrows are going, to see how matters 
are progressing. 

(i)Sc. (A. W.), Dur. 1 , n.Yks. 2 (2)Sh.I.Passin'theharrow...wasa 
performance seldom practised, except by some person of a ' deil-may- 
care ' disposition. . . This was supposed to unfold the future, even 
the spirit world ; and the person who had the hardihood to ' go i' 
da harrow ' never revealed what they either saw or heard, and 
always warned others not to try such a trick. . . Three harrows 
were placed, some distance apart, outside the open fodder door 
of an old barn, and at the hour of midnight a person went blind- 
fold into the yard, and passed back foremost over each harrow in 
turn, thence through the barn window, and at the end of the jour- 
ney he was supposed to fall into a sort of trance and hear and see 
unutterable things, SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) 194. (3) n.Yks. Neea, 
neea, he's nane married. He still trails a leeght harrow, ATKIN- 
SON Maori. Parish (1891) 35 ; n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 He trails a light 
harrow, his hat covers his family ; n.Yks. 4 , w.Yks. 1 (4) Ayr. O, 
for a cot, a wee bit grun', An' twa three lads, that trade in fun, To 
be my marrows, Then, let the warld lose or win, I've clear'd the 
harrows, AINSLIE Land of Burns (ed. 1892) 215. (5) Sc. A phr. 
borrowed from an unruly horse or ox (JAM.) ; She has her leg 
ower the harrows now . . . stop her wha can, SCOTT Old Mortality 
(1816) viii. (6, a) Sc. Applied to those who do not reason fairly 
(JAM. "I. Dmb. Hooly, freends, hooly ! Ye mauna rin awa' wi' the 
harrows that way, CROSS Disruption (1844) xxxix. e.Ltli. Ye're 
rinnin awa wi' the harrows noo, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895 79. (b) 
Ayr. (JAM.) (7, a) Sc. That's a wheen blethers, Will ! an it's aye 
your way to run aff wi' the harrows, Cracks about Kirk (1843) I- 
3. (b) Rnf. Twad be a guid joke if a rough kintry chiel Soud rin 
afT wi' the harrows. PICKEN Poems (1813) II. 132. (8) Ayr. We 
was curious too, ye ken, just to hear hoo the harrows were gaun, 
noo that Robert Simpson has been left the rough o' the siller, 
JOHNSTON Glcnbuckic (1889) 74. 

3. pi. The longitudinal bars of a harrow. Wil. DAVIS 
Agric. (1813) ; Wil. 1 

4. v. Fig. With up : to arouse, stir up. 

Edb.To harrow up the Juler's rage, L,EARMONT.Pos(i79i) 166. 

5. To harass, distress, fatigue greatly. Gen. used in pp. 
Lin. (HALL.) n.Lin. I was fair arra'd wi' it all (M.P.) ; SUTTON 

Wds. (i88ij ; n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 It's fit to harrow one to dead. I 
was harrowed, taking up after my husband in one of them closen. 

6. To be beaten, overcome, brought to a standstill ; to be 
obstructed by an impediment or obstacle. Gen. in pp. 

e.Yks. 1 Ah thowt Ah could lowzen this knot, but Ah's boon t! 
be harrovv'd. Glo. 1 He was goin to the station with all them 
things, and was reglar harrowed, and had to get a man to help 
carry them. 

HARROW, si. 2 Dor. The hinder upright timber of 
a gate by which it is hung to its post, the ' harr.' 

The one in the middle, between the harrow and the head, is the 
middle spear, BARNES Gl. (1863) ; (C.W.) 

[Ye harrow of a gate, Ace. St. John's Hosp. Canterbury 
(1528) (N.E.D.).] 

HARROW-GOOSE, sb. Irel. [Not known to our 
correspondents.] A large bird (?). 

N.I. 1 HARRIS Hist. Dum. (1744). 

HARROWSTER, sb. Sc. A spawned haddock. 

ne.Sc. The saying about the spawned haddock, harrowster or 
kameril, is that it is not good till it gets three dips in the May flood, 
GREGOR Flk-f.ore (18811 146. Bnff. 1 

HARRUP, HARRUST, see Hairif, Harvest. 

HARRY, sb. 1 Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also in forms hairey Lnk. ; harie Sc. (JAM.); herry Yks. ; 
horry se.Wor. 1 [h)a - ri.] 1. In comb. (i)Harry-banning, 
the stickleback, Gasterosteus tracliurus ; (2) behint, always 
last or behindhand ; (3) Denchman, the hooded crow, 
Corvus cornix ; (4) Hurcheon or Hutcheon, a children's 
game ; see below ; also called Curcuddie (q.v.) ; (5) -long- 
legs, the cranefly or daddy-long-legs, Tipula gigantea ; 
(6)-purcan, the game of 'blind man's buff '; (7) Whistle, 
a name given to the second finger ; (8) Wibel, a name 
given to the thumb. 

(i) n.Cy. (HALL.) (2) Cum. 14 (3) e.An. 1 Nrf. Arch. (1879) 




VIII. 170. (4) n.Sc. The game called Harry Hurcheon ... is a gro- 
tesque kind of dance, performed in a shortened posture, sitting on 
one's hams, with arms akimbo, the dancers forming a circle of 
independent figures, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes (1890) 139; The 
name of a play among children, in which they hop round in a ring, 
sitting on their hams (JAM.). (5) e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Occasionally, but 
daddy-long-legs is more common. s.Chs. 1 . nw.Der. 1 . Not. 1 , s.Not. 
(J.P.K.), Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 12 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 'Arry, 'Arry-lung 
legs, Couldna say 'is prars ; Kecht 'im by the lef leg, An throwed 
'im down stars, Children's Doggerel Verse. Hnt. (T.P.F.^ (6) Per. 
(G.W.) (7, 8) w.Yks. 2 Well known in the neighbourhood of 
Sheffield (s.v. Fingers). 

2. The devil, esp. in comb. Old Harry, Lord Harry, &c. 
Sc. (JAM.) Per. I'll play old Harry wi ye (G.W.). Lnk. By 

the livin' hairey, if I could win ower tae them I wad gi'e them 
something tae lauch at, WARDROP /. Maihison (1881) 44. Dub. 
(A.S.-P.) Wmh. By the lord Harry (#.). Yks. Herry with long 
nails, the Devil \K.). w.Yks. 2 A girl said that her rubbing-stones 
in the kitchen were 'as hard as Old Harry.' Lan. I wundurt what 
i' th' neme o' owd harry, wurt' do weh meh, PAUL BOBBIN Sequel 
(1819)17; I'm fettlet now, by the Lord Harry ! BURNETT Haworih's 
(1887^ xxxvi. Nrf. Yow'd maake peaace wuth owd Harry hisself! 
A.B.K. Wrights Fortune (1885^1 55. 

3. Phr. to play harry over any one, to beat or punish 
severely. N.Cy. 1 , Yks. (J.W.) 

4. A countryman, rude boor; an opprobrious term ap- 
plied to a woman. 

Fif. The severest criticism of conduct indeed was directed to the 
frailer sex, progressively characterized by the epithets ' gilpy,' 
'besom,' 'hizzie,' 'harry,' 'randy,' ' limmer,' COLVILLE Vernacular 
(1899) 18. w.Yks. (HALL.), w.Yks. 1 

5. The youngest and smallest pig in a litter. Also in 
comb. Harry pig. 

Hrt. You call 'em Harries, we call 'em cads at my home (G.H. G.). 
Hrt., Cmb., Ken., Wil. Common (J.W.B.). 

6. The male of any species of animal. e.Lan. 1 

7. The remainder of the porridge left in the dish after 
every one has been supplied. 

Lakel. 2 When t'poddish hes been sarra'd oot, an' ther's some 
left, that's Harry. Wm. Barley me t'harry [a hungry lad's method 
of claiming more than his share] (B.K. ). 

HARRY, sb. 2 and v. 1 Sc. Yks. Also in form ary e.Yks. 

1. sb. A harrow. 

Sc. Ye're like Burns, surely, ye've pickit it up ... at the ploo, 
an' the harries, SWAN Gates of Eden (1895) vii. 

2. v. Obs. To harrow, turn up the soil for the destruction 
of weeds. 

e.Yks. Christmasse, when men shoulde beginne to fallowe and 
ary, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 76. 

HARRY, v? Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. I.Ma. 
Der. Nhp. War. Also in forms hairry ne.Sc. ; hairy Fif; 
herrie Bnff. 1 ; herry Sc. Cai. 1 N.Cy. 2 Nhb. Lakel. 1 Cum. 
Wm. I.Ma. [h)a - ri, hje'ri.] 1. To rob, plunder, pillage, 
used esp. of robbing birds' nests. 

ne.Sc.They hairry folk biggin kirks and payin' steepin's, Gordon- 
haven (1887) 86. Bnff. Thae to herry Wha simply trust the 
h born rogues, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 10. Abd. It was no use 
people herryin' themsel's an' throwin' awa gweed siller upon 'im, 
ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 96. Frf. Think shame of yotirsel', 
lassie, for harrying birds' nests, BARRIE Tommy (1896) 169. Per. 
Be sure he's herryin' craws' nests, FORD Harp (1893) 152. Fif. 
Peeseweet, peeseweet, hairy my nest and gar me greet, COLVILLE 
Vernacular (1899) 12. s.Sc. Did the rascal harry ye oot and oot ? 
WILSON Tales (1839) V. 18. Dinb. To herry Halket on the 
Tyesday night, SALMON Gowodean (1868) 14. Lnk. Herrying 
nests in the wuds, FRASER Whaups (1895) xii. ^ e.Lth. Thae 
locus' beas' that cam up in a michty swarm . . . an' herried the 
haill land o' Israel, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895) 83. Edb. Herryin' 
Unties, yites an' kays, FORBES Poems (1812) 104. Slk. As for 
pyats an' the like, I used to herry them without compunction, 
CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) III. 4. Gall. To harry their houses 
and gear, CROCKETT Standard Bearer (1898) 52. Wgt. The Bailie 
wad travel frae Wigtown tae Burrowhead tae harry a piet's nest, 
FRASER Wigtown (1877) 263. n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; Border Gl. 
(Coll. L.L.B.); N.Cy. 12 Nhb. Thoo'l't take care o' me? Thoo 
winnot let her harry me again, that gate? CLARE Love of Lass 
(1890) I. 216 ; The word survives in constant use as applied to the 
pillage of birds' nests, &c. (R.O.H.) Dur. GIBSON Up-Weardale 
Gl. (1870). Lakel. 1 Cum. A hive, owr ventersome wad herry, 

RELPH Misc. Poems (1747) 60; There was a corbie's nest in the 
hee plantin but it was harried lang syne (J.Ar.) ; Gl. (1851) ; Cum. 1 ; 
Cum. 4 Refers gen. to birds' nests. Cum., Wm. NICOLSON (1677) 
Trans.R. Lit. Soc. (1868 IX. e.Yks. THOMPSON #</. Welton(i&6g). 

Hence (i) Harried, ppl. adj. plundered, robbed, pillaged ; 
(2) Harryer or Herrier, sb. a robber ; a rifler of birds' 
nests ; (3) Harrying or Herrying, (a) ppl. adj. robbing, 
plundering ; (b) vbl. sb. the act of robbing or plundering ; 
(4) Harry-net, sb. a net, used to catch or retain fish of 
a small size ; (5) Herrial or Herrieal, sb. that which 
causes loss or ruin ; fig. a great expense ; (6) Herriement, 
see (3, b) ; (7) Kerry-water, sb. (a) see (4) ; (b) a selfish 
person who takes all he can get. 

(i) Lnk. Like a lanely herrit ane [bird] Nae biding place I've 
here, LEMON St. Mungo (1844) 18. Dmf. I lookit roun At oor 
herrit nest, REID Poems '1894) 128. Gall. Like a bird out of a 
harried nest, CROCKETT Standard Bearer (1898) 226. (2) Per. He 
had repeatedly foiled parties of Highland harryers, MONTEATH 
Dunblane (1835) 19, ed. 1888. Ayr. Quate, retired, and ooto' the 
herders' ken, SERVICE Notandums (1890) 51. Slk. When I was 
a laddie, I was an awfu' herrier, CHR. NORTH Noctes fed. 1856) 
III. 3. (3, a) Gall. Like bees from a byke upon a company of 
harrying boys, CROCKETT Standard Bearer (1898) 314. (6) Ayr. 
The nests would be weel worth the herryin', SERVICE Dr. Duguid 
(ed. 1887) 262. (4) n.Sc. (JAM.) (5) Bnff. 1 It's a perfit herrieal 
t' ha'e t' keep sae mony servan's. Abd. They're sic a herrial,that 
bulks, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) x. (6} Fif. Kirk-spulyie, 
herriement, and raid, Gaed on mair fast than ever, TENNANT 
Papistry (1827) 210. Ayr. The herryment and ruin of the country, 
BURNS Brigs of Ayr (1787) 1. 171. (7, a) Sc. (JAM.) (6) Cai. 1 
The phr. refers to such as would clear all the fish out of a stream 
by dragging it with a net, thus leaving none to the angler. 

2. To harass, oppress, despoil, ruin ; to hunt or drive 
off; to drag or carry off. Gen. with q^"or out. 

Sc. They have come to herry us out of house and ha', SCOTT 
Leg. Mont. (1818) iv. Kcd. We're herrit, wife! we're herrit 
clean! Faur, faur's the fusky pig? GRANT Lays (1884) 6. Per. 
Noo ye wud harry [hunt] me aff again, IAN MACLAREN K. Carnegie 
(1896) 217. Dmb. Be harried out like gipsy horde at e'en, 
SALMON Gowodean (1868) 24. Ayr. The avenger coming to herry 
you out o' house and hame, GALT Lairds (1826) xiv. Lnk. The 
bairns o' yer bairns . . . Will be harry't wi' taxes, an' put to the 
horn, HAMILTON Poems (1865) 46. Kcb. We'll be harried out o' 
house an' ha' in a crack, ELDER Borgue (1897) 28. w.Yks. The 
divil's harried off his soul, BRONTE Wuthering fits. (1847) xxxiv. 
Lan. When owd Holte and t'Ratchda 'torney ud a harried me off 
yon bit of waste. KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) III. 74; 
Harry them o' fro' their feythers graves an' owd whoams, ib. I. 191. 

3. To harass, tease, worry, bother ; to overdo, urge, 
impel, hurry on. Also usedy?-. 

Wm. (E.C.), n.Yks. 2 , e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Ben wor one o' them 
poor miln hands 'at hed been ' harrud off,' Yksman. (1880) 139. 
Lan. An oi wunnot harry a poor man wi' law, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH 
Scarsdale (1860) III. 74 ; Yo' dunnot harry me wi' talk, BURNETT 
Lowrie's (,1877) vii. I.Ma. The short seas herryin her, BROWN 
Yarns (1881) 265, ed. 1889. nw.Der. 1 War. 1 When a number of 
workmen are employed together, and one supplies another with 
such a load as he is unable to convey in time to the next, he is 
said to harry the man, and the person thus harried or overladen is 
turned out of the party ; War. 2 

Hence (i) Harried, ppl. adj. overdone, wearied, jaded ; 
harassed ; (2) Harry, int., see below ; (3) Harrying, ppl. 
adj. worrying, harassing, wearying. 

(i) Nhb. Aa'm fairly herryt oot, man, wi' carryin' that poke o' 
yets up thame lang granery stairs (R.O.H. ). Lakel. 2 Ah's fairly 
harried. Ye've harried mi' wi' meat. e.Yks. 1 s.Lin. A farm 
labourer on being asked how he is or how he feels after a hard 
day's work, usually answers ' I'm harrad ' (T.H.R.). (2) Nhp. 1 A 
jeering interjectional imperative, used when a labourer or navigator 
is overladen and cannot wheel his barrow (for instance) along : 
his fellow-workmen then cry out 'harry! harry!' (3) n.Yks. 2 
A harrying sort of a body. 

HARRY-GAUD, sb. and v. n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Nrf. Also 
written harrigaud Yks. ; harrygawd n.Cy. ; and in forms 

wanton girl or child ; a run-about, flighty or good-for- 
nothing person. Also used^. and attrib. 





n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; (K.); BAILEY (1731); N.Cy. 12 , Nhb.i Yks. 
She's a wonderful sensible young body, is Letty, noan o' yer 
harrygauds, FARQUHAR Frankheart, 199. n. Yks. When Ah'dgetten 
t'awd harrigooad . . . tonn'd out o' t'gardin', TWEDDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (1875) 48 ; n.Yks. 2 'A harrigoad wind,' a rushing mighty 
wind. ' A coarse harrigoad fellow.' ne.Yks. 1 Whau's them harry- 
gauds 'at gans shootin' an' beealin an' gaapin i t'toon ? m.Yks. 1 

2. A master of labour, who is continually goading on his 
workmen to greater exertion. e.Yks. 1 

3. v. To go about in a wild, flighty manner ; to ramble, 
roam about. 

Yks. Mind thou comes yam i' good time, an' dinnet gan harri- 
gaudin' about (T.K.). m.Yks. 1 Freq. used towards grown children. 
' Where's thou been harrigoading while [till] now ? ' 

HARRYWIG, see Earwig. 

HARSH, adj. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Chs. Stf. Der. Rut. 
Nhp. War. Glo. Hnt. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Som. Also in 
forms ash Stf. 1 Rut. ; harrish Nhb. 1 ; hash Dur. 1 w.Yks. 1 
nw.Der. 1 Nhp. 1 War. 3 Glo. 1 Hnt. Hmp. 1 I.W. 12 Wil. 
w.Som. 1 [af, h)aj, aef.] 1. Of the wind or weather: 
piercing, bitter, cold, severe. Cf. hask, adj. 1 

Nhb. The wun's varry harrish (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 w.Yks. 1 
It is hash and cold. Chs. 1 The opposite to ' melsh ' (q.v.). s.Chs. 1 
It)s fl aa'rsh weynd bloa'in tQdee- mai'z dhu ae-r snai'ch [It's a 
harsh weind blowin' to-dee mays the air snaitch]. Stf. 1 Ash 
wind, east wind. Rut. I have a bad cold, and am hoast all through 
them ash winds, N. V Q. (1876-1 sth S. v. 363. Nhp. 1 It's a very 
hash wind. Glo. 1 Applied to the east wind. Hnt. (T.P.F.) 
n.Wil. Used commonly in the expression used of March weather : 
' 'Tis vurry hash dryin' ' (E.H.G.). 

2. Unpleasant, rough ; parched, dry ; not pliable. 
nw.Der. 1 Nhp. 1 My hands are very hash. War. 3 It is very 'ash 

and dry [speaking of arable land]. Hmp. 1 That rope's too hash. 
Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825). w.Som. 1 Chiefly applied to texture 
or material, to denote want of softness. The word would not be 
applied to conduct. ' This yer cloth don't han'le soft enough, 'tis 
too hash ; I be safe font wear.' 

3. Vigorous, energetic, hasty, impetuous. 

s.Chs. 1 Yoa wiid-)nu thingk- uz Ben ud gy'et su eksahytid; biit 
ey)z aa'rsh wen ey gy'ets ugy'ai't [Yo wudna think as Ben 'ud 
get so excited; but he's harsh when he gets agate]. I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 
Don't ee be too hash wi' that colt. 

HARSK, see Hask, adj. 1 

HARSLEM, sb. Ken. 1 [a'zlam.] An asylum. 

When he got to settin' on de hob and pokin' de fire wid's 
fingers, dey thought 'twas purty nigh time dey had him away to 
de harslem. 

HARSLET, HARST, HARSY, see Haslet, Harvest, 
Haw, sb. 1 

HART, sb. and v. n.Cy. Yks. Also Hmp. Dor. Also 
written heart Hmp. 1 I. sb. In comb, (i) Hart-berries, 
the whortle-berry, Vaccinium myrtillus ; (2) -(s claver or 
clover, obs., the melilot, Melilotus officinalis. 

(i) Dor. BARNES Gl. (1863); N. & Q. (.1877) 5th S. viii. 45. (a) 
n.Cy. GROSE (1790); (K.); BAILEY (1721); N.Cy. 2 , Yks. (B. & H.) 
2. v. Phr. to go harting, to gather whortle- or bilberries. 
Hmp. 1 

HART, HARTISTRAW, HARTLE, see Haft, sb. 1 , 
Harvest-shrew, Harkle. 

HARTOGS, sb. pi. War. See below. 

I dote on what are called ' hartogs ' that is, good clothes that 
are gone to the bad or at any rate are a long way past their best, 
Midi. C. Herald ,Sept. 15, 1898). 

HARTS, see Ort. 

HARUM, adj. Nhp. 1 [e-ram.] Untidy, slovenly. 

HARVE, sb. 1 and v. Dev. Cor. [av.] 1. sb. A harrow. 

Dev. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). s.Dev., e.Cor. (Miss D.) 
Cor. THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) Gl. ; Cor. 12 

2. v. To harrow. 

Cor. So I ploughed and harvey'd, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes 
(1895) 6 ; Cor. 2 
[2. ME. harwen, to harrow (P. Plowman).} 

HARVE, sb. 2 Ess. A close or small piece of land 
near a house ; a 'haw.' Gl. (1851) ; Ess. 1 

HARV(E, HARVER, see Hauve, v. 1 , However. 

HARVEST, sb. and v. Var. dial, forms and uses in Sc. 
Irel. and Eng. I. Dial, forms : (i) Arrest, (2) Aurrust, 

(3) Haerst, (4) Hairst, (5) Haist, (6) Rarest, (7) Har'est, 
(8) Harras, (9) Harrast, do) Harrest, (11) Harrist, (12) 
Harroost, (13) Harrost, (14) Harrust, (15) Harst, (16) 
Har'st, (17) Harvis, (18) Harwust, (19) Hearesth, (20) 
Hearst. [For further examples see n. below.] 

(i) Glo. 1 , w.Som. 1 Dev. I've a mind tu bide till arter 'ay-arrest, 
PHILLPOTTS Dartmoor ( 1896} 144. (a) Wor. GROSE (1790). (3) 
Rnf. After haerst, our kirn cam' roun', PICKEN Poems (.1813) I. 
137. (4) Sc. (JAM.), Cai. 1 , Bnff. 1 Nhb. There's going to be a good 
hairst, WHITE Nhb. (1859) 6a. (5) Mry. (JAM.) (6) n.Dev. How 
dedst thee stertlee upon the Zess last barest, Exm. Scold. (1746) 
' 3 2 - 17) w.Yks. 3 Som, Tis handy enough to get in the har'est 
just so well, RAYMOND Men o" Mendip (1898) viii. (8) Som. 
JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1835"). (9) Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 , Shr. 2 
(10) Yks. (K.\ Glo. 1 Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1835). w.Som. 1 Dev. 
Za zune's the harrest is awver, HEWETT Peas. Sf. (1892). n.Dev. 
GROSE (1790). (n) Gall. (A.W.) Nhb. The hindor-end o' barley 
harrist, RoBSONBA. Ruth (1860) xi. 23. (12) Shr. 1 113) Der. 1 (14) 
w.Yks. 2 (15) Sc. QAM.) (16) Edb. Our eldin's driven, an' our 
har'st is owr, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) no, ed. 1785. Bwk. The 
earliest ha'rst that e'er was seen, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 
19. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) Cum. 1 (17) w.Yks. (J.W.) 
I.Ma. The Docthor must come with him for harvis, BROWN Doctor 
(1887) 46. (18) Don. To sport it in the Glenties harwust fair, 
MACMANUS Maguire in Harper's Mag. (Jan. 1900) 212. (19) Wxf. 1 
(20) Rnf. The hearst on us is drawing, WEBSTER Rhymes (1835) 3. 

II. Dial. uses. 1. sb. In COM/>.(I) Harvest-beef, butcher's 
meat, eaten in harvest, whether beef or mutton ; (2) -beer, 
strong, twelve-month-old ale ; (3) -bell, a bell rung daily 
during harvest at the parish church ; (4) -bottle, a small 
cask or barrel with handles in which beer or cider is 
carried to the fields at harvest-time ; (5) -bug, the lady- 
bird, Coccinella septempitnctata ; (6) -cart, the cart carrying 
the last load of harvest; (7) -dam, harvest-home; (8) 
day, a day during harvest ; (9) -drink, (a) thin ale brewed 
for harvest; (b) see (2); (10) -ears, deaf-ears; see 
below; (n) -folks, workers engaged as harvesters; (12) 
-gearing or -gears, the rails fixed on a cart for carrying 
hay or corn ; (13) -gloves, special sheepskin gloves used 
in binding corn into sheaves ; (14) -goose, (a) a goose pro- 
vided at a harvest-supper; (b) a young goose fed on 
stubble ; (15) -hog, a young sheep that is smeared at the 
end of harvest, when it ceases to be a lamb ; (16) -home, 
(a) the feast given by a farmer at the conclusion of the 
harvest ; (b) winter ; (17) -hummard, a beetle very pre- 
valent at harvest-time ; (18) -lady, the second reaper in 
the row, who takes the place of the principal reaper, on 
his occasional absence ; (19) -lice, the fruits of the common 
agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria, and the goose-grass, 
Galium Aparine ; (20) -lily, the great bindweed, Convol- 
vulus septum (21) -load, the last load carried in harvest ; 
(22) -loaf, a large loaf, placed on the altar at a harvest- 
festival, and afterwards divided amongst the poorest 
villagers; (23) -lord, the principal reaper, who goes first 
and whose motions regulate those of his followers ; (24) 
maiden, a figure formed of a sheaf, which surmounted 
the last load of grain brought home ; (25) -man, (a) a 
worker only employed at harvest-time ; (b) a kind of 
spider with very long legs ; the cranefly, Tepula gigan/ea; 

(26) -Monday, the Monday occurring about four weeks 
before the anticipated commencement of the local harvest ; 

(27) -moon, the September moon ; (28) -play, the holidays 
of a school during the time of harvest ; the autumn holi- 
days ; (29) -queen, the belle of the harvest-home dance ; 
(30) -rig, (a) the harvest-field or field on which reaping 
goes on ; (b) the couple, man and woman, who reap 
together in harvest ; (31) -roup, the sale by auction held 
at a harvest-fair; (32) -schelley, a variety of Salmo 
lavaretus ; (33) -shearers, workers at the harvest ; (34) 
-vaicance, see (28) ; (35) -wet or -whet, a beer frolic at 
the commencement ofharvest. 

(i) Nrf. GROSE (1790). e.Nrf. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1787". 
e.Snf. I'm fatting this bullock for harvest-beef (F.H.). (2) Shr. 1 
(3) e.Yks. The ancient custom of ringing the harvest bell daily 
during harvest at the parish church, Driffield, was begun yesterday. 
The first bell is rung at five in the morning, and the evening bell 
at eight. The parish clerk has performed this duty for fifty years, 




he having just completed his jubilee in that office, Dy. Mail (Aug. 
23, 1898). (4) War. (J.R.W.) (5) Cum. In one or two localities, 
notably at Skinburness (E.W.P.). (6) s.Not. It used to be 
decorated with ash boughs, and the boys of the village rode 
in it singing their traditional songs ; while of the bystanders 
some threw water at them, others scrambled apples. ' Mester 
[so and so] es got 'is corn, Well shorn, well mawn, Never 
nulled ower, yet never stuck fast, And 'is 'arvest cart's comin home 
at \ast,' Flk.Sng. (J.P.K.) Nhp. 1 Oxf. 1 MS. add. Hnt. (T.P.F.) 
(7) Yks. (HALL.) ; (K.) (8) Ayr. A hairst day, wi' the mist lying 
thick i' the glen, JOHNSTON Glenbuckie (1889) 58. Som. When 
zummertime is passin An harras das be vine, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. 
w.Eng. (1825) 129. (9, a) w.Som. 1 It is usually thin stuff, and 
' fresh ' or new. ' I be very zorry, zir, we 'ant nort in house but 
harrest-drink, and you widn care much about that, I reckon.' (b) 
Shr. 1 ' They'n got some o' the best owd beer at Goff 's o' Wes'ley 
as ever I tasted.' 'Aye, they wun al'ays noted fur good 'arr6ost- 
drink." (10) Nhp. 1 'You've got your harvest ears on, I can't 
make you hear.' This expression may have arisen from the 
custom of hooting loudly in the harvest field, to those who are at 
a distance. 1^11) Dmf. The hairst folks gaun a-field, THOM Jock o' 
Knowe (1878) 3. (12) Chs. 1 ; Chs. 2 Thrippows the harvest-geers 
of carts and waggons, which are moveable and put on only when 
hay or corn is to be carried (s.v. Thrippows). s.Chs. 1 The 
harvest-gearing consists of front and back thrippas (s.v. Cart). 
(,13) nw.Dev. ' (14, a) Shr. The great aim, and the chief subject 
of self-congratulation, is that all the corn should be safely ' lugged ' 
or ' carried ' . . . without overthrowing a single load. The penalty 
for overthrowing, used, in the old times, to be the loss of the 
goose at the harvest-supper. Whatever other good things there 
might be, this, which was otherwise the labourer's due, was 
forfeited if a load was overthrown, BURNE Flk-Lore (1883) 375 ; 
Shr. 1 (b) IT. (W.J.K.) (15) Sc. (JAM.) (16, ) Nhb., Dur. Of 
which our Harvest Home and Mell Supper in the north are the 
only remains, BRAND Pop. Antiq. (ed. 1777) 305. n.Lin. 1 , Oxf. 1 , 
Brks. 1 Bdf. Hickely, hockely, harvest home ! Three plum- 
puddings are better than none, Want some water and can't get 
none ! (J.W.B.) (6) Sc. Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 435. '17) Lin. 1 
(18) Lin. 1 e.An. 1 The second reaper in the row, who does not 
seem to have been ever so regularly greeted by the title, except 
on the day of harvest-home. e.Suf. (F.H.) (19) Hmp. WISE 
New Forest (1883) 283 ; The fruits of both species are covered with 
small hooks, by which they cling to the clothes (15. & H.) ; Hmp. 1 
(20) Sur. (B. & H.) (21) Nnp. 2 (22) Hmp. (W.M.E.F.) (23) 
Lin. THOMPSON Hist. Boston (1856) 709 ; Lin. 1 , e.An. 1 , e.Suf. 
(F.H.) (24)80. A sweet and winsome lassie was Mary Campbell. . . 
No harvest maiden or other merrymaking was complete without 
her, SWAN Gates of Eden (1895) iv. (25, a) Hrt. A month's man, 
or, as we call it, a harvestman, ELLIS Mod. Husb.(i-]^o]: I. vi. (6) 
n.Lin. 1 Nhp. 2 One of those insects which superstition protects 
from wanton injury. Their abundance is supposed to denote a dry 
harvest. Ess. N. & Q. (1853) ist S. vii. 152. Wil. 1 Dor. BARNES 
Gl. (1863) ; N. & Q. (1877 5th S. viii. 45. (26) n.Sc. Certain 
days known as ' feein' Friday,' ' hairst Monday,' and such like. . . . 
' Hairst Monday' occurring about four weeks before the anticipated 
commencement of the local harvest, GORDON Carglcn V i8gi; 66. 

(27) Sc. I notice that the hairst munes a' rin vera like the seed 
anes, OCHILTREE Redburn (1895) ii. Sh.I. Glower an' glower 
till ivery ee wis lack a hairst miin, STEWART Tales (1892) 
252. Frf. They baith slaid awa" in the bricht hair'st-mune, 
Longman's Mag. (Feb. 1893) 439. Fif. Like a raw O' hairst- 
moons down the table, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 24. Lnk. Ye 
micht glower through the reek at the bonny hairst mune, HAMIL- 
TON Poems ( 1865) 150. Ayr. Weel do I like the braid hairst moon, 
Ballads and Sngs. (1847) II. 109. Gall. We may know by the 
sublime science of Astronomy ' That the Harrist Moon Rises nine 
nights alike soon,' MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 254, ed. 1876. 
s.Sc., s.Ir., Lan. HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 250. 

(28) Sc. (H.E.F.) Abd. Mr. Peterkin was wont, when the hairst 
play came, to hire himself out as a raker, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb 
(1871) ix. (29) Edb. Thus to be placed at e'en, An' be amang that 
happy band, The dautit harvest queen, MDOWALL Poems (1839) 
218 ; The chiel the harst queen's heart has won, ib. 222. (30, a) 
Sc. Will ye gang out and see the hairst-rig ? (JAM.) Fif. There 
never was sic chaft-blade blatter On hairst-rigs or on crafts, 
TENNANT Papistry (1827) 116. Ayr. No courtier ever showed 
more gallantry towards the fair sex than did the youths on the 
hairst-rig, WHITE Jottings (1879) 48. Kcb. So unlike auld Millha' 
on the hairst rig, ELDER Borgue (1897) 31. (b) Cld. (JAM.) (31) 
Sh.I. Dey hed a cow ... an dey were of a mind to sell her at da 
Hairst Roup for da rent, BURGESS Lowra Biglan ^1896) 55. (32) 

Cum. In the autumnal months, a larger species weighing from 
seven to twenty ounces, is taken (but in smaller quantities) along 
with the trout, &c. These are of a much superior quality, and are 
denominated Harvest Schelley, HUTCHINSON Hist. Cum. (,1794) I. 
463- (33) Slk. Country maidens, such as ewe-milkers, . . har'st- 
shearers. HOGG Tales (1838) 359, ed. 1866. (34) e.Fif. As 
impatient ... as any thochtless schule-laddie ever was for the 
hairst-vaicance, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xxii. (35) Nrf. (E.M.) 

2. Phr. (i) back of harvest, after the harvest ; (2) head of 
harvest, the most important part of the harvest when the 
grain is all cut ; (3) tail of harvest, the end or finish of the 
harvest; (4) a hog in harvest, a young sheep that is 
smeared at the end of harvest, when it ceases to be a 
lamb; also called Harvest-hog (q.v.) ; (5) just your 'harvest, 
just what suits you, just what you like ; (6) to owe one a 
day in harvest, to owe one a good turn ; (7) as welcome as 
frost in harvest, very inopportune ; (8) to take a harvest, to 

engage oneself as a harvest-labourer. 

(i) Shr. 1 ' Wen's yore wakes, Turn ? ' ' Oh, back o' 'arr6ost ' ; 
Shr. 2 At the back o' quern harrast. (2) Abd. Gin ye hed seen 'im 
as I did, i' the vera heid o' hairst gyaun stoitin' aboot amo' the 
stocks at's leasure, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (,1882) 67. (3) Kcd. It 
fell aboot the tail o' hairst. . . The craps were maistly i' the yard, 
GRANT Lays (1884) 52. (4) Sc. The central dish was a yearling 
lamb, called a hog in har'st,' roasted whole, SCOTT Waverley 
(1814) xx. s.Sc. Ask a thief, what's the best mutton, he'll 
answer ' a hog's the better mutton in harst,' meaning that a young 
sheep, called a hog, can be eaten sooner after being killed than 
one that's older (JAM.). (5) Glo. (S.S.B.) (.6) Sc. The morn's a 
new day and Lord Evandale awes ye a day in har'st, SCOTT Old 
Mortality (1816) xxxii ; ' Aye, you owe him a day in hairst.' ' I 
owe him my wife. No harvest day will ever pay for that,' KEITH 
Bonnie Lady (1897) 207. (7) s.Sc. Aboot as welcome as frost i' 
hairst, I trow, SNAITH Fiercelieart (1897) 65. (8) Abd. The geet 
being now six months old, was spean't, and Baubie ' took a hairst,' 
ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 227. Frf. Gen. said of persons who 
have other occupations in the village, and who take the oppor- 
tunity to make some extra money in harvest-time (W.A.C.). 

3. The autumn crop of any kind, not restricted to wheat. 
Bdf. This term implies all the fruits of autumn, including beans. 

Clover, however, is not included, as it comes later in the year 

4. Autumn. 

Sc. Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 435 ; I was in London last harvest, 
Scoticisins (1787) 45. Sh.I. Mi Uncle Lowrie 'at deed da year 
afore last i da hairst, BURGESS Sketches (2nd ed.) 88. Per. Our 
summer's short, our hairst is cauld, MONTEATH Dunblane (1835) 
108. ed. 1887. 

5. v. To work in the harvest-field, gather in the corn. 
Bnff. 1 They wir hairstin' a' the ook. n.Cy. (J.W.) Shr. 2 My 

mon's gwun a harrasting. Ken. 1 ' Where's Harry ? ' ' Oh ! he's 
harvesting 'long with his father ' ; Ken. 2 w.Som.' He bin to work 
along vor Mr. Bird harrestin, but now he ant a got nort to do. 

Hence (i) Hairstan, Harresting, or Harroosting, vbl. 
sb. the act of getting in the corn or harvest ; (2) Harvester, 
sb. (a) a worker employed to assist in gettingin the harvest ; 
(b) a harvest-bug or small insect, prevalent about harvest- 

(i) Bnff. 1 Shr. 1 Our Dick's gwun 66th Jack Sankey an' a lot 
on 'em down t6ert Atchaman' Emstrey a-'arr&ostin'. w.Som. 1 We 
cant 'tend to no such jobs as that there, while the harrestin's 
about. (2, a) Ken. 12 (i) n.Lin. 1 , War.3, Brks. 1 

HARVEST-SHREW, sb. Stf. War. Won Shr. Hrf. 
Glo. Oxf. Wil. Also in forms artishrew Glo. 1 2 ; artishow 
Shr. 1 ; artisrobe m.Wor. ; artistrowGlo. 1 ; hardi-shraow 
se.Wor. 1 ; hardishrew Stf. 1 w.Wor. 1 ; hardistraw w.Wor. 1 
Hrf. 2 ; hardistrew s.Wor. ; hardistrow s.Wor. 1 ; hardy- 
shrew Glo.; hartistrawGlo. 1 ; harvest-row Wil. 1 ; harvest- 
shrow Oxf. ; harvest-trow Wil. 1 The shrew or harvest- 
mouse, Mus minimus. Cf. ard-srew. 

Stf. (K.), Stf. 1 , War. 3 , m.Wor. (J.C.), w.Wor. 1 , s.Wor. (H.K.), 
s.Wor. 1 , se.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 , Hrf. (W.W.S.), Hrf. 2 Glo. Horae 
Subsecivae (1777) 203; Glo. 12 Oxf. (G.E.D.) ; Science Gossip 
(1882) 165. Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825); Wil. 1 n.Wil. The 
nests of the ' Harvest Trow ' a still smaller mouse, seldom seen 
except in summer, JEFFERIES Wild Life (1879) 186 ; T'ean' a 
mouse 'tis a Harvest- row (E.H.G.). 

HARWICH, see Harriage. 

L 2 




HASE, sb. e.An. [ez.] The liver, heart, and lights of 
a pig; these parts seasoned, wrapped up in the omentum, 
and roasted. e.An. 1 , Nrf. (HALL.) Cf. haslet. 

HASE, HASEL, see Haze, v.\ Hazel, sb. 1 

HASH, sb. 1 Nhb. Lan. [h)aj.] 1. A sheep's lights 
boiled, then minced small and stewed with onions. Nhb. 1 
2. Comp. Hash-pudding, a large dumplingeaten at sheep- 
shearing ; a mess made of sheep's heart chopped with 
suet and sweet fruits. ne.Lan. 1 

HASH, s/>. 2 and v. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Not War. 
Hnt. Also in form ash n.Yks. [h)aj, aej.] 1. sb. A 
mess, muddle ; a confused mass ; disorder in money matters. 

Bnff. 1 The death o' the aul ooman made a hash nae ordinar 
amo' them : she kcepit thim a' thegeethir. He's a' till a hash. 
His maitters are a' in a hash. Abd. We gave them such a volley 
this time that they did not come to close quarters. A great hash 
o' them fell, and the rest galloped off, Dteside Tales (1872) 87. 
Per. You'll see a hash ere a' be dune, FORD Harp (1893) 346. 
n.Cy. (J.W.), Not. 8 

2. Careless, wasteful use ; destruction. 

Bnff. 1 There's an awfu' hash aboot that fairm-toon : ilky bodie 
haiks through a' thing. 

Hence (i) Hash-loch, sb. waste, refuse; (2) -mash, adv. 
slap-dash ; (3) -metram, adv . in a state of disorder, topsy- 
turvy ; (4) Hashrie, sb. destruction from carelessness. 

(j) Gall. MACTAGGART Encyd. (,1824) 256, cd. 1876. (a) Lnk. 
I've done war deeds than dash your heads Hash-mash against 
the hallen, WATT Poems (1827) 65. 13) Sc. (JAM.) (4) Rxb. (ib.) 

3. A noise, tumult ; strife, rioting ; ribald talk, nonsense. 
Bnff. 1 The tail . . . o' the market wiz a real hash ; the lads wir 

a' lickin' ane anither aboot thir lasses. Ther's an unco hash 
amo' the freens aboot the old bodie's siller. Abd. Ye began wi" 
sic a hash, And fear'd my bairn, BEATTIE Parings (1801) 43, ed. 
1873. Nhb. (R.O.H.) 

4. Phr. to settle one's hash, to overcome a person com- 
pletely. In gen. slang use. 

Sh.I. Tak' de tedder an' gie da grice a gud slaag or twa ower 
his lugs. Dat'll settle his hash, S/i. News (Nov. 6, 1897). Nhb. 
Their hash was sattlcd, So off we rattled, ALLAN Tyneside Sags. 
(ed. 1891) 96; (R.O.H.) Cum. 4 Lword Nelson settlt t'French ther 
hash at sea, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881 ; 105. n.Yks. Ah'll sattle 
your ash for you, if you don't be quiet (I.W.). War. 3 The pack 
very sharply settled his hash [killed the fox], B'liam Dy. Gazette 
(Feb. 18, 1899^. 

5. A heavy fall of rain. 

Sh.I. Gad keep a' frae a hash o' weet i' da tatties, S/i. News 
(Oct. 22, 1898). 

Hence Hashy, adj. wet, sleety, slushy. 

Lth., Bwk. A hashy day (JAM.). Nhb. 1 After snow begins to 
melt upon the ground it is, more especially if rain be falling, 
'hashy walking." The sea agitated by short turbulent waves is 
termed hashy. 

6. A wasteful, slovenly person ; one who talks nonsense, 
a fool ; a scamp ; also used as a term of endearment for 
a boy. 

Sc. ' What was I wanting to say ? ' answered Jenny . . . ' Ye 
muckle hash ! ' SCOTT Old Mortality 1,1816) xxviii ; There he sat, a 
muckle, fat, white hash of a man, STEVENSON Catriona (1893) xv. 
Cal. 1 Fif. Time . . . leaveth nocht to modern hashes But idle 
tales and empty clashes, TENNANT Papistry (1827) 214. e.Fif. 
' Ye may say sae,' remarkit anither smysterin hash, as she tane 
a hearty sook o' the buttersaps, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) ii. 
Slg. \Vha jeering snash, An' ca' me tentless, fretfu' hash, Mum 
Poems (1818) 25. s.Sc. He's a spiritless hash and no little 's the 
disgrace he's like to bring upon us a', WILSON Tales (1836) II. 163. 
Cld. (JAM.) Dmb. A young man was thought a wricked hash 
That had seduced a virtuous lass, TAYLOR Poems (1827) 90. Rnf. 
Crappie, the other night, poor hash ! Wi' hunger, took sae sair 
a brash, PICKEN Poems (1813) I. 61. Ayr. A poor doylt druken 
hash, BURNS Sc. Drink 1,1786) st. 15. Lnk. Clear the house of 
mony a hash Wi' empty brains, MUIR Minstrelsy (1816) 67. Lth. 
[I] feel ye hash, wi' a' your duds on, For you attractions like a 
loadstone, MACNEILL Poet. Wks. (1801) 47, ed. 1856. Edb. 'Tis 
no in poortith, or in cash, To curb a genius, change a hash, 
M c DoWALL Poems (1839) 33. Bwk. Wha e'er believe Betty's tales 
are a' silly hashes, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 98. Feb. 
The nauseous mixture fell Wi' jaws upon the sprawling hash, choak'd wi' th' taste and smell, Lintoun Green (1685) 62, cd. 
1817. SU. Oh! hoo I hate to hear a hash insist insistin that 

you shall tell a story, CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) IV. 269. 
Gall. In truth ilk worthy hash In estimation high is held 
By big Sir Balderdash, MACTAGGART Encyd. (1824), ed. 1876. 
N.I.', n.Cy. (HALL.), N.Cy.i Nhb. Ye greet blubberin hash 
(R.O.H.) ; This ye sud let some chiel done for ye, My boasting 
hash, DONALDSON Poems (1801) 215. Cum. 4 Tho' ye was rash, I'll 
scorn to wrang ye, senseless hash, Daft Bargain, 1. 17. 

Hence (i) Hash-a-pie, sb. a lazy, slovenly, greedy fellow; 
(2) Hasbly, adv. in a slovenly manner; (3) Hashy, adj. 
slovenly, careless, destructive. 

(i ) Sc. (JAM.) (a) Lnk. In hoden grey right hastily clad, 
RAMSAY Poems (1721) II. 388, ed. 1800 lib.}. (3) Sc. (JAM.), Cai. 1 

7. v. To slash, hack ; also used fig. 

Sc. Hagging and hashing at Christ s kirk, STEVENSON Catriona 
(1893) xv. Per. All raging there in blood, they hew'd and hash'd, 
FORD Harp (1893) 6. Ayr. They hack'd and hash'd, while braid- 
swords clash'd, BURNS Battle of Sheriffmuir, St. 2. Edb. Sortin' 
sairs an' broken banes Whan hash't an' smash't wi' coals an' 
stancs, FORBES Poems (18121 86. Rxb. A broom-stick take, and 
hash and smash, And all the ware to pieces dash, WILSON Poems 
(1824) 37. 

8. To spoil, damage, destroy, make a mess of. 

Sc. To hash grain, to injure it by careless reaping (JAM.) ; Ye're 
in your right to ask for my authority to interfere . . . to hash, 
may be, other folks' weft. COBBAN Andaman (.1895) xiii. Cai. 1 
To hash one's clothes. To hash the material in which one works. 
Edb. Winter's sour, Whase floods did erst their mailin's produce 
hash, FERGUSSON Poems 1,1773) 162, ed. 1785. Not. 1 

Hence Hashing, ppl. adj. wasteful, destructive ; over- 
flowing, as of a flood. 

Bnff. 1 He's a hashin' servan' : he blaads mair nor he's worth. 
Edb. Hashin', splashin', white or gray, O'er the dam-head, FORBES 
Poems (1812) 99. 

9. To bruise, ill-treat. 

Lnk. How unfeclin' wretches will Poor brutes torment an' hash, 
an' kill, WATT Poc is (1827) n. Nhb. 1 The horse was gye sair 

10. To grind corn partially. Nhb. 1 Hence Hashed, ppl. 
adj. crushed, ib. 

HASH, sb. 3 Som. A rash on the skin. (W.F.R.) 

HASHIE, adj. Sc. ? Rough, coarse. 

Edb. Characters with deformed legs, and thrawn necks, and 
blind eyes, and hashie lips, MOIR Mansic Wnuch (1828) xii. 

HASHINESS,.s6. Sc. Carelessness in dress, slovenli- 
ness. See Hash, sb? 

Fif. The elder sister, fikey and perjink, was severe on a younger 
brother's hashiness, COLVII.LE Vernacular 1,1899: 17. 

HASHTER, sb. and v. Ayr. (JAM.) Also in form 
hushter. [ha'Jtsr.j 1. sb. Work ill-arranged or exe- 
cuted in a slovenly manner. 2. v. To work in a hurried, 
slovenly, and wasteful manner. Hence Hashtered, ppl. 
adj. hurried. 

HASHY, sb. Sc. Also in form hassie Lth. (JAM.) 
[ha'Ji.J 1. A mess, muddle, confusion ; noise, riot; also 
used attrib. 

Bnff. 1 It is somewhat more emphatic than hash. Cld., Lth. (JAM.) 
2. An old sermon preached over again. 

Feb. Being often abroad in the service of God He dealt out his 
hashies at hame, AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (1836) 104; Yc've gien him 
a call to oppose Dr. Hall ; He'll feed you wi' hashies belyve. 
ib. 105. 

[1. Fr. hachis,a. hacheyor hachee,minced meat(CoTGR.).] 

HASK, adj. 1 , sb. 1 and v. In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. 
and Eng. Also written haske Cum. 1 w.Yks. 2 ; and in 
forms arsk w.Yks. 2 ; ask ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 2345 
Lan. 1 m.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Stf. 12 nw.Der^n.Lin.'sw.Lin. 1 War. 3 ; 
aske Cum. 1 ; asp e.Yks. 1 ; haisk Slk. Dmf. (JAM.) ; harsk 
n.Yks. 2 ; harske w.Yks. 2 ; hosk Chs. 1 ; yask s.Chs. 1 
[h)ask.] 1. adj. Of the weather: dry, parching, piercingly 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 A hask wind is keen and 
parching. Cum. (J.Ar.), s.Wm. (J.A.B.), n.Yks. (R.H.H.), 
ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks.s Damp and unsettled. n.Lan. (W.S.) ; 
ii. Lan. 1 A keen frosty wind is said to be ' varra hask.' ne.Lan. 1 , 
m.Lan. 1 Chs. Th' snow lay thick upo' th' ground, an' th' hask 
wind kept moanin' an" wailin', CHOSTON Enoch Crump (1887) 8; 
Chs. 1 A cold, dry east wind is said to be a hosk wind ; Chs. 3 
Stf. 2 Its veri ask Jiis mornin, % winds got raind to5 1st. Der. 2 




nw.Der. 1 It's a eest wind ; it's very 'ask en drey. Not. 3 Lin. 
STREATFEILD Lin. anti-Danes (1884") 265. sw.Lin. 1 How ask and 
parched I am ! Oh, it's the weather, and the ask winds, and that. 

Hence (i) Haskiness, sb. dryness and insipidity of food ; 
the parched condition of land ; (2) Haskish, adj. dry, 
harsh ; (3) Haskness, sb. dryness, harshness ; (4) Hasky, 
adj. dry, parched. 

(i) n.Yks. 2 (a) w.Yks. (JE.B.* (3) w.Yks. 3 (,4) Sc. GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (C.) Gall. For her he shook the hasky strae, 
NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (18141 137, ed 1897. N.I. 1 , Cav. (M.S.M.) 
n.Yks. Them turnips teeasts hasky ^I.W.) ; n.Yks. 4 w.Yks. Leeds 
Merc. Sitppl. (May 30, 1891) ; w.Yks. 24 Chs. Old people frequently 
speak of dry, piercing winds, as asky winds ; and dry, cold, windy 
weather is often spoken of as asky weather, Sheaf (1879) I. 271 ; 
Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 , Stf. 1 , Not. (L.C.M.) Shr. 1 'Ard an' 'asky land. 

2. Rough to the touch ; stiff, unyielding ; hard, brittle 
and difficult to work ; also used advb. 

Bwk., Rxb. (JAM.), N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Hask is also applied to the 
sense of feeling when anything from its touch appears unpleasantly 
dry or hard. Coarse worsted is hask to the feeling. ' Hask coal ' 
is very hard, brittle coal ; or coal that is ' winded,' or woody in 
texture. Dur. GIBSON Up-Weardale Gl. (1870^; Dur. 1 s.Dur. 
Spoken of any material with a coarse surface. ' It feels varra hask ' 
(J.E.D.). Lakel. 2 It maks yan's hands hask to howkamang lime. 
Cum. Of a horse's coat, without gloss, harsh and rough to the 
touch (J.Ar.) ; A dry, aske weeping no tears, DALBY Mayroyd 
(1880) III. 49; Cum. 1 Your cow hez a hask hide on her. n.Yks. 1 ; 
n.Yks. 2 ' As harsk as sawcum,' as sawdust ; spoken of bread. ' As 
hask as chopped hay ' ; n.Yks. 34 ne.Yks. 1 T'grass is bad ti cut, it's 
varra ask at t'boddum. e.Yks. Deficient in moisture ; spoken 
more particularly of food, as bread, MARSHALL Rtir. Econ. (1788) ; 
e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. His skin's varry ask, t'doctor says 
(J.R.) ; ' It handles ask,' might be said of wool if dried too quickly 
on a stove, Leeds Merc. Stiff/. (May 30, 1891); w.Yks. 1 'Hask 
grass,' rough, coarse grass. Also rigid or harsh to the touch, as 
' This cow handles vara hask' ; w.Yks. 3 It's varry ask and drau, 
and hasn't natur in it it owt to have ; w.Yks. 4 Not. ' It made my 
hair hask' or 'my hair became hask' (W.H.S.). n.Lin. 1 Strong 
clay land when baked by the sun is said to be very ask. ' You 
ha'nt anuther bit o' land . . . oht like as ask as th' top end o' th' 
Wood Cloas is.' sw.Lin. 1 'That cloth is stiff to work ?' ' Yes, it's 
hask, it's very hask.' War. 3 Lon. Then it always feels hask to 
the hand, MAYHEW Land. Labour (1851 ; 1.443. Hmp. (H.C.M.B.) 

Hence Hasky, adj. harsh, rough, coarse, unyielding ; 
also usedyzg'. and advb. 

s.Don. Stony ground hard to dig is called hasky (D.A.S.). 
n.Yks. 4 ne.Yks. 1 T'breead's that asky Ah can't eeat it. w.Yks. 2 
The hands of bricklayers are said to be hasky when they are 
covered with lime and dry. s.Chs. 1 We say, when a person has 
heard something unpleasant, ' It went daayn vcri aas'ki widh im' 
[It went dam very hasky with him 1 . Not. (L.C.M. ), Not. 1 Lei. 1 
The skin is dry and hasky. Nhp. 2 A person affected with a severe 
scorbutic affection described her face as ' very hasky.' 

3. Bitter, sour, tart, harsh to the taste. 

e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flk-Sf. (i88g) 66 ; e.Yks. 1 Give us another 
lump o' seeagur [sugar], teea's se hask. w.Yks. Leeds Merc. 
Suffl. (May 30, 1891); w.Yks. 2 Said of sour plums, &c. n.Lin. 
SUTTON Wds. (1881); n.Lin. 1 The Sale's as ask as whig. s.Lin. 
I can't eat sloes, they're so hask i' yer mouth ^T.H.R.). 

Hence Hasky, adj. harsh, bitter ; fig. ill-natured, harsh, 

s.Don. A man who is unkind to his children and severe with 
them is called a hasky father (D.A.S.). Cav. Mrs. Brady is a 
hasky neighbour (M.S.M.). Lan. 1 This ale has an asky taste. 

4. Dry, husky, hoarse. 

Nhb. A hask cough (R.O.H.). e.Lan. 1 Not. She seems to have 
such a hask cough on her (L.C.M.J. 
Hence Hasky, adj. husky. 
Sc. GROSE V i79o) MS. add. k C.) N.I. 1 , w.Yks. 24 , Stf. 1 , Shr. 1 

5. sb. A sharp, biting wind. Not. (W.H.S.) 

6. Dryness ; sharpness, crispness, as in cotton. w.Yks. 
(J.W.), w.Yks. 2 

7. A hoarse, dry cough; acoughto which animals,esp.calves, 
are subject, caused by worms in the windpipe. Cf.husk,.^. 1 

Nhb. (.R.O.H.), Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 Iv bo wuz mai'kin dhaat- aas'k, 
6o)d aav u oos on ur [If hoo was makin' that hask, hoo'd have a 
hooseonher; of a cow]. Dhaat- ky'aay)z got-n u naas'ti aas'k 
[That cai's gotten a nasty hask]. Shr. 1 'E's gotten sich a 'ask on 
Mm. Wil. LISLE Husbandry (1757) 343 ; Wil. 1 , Som. (W.F.R.) 

8. v. Toemitashort,drycough; to clear the throat; tomake 
a noise as a dog does when anything sticks in its throat. 

Ayr. Spettin an' haskin (F.J.C.). Dmf., Slk. (JAM.), Nhb. 
(R.O.H.), Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 Dhee'ur dhaa sits, baas'kin tin yaas'kin 
[Theer tha sits, baskin' an" yaskin']. Aa'rkn fit dhaaf ky'aat' 
yaas-kin ; put ur throo)th win'du, els 6o)l bi sik ijdhaays [Hearken 
at that cat yaskin' ; put her through th' window, else hoo'll be 
sick i' th' haise]. 

Hence Hasked, ppl. adj. dry, parched. 

m.Yks. 1 The throat is said to be hasked when parched. 

HASK, sb. 2 Sh.I. A haze on the horizon foreboding 
wind. See Ask, sb. 2 

A skubby hask hings, icet-gray, JUNDA Klingrahool (1898) 22 ; 
JAKOBSEN Norsk in Sh. (1897) 69. 

HASK, adj. 2 Not. Written ask. [Not known to our 
other correspondents.] Foolish, not quite right in the 
head. (J.S.j!) 

HASK,sb. 3 Sc. Nhb. [hask.] The throat, the soft palate. 

Ayr. (F.J.C.) Nhb. 1 ' Pap o' the hask ' is the uvula. 

[Cp. haskwort, a name given by Lyte to the halswort 
(G. halskrant), also called throatwort, the Campanula 
Trachelium (N.E.D.).] 

HASKETS,s&./>/. Dor. Also written hasketts. Hazel 
and maple bushes ; brushwood. 

Whether the inhabitants of the parish of Tollard Farnham, in 
the county of Dorset, have the right to cut and take fagots or 
haskets of the underwood growing upon . . . the common, KELLY 
Law Reports (1878) Excli. Dili. 111.363; w. Gazette (Feb. 15, 18891 7. 

HASKIN, sb. Hmp. Aninferiorkindof cheese. (J.R.W.) 

HASKING, see Huskin(g. 

HASKY, adj. n.Sc. (JAM.) 1. Rank, strong, luxuriant, 
applied to growing corn or vegetables ; also to a man. 

'A hasky carl,' a big raw-boned man. 

2. Coarse to the taste, unpalatable ; dirty, applied to 
work ; slovenly, applied to a person. 

HASLE, sb. Ess. Sus. [Not known to our other corre- 
spondents.] [ae'sl.] An iron to hang pots on over the 
fire. (P.R.) 

HASLE, see Hay, sb. 1 , Hazle, sb. 1 

HASLET, sb. Sc. Chs. Lin. Nhp. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. 
Glo. Brks. Suf. Ken. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Also written hasslet 
GIo. 1 ; and in forms acelet Chs. Brks. 1 ; acelot Ken. 1 ; 
aislet Ken. ; arslet Ken. 1 ; aslat w.Wor. 1 se.Wor. 1 Shr. 2 
Hrf. 2 Glo. Ken.; azlitse.Wor. 1 ; harcelets.Wor^Glo.Ken. 12 ; 
harslet Chs. 1 Lin. War. 2 Shr. 1 Glo. 1 e.Suf. Ken. 1 Hmp. 
Wil. ; hastelet e.Suf. ; hauslet Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) [a'slit, 
a'zlit, ae'zlit.] 1. The liver, lights, &c. of a pig ; occas. 
of a cow, sheep, or other animal. Cf. haste, sb. 

Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Slk. Houk the haslet of the hind, HOGG 
Queer Bk. (1832) 36. Chs. The liver and lights of a cow, sheep, 
or pig, Sheaf (1884} III. 195; Chs. 1 , War. 2 , w.Wor. 1 , se.Wor. 1 , 
Shr. 12 , Hrf. 2 , Glo. 12 , Suf. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.), Ken. 1 , Hmp. 1 I.W. 
Reserving the lebb, pluck, and haslet, MONCRIF.FK Dream (1863) 
1. 36 ; I.W. 1 Also, the edible parts of a calf's viscera ; I.W. 2 , Wil. 

2. A dish made of the entrails or trimmings of a pig ; 
also used of griskin. 

Lin. The minced meat prepared for sausages ; inclosed and 
cooked in the caul of the hog, THOMPSON Hist. Boston (1856) 709 ; 
Lin. 1 s.Lin. Savoury pig cheer made like a sausage about six 
inches in thickness. A favourite Lin. dish (T.H.R.). Nhp. 1 The 
small pieces cut off, in trimming the hams and flitches of a singed 
pig ; these cuttings are made into pork pies, or haslet-pies, as they 
are called, and it is customary in many villages for the farmers' 
wives to send one of these pies, with some pig's puddings, as 
presents to their neighbours. In some places the griskin is termed 
haslit. w.Wor. 1 A dish composed of these parts [liver, &c. of a 
pig] wrapped in the caul, and baked with sage and onions, 
s. Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Obsol. The heart, liver, and lights of a pig taken 
out entire with the wind-pipe attached. 'We shanna a to bwile 
the pot o' Friday, theer'll be the 'aslet fur the men's dinners.' 
Glo. (A.B.), Brks. 1 Ken. 1 ; Ken. 2 They mix some fat bits and lean 
of the pork, and roast all together. s.Hmp. The heart and lights 
or lungs of a hog, all mixed up and boiled together. HOLLOWAY. 

[1. He britnej out be brawen ... & hat3 out J>e hast- 
lettej, Gawayne (c. 1360) 1612. Fr. (Norm, dial.) hdtelet, 
' region des cotes du pore ; cotelette appartenant a cette 
region ' (Moisv).] 




HASLIG, sb. Sh.I. The wool on the neck of a sheep. 
Cf. halse-lock, s.v. Halse, sb. 1 

I turn'd her [a ewe] up an' begood ta roo her haslig, Sft. News 
'Jan. 13, 1900). 

HASLING-PIECES, sb. pi. w.Som. 1 [a'slin-pisiz.] 
Upright pieces of wood fixed from the floor to the roof in 
an attic, to form the sides of a room, and to which the 
laths and plaster are attached. 

HASP, sb. 1 and v. In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. Eng. and 
Nfld. Also in forms apse Oxf. Wil. Dev. ; asp Not. 3 ; esp 
Cum. 1 Not. 3 ; haps Glo. 1 Brks. 1 Ken. 2 Sur. 1 Sus. 1 Hmp. 1 
Wil. 1 Dor. 1 Som. Dev. Cor. 123 Nfld. ; hapse Brks. Ken. 1 
Sus. Hmp. I.W. 1 w.Som. 1 Dev. Cor. 1 ; heps Cor. 13 ; hesp 
Sc. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Dur. 1 Lakel. 12 Cum. 12 n.Yks. 124 ne.Yks. 1 
e.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 12 n.Lan. 1 ne.Lan. 1 Not. n.Lin. 1 
sw.Lin. 1 [h)asp, h)esp ; aeps, aps.] 1. sb. A latch ; a 
fastening for a door, gate, or window, gen. consisting of 
a loop and staple ; a clasp for the lid of a box, which falls 
into the lock ; a clasp or buckle. 

Or.I. (S.A.S.) Ayr. You might have disappointed him [a caller] ; 
you had the hasp in your hand, HUNTER Studies (1870) 197. Gall. 
He undid the hasp of the creaking front door of the manse, 
CROCKETT Stickit Min. (1893) 230. Wgt. Shut him in and fixed 
the hasp which rendered Jamie's exit equally impracticable for 
the time being, FRASER Wigtown (1877) 352. Own. The black- 
smith placed the hasp of the door upon the iron staple, LYTTLE 
Betsy Gray (1894) 17. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. (R.O.H.), Dur. 1 , Lakel.2, 
Cum. 2 n.Yks. 1 The button which turns on a central pivot 
and so clasps or fastens a window, &c., is specially indicated ; 
n.Yks. 24 , ne.Yks. 1 , e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. One of the 
staple trades of Leeds is the manufacture of hasps and catches, 
Yksman. (1881) 197; w.Yks. 12 , n.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 , Not. 123 , 
s.Not. (J.P.K.) n.Lin. SUTTON Wds. (1881) ; n.Lin. 1 s.Lin. Ah 
must laa' in some new hesps ... or ah s'll be hevin' the gaats all 
undone [left open] (T.H.R.). sw.Lin. 1 Shr. 1 I lost the kay, 
an' didna like to break the 'asp, so I knocked a bwurd out o' the 
bottom; Shr. 2 , Glo. 1 , Oxf. :J.E.) Brks. (M.J.B.); Brks. 1 The 
withy tie used to secure hurdles to ' vawle staaykes ' or to each 
other. Suf. 1 Ken. (K.); Ken. 1 The hasp [of the gatel is gone; 
Ken. 2 , Sur. 1 , Sus. (K.), Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 Wil. The fastening 
of a pair of braces, &c. In fact, the word is applied to almost any 
kind of fastening (G.E.D.) ; SLOW Gl. (1892); Wil. 1 , Dor. ^C.W. , 
Dor. 1 Som. Christopher stood dumbfounded, with his hand on 
the hapse, RAYMOND Sam and Sabina (1894) 109 ; JENNINGS Obs. 
Dial. w.Eng. (1825). w.Som. 1 Th' hapse o' the gate's a-tor'd, an 
all the bullicks be a-go to road. s.Dev. (Miss D.) Cor. She 
slammed the haps agen my hand, TREGELLAS Talcs, Betty While, 
77 ; Cor. 12 

2. Phr. (i) to be all buckled with one hasp, not to be better 
than one another ; (2) to be made to ride the hasp, to be 
brought before one's superiors and reprimanded. 

i) Ayr. They are a' buckled wi' ae hasp, JOHNSTON Glcnbuckie 
1,1889)211. (a) Cor. 1 

3. A short half-door within the whole door often seen in 
country shops. Also used ./?. 

Cor. 1 The lower half is kept shut, the top open. There is gen. a 
bell fastened to it to give notice of a customer. 'She has more tongue 
than teeth, she had better keep a heps before her mouth ' ; Cor. 3 

4. The tendril of a vine or climbing plant. Sur. Trans 
Phil. Soc. (1854) 83. 

6. v. To fasten the latch of a door, gate, or window ; to 
secure by hitching a thing round another ; to fasten up 
a box. 

Sc. JAM.! Ayr. While's the purse that's hespet sleeve, Tines 
a' its gatherings oot. Ballads and Sngs. (1847) II. 61. N.Cy. 1 
Nhb. Hasp the door, or window (R.O.H.). Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. 
(1864)305. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. To fasten by a catch, but not a lock 
(J.T.). ne-Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 Not 1 ; Not. 3 Esp the door, I tell ye, if 
yo doan't want to be blown up chimbley. s.Not (J.P.K.), Lin. 
(W.W.S.) sw.Lin. 1 Just hesp yon gate. Shr. a Brks. Gl. (1852); 
Brks. 1 , Suf. 1 Ken. 1 Hapse the gate after you ! Wil. 1 n.Wil. 
Why don'ee haps the door? (E.H.G.) Som. JENNINGS Dial. 
w.Eng. (1869) Gl. w.Som. 1 Mind and hapse the door arter ee, 
you do 'most always lef-m onhapsed. Dev. Apsen thickee geat 
there, or us chell 'ave the cows awl awver the place avore marning, 
HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1893). n.Dev. Well, Giles tha hatch as well 
may hapse, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) st. 14. Cor. THOMAS Ran- 
digal Rhymes (1895) Gl. [Nfld. (G.P.)] 

Hence Hasped, ppl. adj. fastened up, secured. 
Dev. You see, he was never yewsed to- be apsed up, Reports 
Provinc. (1891). 

6. To catch hold as a tendril does. Sur. Trans. Phil. Soc. 
(1854) 83- 
HASP, sb. 2 Sc. Also in form hesp. [hasp, hesp.] 

1. A hank of yarn, worsted, or flax ; gen. a definite quan- 
tity, the fourth part of a spindle. 

Sh.I. Hendry wis haddin' a hesp o' wirsid, BURGESS Sketches 
{2nd ed.) 72. Cai. 1 Bnff. The frequent ' charms ' were a ' hesp 
of yarn,' with which some dementit old woman had hanged her- 
self, GORDON Chron. Keith (1880) 61. Kcd. His pirns an' clews, 
an' worsct hesps, [were] Beclairtit i' the glaur, GRANT Lays (1884) 
8. Fif. About thirty years ago ... a hesp or slip . . . was thought 
a sufficient day's work for a woman, Statist. Ace. VI. 43 (JAM.). 
Slg. Twisted hard like ony hesp O' hempen thread, MUIR Poems 
(1818) 14. s.Sc. I could neither mak' the parritch nor wash, 
nor spin, nor mak' up a hasp o' yarn to please her, WILSON Tales 
(1839) V. 58. Rnf.To beet the hesp o'yarn, ALLAN Poems (1836) 
113. Ayr. Anither kimmer would say her dochter was in bairn- 
bed, and she was tell't to tak her withershins nine times through 
a hesp o' unwatered yarn, to tak the cat through'! sungates aboot 
as mony times again, and baudrons would hae the pains, SERVICE 
Notandums (1890) 100. Lnk. She could not finish her hasp or 
hank of yarn that night, HAMILTON Poems (1865) 209. Edb. Pro- 
vidence seems a ravel'd hasp, PENNECUIK Helicon (1720) 26. 

2. Phr. (i) to have a ravelled hasp, to be in a difficulty ; (2) 
to make a ravelled hasp, to put a thing into confusion ; (3) to 
redd or wind aravellcd hasp, to restorcorder,putthings right. 

(i) Sc. Ye have gotten a revel'd hesp o't, RAMSAY Prov. (1737). 
(2) Sc. (JAM.) (3) Sc. Left us a tangled hesp to wind, SCOTT 
Retig. (1824) Lett. xi. Abd. Gin mammy miss, again, her bairn, 
'Twill be a hesp o' ravel'd yarn, We winna redd, COCK Strains 
(1810 I. 119. Dmb. There's plenty o' the raveled hasp M l 'Corklc 
left to redd yet, CROSS Disruption (1844'; xxxvii. e.Lth. It was a 
raivelled hasp he had to redd, HUNTER J. Inuiick (1895^ 32. 

[1. Haspis of silke, Dest. Troy (c. 1400) 3899. Du./iaspe, 
a haspe, or a reele ; haspen, to hasple or to rcele up thred 
or yarne (HEXIIAM) ; Norw. dial, hespa, a hank or skein 
of yarn (AASE.N).] 

HASPAL, sb. Sc. Yks. Also written haspill w.Yks. 5 ; 
hasple Dmf. (JAM.) ; and in forms aspill, espill w.Yks. 5 
[h)a'spl.l 1. A sloven ; a clownish-mannered person ; 
a silly fellow. 

Dmf. A sloven, with his shirt-neck open (JAM.). Gall. MAC- 
TAGGART Encycl. (1824). w.Yks. SCATCIIERD Hist. Morley (1830) 
168, ed. 1874 ; w.Yks. 5 

2. An overgrown boy, a ' haspenald ' (q.v.). w.Yks. 5 

[Tirol, dial, liaspel, ' alberner Mensch ' (ScHOPF) ; Swab, 
dial, haspele, 'cine sich iibcreilende Person' (BIRLINGER) ; 
cp. Bavar. dial, hispel, 'alberner Mensch ' (SCHMELLER).] 

HASPAT,s6. Obs. n.Cy. A stripling, a youth between 
man and boy. (K.), GROSE (1790), N.Cy. 2 

[Half + spoilt (a youth), q.v.] 

HASPENALD, sb. Obs. n.Cy. Yks. Also in form 
haspenal n.Cy. A youth between man and boy ; an 
overgrown boy; also in comp. Haspenald-lad, -tike. 

n.Cy. (K.) ; GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 2 w.Yks. SCATCHERD Hist. 
Morlry ;i8so) 169, ed. 1874 ; w.Yks. 1 Hee's waxen a gay, leathe- 
wake, fendible, whelkin, haspenald tike, ii. 289 ; w.Yks. 5 

HASPERT,i6. w.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 Also in form hespert 
ne.Lan. 1 [a'spat] A rough, uncultivated fellow. 

HASPIN, sb. 1 Sc. n.Cy. Cum. Lan. Also written 
haspan s.Sc. (JAM.) [h)a'spin.] 1. A stripling. Cf. 
haspat, haspenald. 

s.Sc. A raw haspan of a callan ! Blackw. Mag. (May 1820) 164 
(JAM.). n.Cy. (HALL.^1 

2. An idle fellow, doing nothing but lounging about. 

Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 305. ne.Lan. 1 

HASPIN, sb. 2 n.Cy. Lakel. Cum. Yks. Lan. Also in 
form hespin Lake]. 1 Cum. 4 [h)a'spin, h)e'spin.] A close- 
fisted person, a miser ; a greedy and over-reaching man. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Lakel. 1 An ole hespin. Cum. 4 w.Yks. 
HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781). ne.Lan. 1 

HASS, see Halse, sb.' 

HASSBILES, sb. pi. Or.I. A skin-disease peculiar 
to infancy, which produces patches of dry scab on the 
head. (J.G.), QAM.) See Halse, sb. 1 1. 




HASSENS, Sh.I. Also written hassings ; hassins 
S. & Ork. 1 1. The bottom boards of a boat next to the 
stern. (Coll. L.L.B.), S.& Ork. 1 2. Comb. Hassins-fore- 
and-aft, the boards that adjoin the keel about one-third of 
its length. S. & Ork. 1 

HASSICK, HASSIE, MASSING, see Hussock, Hashy, 

HASSLE, v. Cum. Also written hassel. [ha'sl.] To 
hack at ; to cut with a blunt knife and with a sawing motion. 

At week ould beard to hassel and hack Wid razor as blunt as 
a saw, DICKINSON Cumbr. (1878) 238; A razor meaad oot of an 
oald hand saw eh t'tudder, was shaven oa t'feaace on em. . . When 
he'd hasselt at em till bleudd began teh cum, SARGISSON Joe Scoap 
(1881 199; Cum. 4 

HASSLIN-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 

HASSOCK, sb. In gen. dial, use in Sc. and Eng. Also 
written hassack Lin. Nhp. 2 s.Pem. ; hassick Bch. I.W. 1 
Dor. 1 ; and in forms assock s.Not ; hazzick Brks. 1 ; 
hossock n.Yks. 4 ; hussick Sh.I. ; hussock Gall. n.Yks. 1 
ne. Yks. 1 w. Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 Nhp. 1 ; huzzick, huzzock s.Chs. 1 
[h)a - sak, ae'sak, irssk.J 1. A tuft of coarse grass, gen. 
growing in boggy places ; a tuft of sedges, reeds, or rushes. 
Also used attrib. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Rounded tufts of grass in the fields, especially 
those of the Carex paniculata, Linn., are called hassocks (R.O.H.). 
Cum. Who should come up but Robbie Atkinson leading hassocks, 
CAINE Hagar ^1887) III. 159. n.Yks. 1 Large tufts of coarse grass 
growing in boggy places in low pastures, or carrs, often nearly 
or quite two feet high and twelve or fifteen inches in diameter in 
the dry, pillar-like growth of root and stem above which the 
herbage flourishes; n.Yks. 4 , ne.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 Lan. Son John 
went to th' fell for a double load of hassocks, WALKDEN Diary 
(ed. 1866) 28; Wanting some hassock turf to top our stack with . . . 
Son John led me 4 double loads home, ib. 30. Chs. Sheaf (1883) 
III. 16 ; Chs.' The grass which forms hassocks is chiefly Aira 
caespitosa; the sedges are Carex caespilosa and C. paniculata; Chs. 3 
Midi. Close under the bank, in the middle of a large clump of 
' hassock ' grass, a moorhen has formed her nest, Cornh. Mag. 
(Aug. 1892) 149. s.Not.All them'assocks wants diggin up (J.P.KA 
Lin. MILLER & SKERTCHI.Y Fenland (1878) vi. n.Lin. 1 , Rut. 1 , Lei. 1 , 
Nhp. 12 , War. 3 s.Pem. The moor is covered with hassack, we must 
boorn it (W.M.M.). Hnt. (T.P.F.) e.An. 1 These hassocks in 
bogs, were formerly taken up with a part of the soil, matted 
together with roots, shaped, trimmed, and dressed, a sufficient 
part of their shaggy and tufted surface being left, to make kneeling 
much easier than on the pavement of the church, or the bare 
boarded floor of a pew. Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 301, ed. 
1849 ; In these fens the original surface is rough and unequal 
from the great tufts of rushes, &c., called hassocks, MARSHALL 
Review (1811) III. 289. e.Suf. (F.H.), Sur. 1 Hmp. The hassocks 
or carex form a very marked feature, WHITE Selborne (1788) 20, 
ed. 1853 ; A field in which the grass is tangled is said to be 'all of 
a hassock ' (H.C.M.B.) ; Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 , Dor. 1 Dev. With much 
difficulty I could step from one hassock to another in laying out 
the drains, VANCOUVER Agric. (1807) 2 &6, ed. 1813 ; (R.P.C.) 

Hence Hassocky or Huzzicky, adj. of grass : coarse, 
sedgy, matted together ; of land : abounding in hassocks. 

s.Chs. 1 Applied to hay, matted together and mouldy, the result 
of its being got together in bad condition. Not. 1 , n.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 , 
Nhp. 1 Hnt. A sort of coarse bad hassocky grass, MARSHALL Review 
(1814) IV. 419. 

2. Fig. A ' shock ' of hair. 

Sc. His ain shaggy hassock of hair, SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xxxiv. 
Sh.I. (Coll. L. L.B.) Bch. The tither wis a haave colour' d smeer- 
less tapie wi' a great hassick o' hair h.ingin in twa pennerets about 
her haffats, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 17. Gall. His eyes shining from 
under his hassock of grey hair, CROCKETT Grey Man (1896) xlix ; 
MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824). 

Hence Hassock-head, sb. a shock head ; a bushy and 
entangled growth of coarse hair. e.An. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.) 

3. An ant-hill. Rut. 1 , Lei. 1 Hence Hassock-hoeing, 
vbl. sb. taking off the tops of ant-hills with a hoe. Rut. 1 

4. The surface-layer of turf, with heath, &c. upon it, cut 
about three inches thick ; rotted sward such as appears 
when a field is reploughed, and the grass of last year 
exposed to view. 

s.Sc. A large round turf of peat-moss, in form of a seat, and used 
as such (JAM.). Wm. A thick square of peaty or rushy sod set 
behind the hearth fire (J.H.). Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 

Hence Hassock-spade, sb. a tool used to get turfs from 
the surface of a bog, made in the form of a crescent, and 
fixed to a long handle, curved at the lower end. Chs. 1 

5. Anything growing in a thick, matted state ; a thick, 
wooded shaw or little wood. 

Brks. 1 A wood usually of Scotch firs with much coarse rank 
grass. Sus. 12 

6. The soft calcareous sandstone which separates the 
beds of ragstone in Kent, used in building the interior 
walls of churches ; stone-chippings used instead of gravel 
for paths. 

Ken. The calcareous sandstones in the Hythe beds are locally 
termed hassock, RUTLEY Stud. Rocks (1879) XIV. 281 ; (W.F.S.) ; 
This stone comes from the Kentish Rag quarries. . . It is called 
' hassock ' and ' calk-stone ' by the workmen, RAMSAY Rock Spec. 
(1862) 153. 

Hence Hassocky, adj. stony. Sur. 1 

7. A large pond. Ken. 1 8. Fig. A large, coarse woman. 
w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

[1. OE. hassuc, coarse grass, a place where such grass 
grows (B.T.).] 

HASTARD, adj. Sc. (JAM.) [Not known to our 
correspondents.] Irascible. 

HASTE, sb. Suf. The heart, liver, lungs, or lights of 
an animal, esp. of a pig. Cf. hase, haslet. 

Suf. 1 e.Suf. ' Haste ' one hears from the old here, but their 
juniors have not taken it up (F.H.). 

Hence Hastelings, sb. pi. a pig's ' haste.' e.Suf. (F.H.) 

[OFr. haste, ' broche, viande cuite a la broche, echinee 
de pore ' (LA CURNE).] 

HASTE, v. Sc. Irel. Lakel. Also written haiste Ayr. ; 
and in form heest Sc. [best.] 1. To make haste, gen. 
in imp. 

Sc. Heest ye, man, and let me gang, GREY Misanthrope's Heir 
(1897) i. Fif. Heest ye an' get tea ready, an' I'll setaff thenicht, 
ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 49. Ayr. Haste ye fast, for I want to 
have a choice o' beasts, JOHNSTON Kilmallie (1891) I. 76. Lnk. 
Come, laddie, heest ye, bring the liquor ben, COGHILL Poems 
(1890) 128. Ant. ( W.H.P.) 

Hence Haster, sb. a violent storm of rain. 

Lakel. 2 When it's comen down a regular haster ye know what 
ta deea. 

2. In phr. to haste one's ways, to hasten one's steps, to 
look sharp. 

Ayr. Haiste ye're ways . . . but the house to the scullery, GALT 
Laiiils (1826) xxxviii. 

HASTELET, see Haslet. 

HASTENE_R, sb. Nhb. Yks. Der. Not. Lei. Nhp. War. 
Shr.Oxf. [h)e'san(r.] 1. Asemicircularscreenlinedwith 
tin, placed behind meat roasting before the fire, to keep 
the cold air off and hasten the cooking by reflected heat. 

Nhb.Sw.Yks^nw.Der.^Not.SLei. 1 , Nhp. 12 , War. 23 , Oxf. (G.O.) 

2. A long funnel-shaped tin vessel which can be thrust 
deeply into the fire, used for warming ale, &c. War. 2 , Shr. 1 

HASTER, sb. 1 Dur. Yks. Lan. Lin. Also written 
haister w.Yks. n.Lan. 1 [h)e - sta(r.] A ' hastener,' a 

Dur. 1 w.Yks. Reight at top end wor a haister-looking thing 
like wot's put before t'fire when a piece a beef iz rostin, TOM 
TREDDLEHOYLE Fr. Exhebishan (1856) 29 ; w.Yks. 2 Shoo tumbled 
backards, and nockt haster uppat beef an t'beef into assnook ; 
w.Yks. 34 , n.Lan. 1 , n.Lin. 1 

[Cp. OFr. hasteur, ' rotisseur' (LA CURNE).] 

HASTER, sb. 2 n.Cy. A surfeit. (HALL.) 

HASTER, v. Sc. Also in form hasther Rnf. To 
hurry, to drive to work ; to fluster. 

Rnf. Ne'er fash your thume although your bairns Be hasthered 
like a nigger, BARR Poems (1861) 158. Feb. But Meg wi' the 
sight, was quite hastered, NICOL Poems (1805*1 II. 160 (JAM.). 

HASTERED, ppl. adj. Lakel. 2 Having the skin 
roughened by contact with the weather, or disease. 

HASTERN, adj. ? Obs. n.Sc. (JAM.) Also in form 
hastered. Early, soon ripe. See Hastings. 

Hastern aits, early oats. 

HASTINGS, sb. pi. Suf. Sus. [e'stinz.] An early 
variety of pea, Pisum sativum ; also used for green peas. 

Suf. A day or two since I heard the cry ' Green Hastings.' . . 




When a boy, fifty years ago, it was the usual cry for green peas, 
Science Gossip (Aug. 1878) in (B. & H.). e.Snf. (F.H.) Sus. 
N. V Q. (1884) 6th S. ix. 403. 

[As loud as one that sings his part T* a wheel-barrow, 
or turnip-cart, Or your new nick'd nam'd old invention To 
cry green hastings, BUTLER Hud. (1664) Ep. toSidrophel, 22.] 

HASTIS, adj. and adv. Dev. Cor. Also written 
haestis Cor. 2 [e'stis.] 1. adj. Hasty, hurried. 

Cor. Ef tha arn't hastis thce shust hire tha hole, J. TRENOODLE 
Spec. Dial. (1846 ' 23 ; Cor. 1 

2. Sudden. Cor. 1 Hastis news. 

3. adv. Hurriedly, hastily ; impatiently. 

Dev. That I got all hastis To zee a gaarden vul o' bastes, 
DANIEL Bride of Scio 11842) 185. Cor. 2 

4. Comb. Haestis-go-thurra, diarrhoea, ib. 
HASTREL, sb. Rxb. (JAM.) [Not known to our 

correspondents.] A confused person, one who is always 
in haste. 

HASTY, sb. Sc. Also in form heasty Sth. The 
murrain which attacks cattle. 

Cai. The most formidable of these distempers is called the 
murrain (provinc. hasty), because the animal dies soon after it is 
seized with it. The symptoms are these : the animal swells, 
breathes hard, a great flow of tears from its eyes ; it lies down, and 
in some cases is dead in the course of a few hours, Agric. Surv. 
aoo (JAM.). Sth. The disease called murrain, or heasty, prevailed 
among the black cattle of this county when the vallies were 
covered with wood ; since these woods have decayed, this dis- 
temper is little known, ib. 101. 

HASTY, adj. Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. Also 
written haasty w.Yks. ; haaysty Brks. 1 ; and in forms 
eeasty n.Yks. ; heasty Abd. ; hyesty Nhb. 1 1. In comp. 

(1) Hasty-betty, the tin frame of a meat-jack ; cf. hastener; 

(2) -brose, (3) -Dick, (4) -pudding or -poddish, oatmeal 
porridge ; a pudding gen. made of milk and flour, see 
below ; (5) -Rogers, the common nipplewort, Lapsana 
communis ; (6) -whittle, an iron skewer heated red-hot 
for the purpose of burning a hole through a piece of wood. 

_ (i) w.Yks. Teat ligs i' fhasty-betty (W.M.E.F.) ; Th' cat wor 
sittin' o'th'Hasty Bettywi'it feet tucked under it,purrin', HARTLEY 
Clock Aim. (1887) 28. (2) Abd. Heasty-brose, which . . . are 
rather tough to swallow, RUDDIMAN Sc. Parish (1828) 133, ed. 
1889. (3) Oxf. 1 ( 4 ) n.Cy. (HALL.) Nhb. Breakfast, every day- 
hasty pudding and one gill of milk, MACKENZIE Hist. Nezucast/e 
(1827) 541 ; Nhb. 1 , Bur. 1 Lakel. 2 Thick poddish and treacle. 
Cum. With hot hasty pudding see some cramm'd, GILPIN Sngs. 
(1866) 268 ; Cum. 4 Thick pottage, a dish which almost universally 
formed the breakfast, and often the supper; it consisted of oatmeal 
boiled with water to a thick pulp, and was eaten along with butter, 
milk, treacle or beer. n.Yks. Pudding made of watmeeal [oatmeal], 
water, and salt (sometimes called gulls) (W.H.). w.Yks. Scotch 
oatmeal which has been ground over again so as to be nearly as 
fine as flour, boiled smooth and eaten with milk or treacle, LUCAS 
Stud. Nidderda/e (,c. 1882; iv; Flour or wheat or oats boiled in 
water or milk, poured on a plate, and eaten with treacle, or into a basin 
of milk, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865) ; w.Yks. 1 Chs. Oat meal boiled 
with water or milk into hasty pudding, MARSHALL Review (j8i8) 
II. no. s.Lin. Thin milky puddings, such as arc made of pearl- 
barley, arrowroot, &c. ' It's a poor dinner y'r'll ha'e to-day ; we've 
nobbud haasty-puddin' and co'd meat' (T.H.R.). Brks. 1 A pudding 
of boiled dough ; sugar and butter, or else treacle, being usually 
added when eating. (5) Dev. Science Gossip (1873) 235. (6} Cum. 4 

2. Heavy, violent, gen. used of rain. Also used advb. 
Glo. What hasty rain vA.B.). Ken. 1 It did come down hasty, 
an' no mistake. Sur. The rain cluttered down hasty (T.S.C.). 
Sas. The rain was not so hasty as it had been, N. & Q. (1882) 
6th S. vi. 447 ; The rain come down terr'ble hasty surelye, ib. 
(1883) 6th S. vii. 155. 

HASUM- JASUM, see Aizam-jazam. 

HAT, sb. 1 and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. Also 
in form at Not. Oxf. 1 w.Som. 1 '1. sb. In comp. (i) Hat- 
bat, applied gen. to all bats, esp. Plecotus auritus and 
Vespertilio noctula ; (2) -body, the foundation of which a 
hat is made; (3) -birret, (4) -brinks, (5) -bruarts, (6) 
flipe, the brim or edge of a hat or cap ; (7) -sheaf or -shav, 
the covering sheaf of a corn-stock. 

(i) Not. (W.H.S.) s.Not. The boys sometimes bring bats down 
by throwing up their hats at them. ' At-bat, come under my 'at. 

I'll give you a slice of bacon ; And when we brew and when we 
bake, I'll give you a chiz-cake ' (J.P.K.). Lei.', Shr. 12 (a) Chs. 1 
(3) Cum. I can mind of the old people speaking of the hat birret. 
The hat birret was broad and worn soft (E.W.P.). (4) s.Not. 'Er 
'at-brinks wor all tunned up (J.P.K.). sw.Ltn. 1 The puppies tore 
his hat-brinks off (s.v. Brink). (5) w.Yks. 1 , e.Lan. 1 Chs. RAY 
(1691% nw.Der. 1 (6) n.Yks. 2 (.7) Cum. 1 

2. Phr. (i) an old hal, (a) an old person ; (b) the prize 
supposed to be won by a person telling a great lie ; (a) as 
queer as Dick's hat-band, very queer ; see also Dick, sb. 1 
2 (2) ; (3) a three-cocked hat, a kind of tart ; (4) hat-full of 
feathers, (a) the nest of the long-tailed titmouse, Acredula 

rosea ; (b) the nest of the willow-wren, Phylloscopus 
trochilus : (5) hats in holes, a boys' game, see below ; (6) 
to carry a lot under one's hat, to be crafty, sly ; (7) to give 
any one a hat, to touch one's hat in salutation. 

(i, a) Cum. If thou wast ane o' t'lads I'd say sum auld hatsower 
t'hill had been efter thee : but thou's not sae daft as to letten 
thysel' be guided i' thy years, LINTON Lizzie Lorton (1867) xxiii ; 
I believe this is a mere local allusion and could only be understood 
by a small coterie to whom the coining of the word was known. 
There are hundreds of such like words coined in Cum. (J.A.) (b 
w.Yks. 1 When he is suspected to be guilty of it [a great lie], it is 
common to say, 'Here's my oud hat for the." (2 w.Yks. As queer 
as Dick's hatband, 'at went nine times raand an' wodn't tee, Prov. 
in Brighouse News (July 23, 1887). Lin. THOMPSON Hist. Boston 
(1856) 733. (3) w.Yks. 1 Currants or preserves inclosed in a thin 
crust or triangular paste or pasty. (4, a Shr. Rupert . . . 
discovered the . . . nest of ... the long-tailed tit. . . Inside, it was 
so full of fine soft feathers, that it quite justified the name it bears 
among the country lads of a ' hat full of feathers,' DAVIES Rambles 
Sck. Field-Club (1875) xviii ; Shr. 1 (b) Shr. 1 ^5; w.Som. 1 The 
players range their hats in a row against a wall, and each boy in 
turn pitches a ball from a line at some twenty-five feet distance 
into one of the hats. The boy into whose hat it falls has to seize 
it and throw it at one or other of the others, who all scamper off 
when the ball is ' packed in.' If he fails to hit, he is out and takes 
his cap up. The boy whose cap is left at the last lias to ' cork ' 
the others that is, to throw the ball at their bent backs, each in 
turn stooping down to take his punishment. 6) e.Suf. (F.H.) 
(7) Sc. He contented his politeness with 'giving him a hat,' 
touching, that is, his bonnet, in token of salutation, and so left 
the shop. SCOTT Nigel (1822) ii. 

3. v. To cover a stook of corn with some of the sheaves. 
Cf. hattock, sb. 1 

w.Som. 1 To doubly cap-stitch i. e. to set up the sheaves in a 
large stook and to cover down the top with a kind of thatch made 
of some of the sheaves with the ear downwards. This method is 
very common in ' lappery ' seasons, and it prevents the corn from 
sprouting, while at the same time it allows the wind to pass 
through, and so dry the straw. Dev. A hat is much larger than 
a ' cap-stitch,' but not so large as a ' wind-mow.' ' I reckoned to 
a-car'd thick piece o' wheat, but he id'n 'ardly fit, not eet, zo I 
told em to go and hat'n up,' Reports Provinc. (1884) 19. 

HAT, sb. 2 Brks. Hmp. Nfld. A small clump or ring 
of trees; any small irregular mass of trees. 

Brks. 1 Hmp. The term hat is still in use for a little wood 
crowning a hill, DE CRESPIGNY & HUTCHINSON New Forest ',1895) 
113; Hmp. 1 E. g. the ' Dark hats,' near Lyndhurst. [Nfld. A hat 
of trees, PATTERSON Trans. Amer. Fit-Lore Soc. (1894). I 

HAT, sb. a Lin. A narrow clearing in a wood, in 
which at a battue sportsmen are placed separately to 
shoot game crossing it. (J.C.W.) 

HAT, see Heat, Hit, Hurt. 

HATCH, sb. 1 In gen. 'dial, use in Sc. and Eng. Also 
in form hetch ne.Yks. 1 [h)atj, aetf, etf.] 1. A door 
filling only the lower half of the doorway. 

Nhp. 1 , War. 3 , Hrf. 1 , Glo. 1 2 Oxf. 1 A broad piece of wood placed 
across the entrance to a barn, &c., to prevent the cattle passing 
through. Brks. 1 An opening which may be closed by a wooden 
slide or door, used for passing articles through by hand. e.An. 2 , 
Sus. 1 Hmp. 1 The buttery-hatch, in old halls, was a half-door, with 
a ledge on the top. Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; Wtl. 1 ' Barn- 
hatch,' a low board put across the door, over which you must step 
to enter. Gen. applied to the half doors frequent in shops. Dor. 
The childern all did run an' poke Their heads vrom hatch or door, 
an' shout, BARNES Poems (1869-70") 3rd S. 102. w.Som. 1 Often 
in cottages called the half-hatch. ' I zeed th' old man a Zunday 
hon I passed, 'cause he was a stood a lookin out over the hatch.' 




Dev. Shot tha hatch, Sallie, that tha wet midden come in, HEWETT 
Peas. Sp. (1892); Dev. 1 The half-door of cot-houses : also a sliding- 
pannel to answer the same purpose. nw.Dev. 1 The doors in a 
barn are usually made in halves, called half hatches, and distin- 
guished as top-hatch and bottom-hatch. In cottages the hatch 
corresponds to the bottom-hatch, but there is an ordinary or full- 
length door as well. A trap-door is called trap-hatch. s.Dev. 
Fox Kitigsbridge (1874). Cor. There was to the front door of this 
house, a hatch, which is a half-door, that is kept closed when the 
whole door behind it is open, and it then serves as a guard against 
the intrusion of dogs, hogs, and ducks, while air and light are 
freely admitted, HUNT Pop. Rom. w.Eng. (ed. 1896) 95. [It's good 
to have a hatch before the door, RAY Prov. (,1678) 152.] 

2. Comp. (i) Hatch-door, a wicket or half-door; (2) 
-hole, a trap-door ; (3) -way, (a) an opening used for 
pitching into a barn or hay-loft ; (b) the sliding panel to 
a box-bed. 

(i) Sc. He retired into his shop and shut the hatch-door, SCOTT 
Nigel (1822) xxvi. Glo. (A.B.) (2) e.Fif. She disturbed the 
repose of the barrel, causin' it to tak its flicht doon through the 
hatchhole as aforesaid, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xxii. (3, a) 
Nhp. 1 (b) Sc. Waverley had repeatedly drawn open . . . the 
hatchway of his cage, SCOTT Waverley (1814) xxxvii. 

3. A small gate or wicket, gen. leading into a garden or 
put across a narrow road. 

Nhb. 1 Near a wicket or hatch at Cockmount Hill. Chs. Shut 
the hatch after yow (E.F.); Chs. 1 s.Clis. 1 Dhu foa-ks i Sol up 
dun)u tau'k reyt Ingg-lish ; dhai kau'n iS aach' u wik'it [The folks 
i' Sollop dunna talk reight English ; they cawn a hatch a wicketl. 
Shr. ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 454. e.An. 1 , Ess. 1 Ken. 1 A half- 
hatch is where a horse may pass, but not a cart ; Ken. 2 Sus. 
Perhaps entrance to a forest or wood, N. & Q. (1887) 7th S. iii. 
192; Sus. 1 Hmp. 1 Gen. a gate dividing parishes or manors. Wil. 1 
Dor. Paid James Elby for mending the hatches, yi. , Tyneham 
Overseers' Ace. (June 10, 1753); (C.W.); An' leanes wi' here an' 
there a hatch, BARNES Poems (1879"! 40. Som. I was not allowed 
to go out into the road, but watched them from the garden-hatch 
(W.F.R.) ; She stood at the hatch watching her aunt out of sight, 
RAYMOND Tryphena (1895) 36. 

Hence Hatch-gate, sb. a gate at the junction of parishes 
or manors. Brks. 1 

4. The flood-gate of a water-meadow ; a sluice ; a dam 
or mound to keep back water. 

n.Wil. The farmers lower down the brook pull up the hatches 
to let the flood pass, JEFFERIES Wild Life(i8-jg) 107. Dor. (C.W.), 
Cor. (K.), Cor. 1 

5. Salt-making term : the door of a furnace. Chs. 1 

6. The portion of a window that opens on hinges. War. 3 

7. The latch of a door. 

Chs. 1 Dunna bowt th' durr, lave it o'th hatch, and then thi 
fayther can come in when he's a mind an we'n go to blanket fair 
[bed]. Suf. 1 

8. A hen-coop. War. 3 9. The back part of a wagon 
which lets down for the contents to be taken out. ne.Yks. 1 , 
e.Yks. (Miss A.) Cf. hack, sb. 2 18. 

HATCH, sb. 2 n.Lin. 1 [atj.] The sharp-pointed end 
of a mason's hammer. 

HATCH, sb. a and v. 1 Glo. Wil. [astf.] 1- sb. The 
row into which grass is raked after being ' tedded,' a line 
of raked-up hay, a ' wallow.' Cf. hack, sb. 1 11. 

Glo. 1 Three or four hatches are then raked into a ' double 
hatch ' ; two, or sometimes three, of these double hatches make a 
'bray.' Wil. 1 n.Wil. Grass is first mown ; then it is ' tedded,' 
i. e. spread, then it is raked up into lines, ' hatches,' or ' wallows,' 
which may be either single hatches or double hatches (E.H.G.). 

2. v. To rake the ' tedded ' hay into small rows ready 
for cocking ; freq. used with up or in. 

Glo. LEWIS Gl. (1839) ; Glo. 1 , Wil. 1 , n.Wil. (E.H.G.) 

HATCH, v." and sb* Hmp. I.W. [astj.] 1. v. To 
hook on ; with in or on : to harness. Hmp. (H.E.), I.W. 1 

2. To tear a thing by catching it on something. I.W. 
(J.D.R.), I.W. 1 

3. sb. A tear in a garment caused by catching it on some 
projecting object. 

Hmp. (H.C.M.B.) I.W. (J.D.R.) ; I.W. 2 I've maade a middlen 
half hatch in my breeches . . . gitten over that wattle hurdle. 

HATCH, v. 3 Sur.Sus. Hmp. I.W. [aetf.] To scrape the 
bark from the tree, after the ' rinding ' is over, in order 


to free the bark from lichen ; to dress the bark for the 

Sur. 1 Sus. Faggoting the lop and scraping and hatching the 
bark are different operations, HEATH Eng. Peas. (1893) 183 ; 
(S. P.H.I ; Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 

Hence Hatch-hook, sb. the kind of bill-hook used for 
chopping oak-bark small for the tanner. Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 . 

HATCH, v* Ken. Sus. [aetf.] To prepare for ; to 
develop a disease ; freq. with up ; used trans, and intr. 

Ken. 1 I think it's hatching up for snow. She's hatching up 
a cold. Sus. 1 I think she's hatching the measles. 

HATCH(-, see Hawch, Hotch, v. 

HATCHEL, sb. 1 e.Lan. 1 [a'tfl.] A hatchet ; a mason's 

HATCHEL, sb. 2 and v. 1 Obs. Chs. Nhp. Shr. Also 
in form hetchel Shr. 1 1. sb. An instrument for dressing 
hemp or flax. Chs. 1 , Nhp. 1 , Shr. 1 
2. v. To comb flax or hemp with a ' hatchel.' 

Chs. 1 [Serancer, to hatchel flax, &c., to comb, or dress it on an 
iron comb, COTGR.] 

HATCHEL, sb. 3 and v. 2 Nhp. Sus. [as-tfl.] 1. sb. 
A small row or cock of cut grass. Also in cotnp. Hatchel- 

Nhp. 1 The grass ... is next hacked, or separated into small 
rows ; in the evening it is put into small cocks, sometimes called 
hatchel-cocks, or toddle-cocks, or wads. Three hatchels or hack- 
lings, thrown together into one broad row or swathe, are termed 
a win-row, or windrow (s.v. Hack) ; Nhp. 2 
2. v. To rake cut grass into small rows. Nhp. 2 , Sus. 1 

HATCHEL, v. 3 Fif. (JAM.) [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] To shake in crying. See Hotch. 

HATCHELOR, sb. e.Lan. 1 Stone squared and bedded 
for walling in even courses, ashlar. 

HATCHER, sb. Nrf. The hedge-sparrow, Accentor 

This . . . little bird goes in the Broadland by the name of the 
' Hatcher,' perhaps because he sometimes ' hatches off 1 the lazy 
cuckoo's egg, EMERSON Birds (ed. 1895) 54. 

HATCHET, sb. 1 Dev. Cor. In phr. to sling the hatchet, 
to be lazy. 

Dev. 3 Sometimes, but very rarely, heard. Dev., Cor. N. & Q. 
(1869) 4th S. iv. 254. 

HATCHET, sb. 2 Shr. Dev. Also written atchett. 

1. A hurdle hung on a beam across a stream to keep 
back cattle. Reports Provinc. (1891). 

2. A low garden gate. Shr. ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 
454. Cf. hatch, s*. 1 3. 

HATCHET-PIECE, sb. Sus. A ' paul ' or division of 
tenantry land of irregular shape. 

Sus. 1 (s.v. Tenantry-acre) ; Sus. 2 (s.v. Paul). 

HATCH-HORN, see Acorn. 

HATCH-NAIL, sb. nw.Dev. 1 A rectangular, rose- 
headed, hand-made nail 3 inches long ; a half-hatch nail 
is 2 inches long. 

HATE, see Hait, Height, Hot. 

HATEABLE, adj. Sh.I. Hateful, odious. 

Der [weasels] hateable things, S/i. News (Nov. 25, 1899). 

HATELY, adj. Lan. [e'tli.] Bad-tempered, hateful ; 
showing hate. 

Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 s.Lan. Dunnobesohately,BAMFORD Dial. (1854). 

HATER, see Hadder, sb. 2 

HATESUM, adj. Sc. n.Cy. Also written hait- (JAM. 
Suppl.}. [hle-tsam.] Unkind, hateful, hated. Sc. (JAM. 
Suppl.), Cai. 1 , n.Cy. (J.W.) 

[This haitsum lyfe, DOUGLAS Eneados (1513), ed. 1074, 

IV. 22.] 

HATHA, int. n.Lan. Hark, listen ! (C.W.D.) 

[Repr. lit. E. hark thou /] 

HATHA, see Hither. 

HATHE, sb. Dor. Som. [85.] A thick covering; 
gen. in phr. to be in a hathe, to be thickly covered with the 
pustules of the small-pox or other eruptive disease ; to be 
matted closely together. 

Dor. BARNES Gl. (1863). Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. 
(1825) Gl. ; W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

HATHER, see Hadder, sb. 2 , Heather. 




HATHERN, sb. Som. The hand-rail to stairs. 

I first catched a hold o' the hathern, so I jissy saved I (W.F.R.). 

HATH3SH, sb. Sc. A small dry measure ; four in a 
peck ; also used attrib. 

ne.Sc. The new tenant along with a friend went from farm to 
farm and got a peck or two from this one, . . a hathish cogful 
from the next one, GREGOR Fill-Lore (1881) 178 ; ib. Gl. 

HATKIN, see Hutkin. 

HATREDANS, HATT, see Aitredan, Hit. 

HATTED K1T(T, phr. Sc. A preparation of milk, 
&C., with a creamy top. 

Sc. He has spilt the hatted kitt that was for the master's dinner, 
SCOTT Bride of Lam. (1819) xi. Lnl. A wooden bowlful of sour 
cream (JAM.). [Hatted kit is one of the pleasantest preparations 
of milk. Make a quarts of new milk scalding hot, and pour upon 
it quickly 4 quarts of fresh butter-milk ; let it stand, without stirring, 
till it becomes cold and firm ; then take off the hat or upper part, 
drain it in a hair-sieve, put it into a shape for half an hour, turn 
it into a dish, and serve with cream and sugar, STEPHENS Farm 
Bk. (1855) II. 299.] 

HATTER, sb. 1 Sc. Nhb. Yks. In phr. like a hatter, 
used as an intensive, in the sense of vigorously, boldly, &c. 

Sc. When tyrant Death grim o'er him stood He faced him like 
a hatter, FORD Thistledown (1891) 327. Per. I birl'd my tip'ce 
[twopence] like a hatter, STEWART Character (1857) 44. Slg. 
Where'er he spies a washing tub, He rins like ony hatter, TOWERS 
Poems (1885) 161. Lnk. Ye maun rin like a hatter. . . Bring up 
twa pailsfouo' clear callerwater,HAMiLTONP<*>.s(i865) 133. Nhb. 
Off like a hatter, to fight like a hatter (R.O.H.). w.Yks. (J.W.) 

HATTER, v. and sb. 2 Sc. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Nhp. Bdf. 
e.An. Ken. Also in form atter w.Yks. m.Yks. 1 [h)a'ta(r, 
8e-ta(r).] 1. v. To shake ; to shake up as on a rough 
road. Cf. hotter, v. 

N.Cy. 1 I'm all haltered to pieces. Nhb. The road wis that bad, 
see ye ! Aw wis aall haltered to bits (R.O.H.). Our. GIBSON 
Up-Wcardale Gl. (1870) ; Dur. 1 

2. To harass, vex, ill-treat ; to exhaust with fatigue. 

Sc. This hatters and chatters My very soul with care, TRAIN 
Poet. Reveries (1806) 49 (JAM.). Sh.I. Doo'll hae to pit somtin in 
his [pig] nose if hit wis bit a muckle preen ! . . Hit'll hatter him, 
Girzzie, Sh. News (Sept. a, 1899) ; (Coll. L.L.B.) ; S. & Ork. 1 
Abd. I've haltered a' my hand wi' the saw (G.W. ). e.An. 1 Ken. 
A horse by too much riding ; or a utensil by too much lending, is 
hatter'd about (K.). 

Hence (i) Hattered, ppl. adj. badly treated ; exhausted 
or wearied ; (2) Hattering, ppl. adj. harassing, tiring. 

(i) Sh.I. A poor haltered ting o' bairn (K.I.I ; S. & Ork. 1 Nhp. 1 
(a) Bdf. Your's must be a hatlering life (J.W.B.). 

3. To fret, make a fuss. 

Nhp. 1 She's always scolding and haltering about. 

4. To mix or confuse things ; to throw into disorder, to 
entangle, knot. 

n.Yks. T'women alters t'berrylrees wi' their cleeas (I.W.) ; 

n.Yks. 4 , m.Yks. 1 

6. To be in a confused but moving state. Dmf. (JAM.) 
6. To gather, to collect in crowds. Fif. (ib.) 7. To 

speak thick and confusedly. Slk. (ib.) 

8. sb. A jumble, confused crowd ; a knot or tangle. Cf. 

Sc. Amang a perfect hatler of unkenl faces, Sc. Haggis, 156 ; 
A hatter of slancs, a heap of stones ; a haller of berries, a large 
cluster or great quanlity crowded together QAM.). w.Sc. Buy 

B 1 what would I do wi' B ? it's naething but a hatler of 

peal-pols frae Ihe one end lo the other, CARRICK Laird of Logan 
(1835) 34. Flf. In their criticisms they resented all corruptions 
or conglomerations of ornamental styles. The laller they scorn- 
fully designaled 'a haller o' nonsense,' ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 
84. n.Yks. T'lhread was raffled [langled] all in a hard alter (I.W.). 

Hence Hatery or Hatry, (i) adj. dishevelled, entangled ; 
(a) sb. a confused jumble. 

(l) Sc. A hatry hesp, a hank of yarn lhat is tangled or dis- 
ordered (JAM.). n.Sc. A hatry head when the hair has not been 
combed out for a long time (ib.). (3) Per. Whatna hatery hae 
we here? (G.W.) 

9. Phr. to be a' in a hatter, said of the face, &c., when 
entirely covered with any eruption, as small-pox. 

Sc. I wish you saw my a , ils a in ae hatter, GRAHAM Writings 
(1883) II. 332. Cai. 1 , Dmf. QAM.) 

HATTER-CROPPER, see Attercop. 

HATTEREL, sb. Sc. Irel. Yks. Also written hateral 
Ayr. ; hatteral(l Bnff. 1 Ayr. ; and in forms hatrel Sc. 
(JAM.) ; hattrel Bnff. ; hitteril w.Yks. 1 [ha't(a)rl.] 

1. A large quantity ; a miscellaneous collection, jumble. 
See Hatter, sb. 2 8. 

Bnff. A ' hattrel ' of poor cots belonging to the glebe, GORDON 
Chron. Keith (1880) 370; Bnff. 1 A large quantity of small stones 
lying together, not in heaps, but spread over a space. ' Ye'll 
niver get a crap aff o' that Ian' : it's naething bit a hatleral o' 
slanes.' Ayr. My heid seems to be in a perfect hatleral! of con- 
fusion, SERVICE Notandums (1890) 8 ; He threeps that the body 
is no his wife's, and ca's it a hateral o' clay and stones, GALT 
Entail (1823) xxxv. N.I. 1 A hatterel o' weans. 

2. A collection of sores in any part of the body ; a series 
of scabs running into one another. 

Sc. (JAM.) N.I. 1 ' He's all in a hatterel,' i. e. his body is all over 
sores. Ant. Bally mena Obs. (1893). w.Yks. 1 My legs 're all of a 

HATTER-FLITTER, sb. Cor. Also in form hatter- 
flight. The jack-snipe, Limnocryptes gallinula. 

They be wild as hatler-flights, BARING-GOULD Curgtnvtn (1893) 
xi; Cor. 12 

HATTERN, sb. n.Yks. 2 Clothing of all kinds. 

[I haue here a hatir to hyde hym, York Plays (c. 1400) 
267. OE. hxteru, clothes.] 

HATTIL, see Hottle, sb> 

name of a game. 

Lnk. When we were deeply engaged in a game of ' hatting 
ower the bonnets,' FRASER Whaups ' 1895) iii. 

RATTLE,^'. n.Cy. Yks. Chs. Also Ken. 1. Wild, 
skittish, mischievous ; uncertain in temper ; gen. used of 
a skittish cow. 

n.Cy. BAILEY (1721). Yks., Chs. (P.R.) Chs. Tie Ihehallle ky 
by Ihe horn, RAY (1691) ; Chs. 123 s.Chs. 1 Yoa- mfln mahynd 
dhaat- ky'aay ; <5o)z fl aal'l beg ur [Yo mun mind that ca'i ; hoo's 
a hatlle beggar]. Ken. (P.R.) 
2. Comb. Hattle-tempered, quick-tempered, ' touchy." 

s.Chs. 1 Yu aa'rdli daa-rn spee'k lu)lh mon ey)z su aal-1- 
tenvpurd [Yo hardly darn (dare) speak to th' mon hey's so 

[The same as ME. hatel, hateful, fierce. Povert is 
hatel good, CHAUCER C. T. D. 1195 (Corpus MS.). OE. 
hatol, ' odiosus,' Kentish Glosses (c. 870), in Wright's Voc. 
(1884) 69.] 

HATTOCK, sb. 1 and v. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Stf. Shr. Also in forms attock Yks. n.Stf. ; huttock 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 [h)a'tak.] 1. sb. A shock of standing 
sheaves of corn, the tops of which are protected by two 
sheaves laid along them in such a way as to carry off rain; 
the two covering sheaves, 'hood-sheaves,' 'hooders.' 

n.Cy. A shock containing la sheaves of corn, BAILEY (1721) ; 
N.Cy. 1 10 sheaves of corn, set two and two upright and two ' hoods,' 
one al each end, to cover them ; N.Cy. 2 Nhb. 1 A pile of corn 
sheaves, made of twelve sheaves, ten of which are set uprighl, Iwo 
and Iwo together, whilst two are laid on the top as hood or 
covering sheaves. Cum. Ten sheaves are a haltock and twelve a 
stook, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863) (s.v. Haddock). Wm. Ten 
sheaves of corn, eight set upright and two placed for hoods or 
covers (J.H.). s.Wra. (J.A.B.) n.Yks. A man, or sloul boy, 
following lo tie up the sheaves, which are sel up in 'slooks' or 
'altocks' by the men, in the evening, TUKE Agric. (1800) 130. 
w.Yks. A pile of four sheaves (S.K.C.) ; w.Yks. 1 A shock of corn 
containing len sheaves. Lan. THORNBER Hist. Blackpool (1837) ; 
Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 Chs. By cuslom is paid y I ith, and not 
y loth, Haltock or Rider of Corn, GASTRELL Notitia Cestriensis 
(c. i707)inChelh. Soc. (1845) VIII. 164 ; A slack of corn, consisting 
of five or more sheaves, as il slands in the field before carrying 
(E.F.) ; Cha. 1 We wanten a good wynd as '11 blow lh' altocks o'er, 
afore th' curn '11 be ready to lead. s.Chs. 1 n.Stf. Ten sheaves of 
corn (J.T.). Shr. 1 Sheaves of corn inverted over the ' mow ' to 
protect it from wet. The two end sheaves of Ihe ' mow,' which 
consists of eight sheaves, are taken as hatlocks for the remain- 
ing six. 

2. v. Tocoverreaped corn in the fieldwith sheaves. Shr. 1 
[1. A der. of ON. htittr (gen. hattar), a cowl or hood ; cp. 
Sw. dial, halt, the covering of a corn-rick (RiETz).] 


[8 3 ] 


HATTOCK, sb* Chs. 13 [a'tak.] A hole in the roof 
where owls harbour. 

HATTREL, sb. w.Sc. QAM.) [Not known to our 
correspondents.] The core or flint of a horn. 

HATTY, sb. Sc. Nhb. Lakel. Also written battle 
Sc. [ha'ti.] 1. A game of leap-frog ; see below. 

Nhb. 1 A game at leap-frog where each boy leaves his cap on the 
back as he leaps over. The boy who ' makes the back ' is called 
' hatty.' If a boy causes a cap to slip off as he leaps he becomes 
' hatty.' 

2. A game with pins. 

Gall. A game with preens on the crown of a hat ; two or 
more play; each lay[s] on a pin, then with the hand they strike 
the side of the hat, time about, and whoever makes the pins, by a 
stroke, cross each other, lift[s] those so crossed, MACTAGGART 
Encycl. (1824) 255, ed. 1876. 

3. Comp. Hatty-cap, a boys' game ; see below. 

Lakel. A game at ball with hats for ' motty." The hats or caps 
are placed in a row and the ball thrown towards them; if it alights 
in one and remains there the lad it belongs to must mind the motty 

HAU, HAUBER, see How, adv., Haver, sb. 2 
HAUCH, see Haugh, Hawk, v. 1 

HAUCHEE-PAUCHEE, sb. Dev. 1 A term applied 
to potatoes when boiled to a mash, a ' hodge-podge.' 

HAUCHLE, v. Sc. Irel. Also in forms haghle Lth. 
Rxb. (JAM.); haughle N.I. 1 [ha- x l, h- x l.] To walk 
lamely or with difficulty, to hobble, drag the feet along 
the ground. 

Lnk. To walk as those do who are carrying a heavy burden 
(JAM.). Lth. (ib.) e.Lth. What needs ye gang hauchlin an' hirplin 
alang, like crupple Dick upon a stick? HUNTER/. Imvick (1895) 
14. Rxb. (JAM.), N.I. 1 

Hence (i) Hauchal, sb. a deformed or crippled person ; 
(2) Hauchlin, ppl. adj. (a) hobbling, limping, shambling ; 
(b) slovenly. 

(i) Ayr. He had a long square body and short legs, with a de- 
formity about the houghs that earned for him the name of the 
hauchal, JOHNSTON Kilmallie (1891) II. 141. (2, a) Hauchlin 
Pate, the village drummer, got a job from the auctioneer, ib. I. i. 
(b) Rnf. (JAM.) 

HAUCHS, sb. pi. Ags. (JAM.) The three points into 
which the upper part of a ploughshare is divided and by 
which it clasps in the wood. 

HAUD, sb. Sc. [Not known to our correspondents.] 
A squall. Mry. Gl. Surv. (JAM.) 
HAUD, see Hold, v., sb. 

HAUEN, sb. Cor. Also written hawn. A harbour, 

The common word for haven, as meaning a harbour. Our 
fishermen say their boats are out in the hawn, as distinguished 
from being at the piers, N. & Q. (1854) ist S. x. 319; The har- 
bour of Polperro, locally termed the hauen, QuiLLER-Coucn Hist. 
Polperro (1871) 30 ; Cor. 1 

HAUF, see Half, How, sb.\ Howf(f. 
Awvish, Halflin(g, Halflins, Hawgaw. 

HAUGH, sb. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Also written hawgh n.Cy. Wm. ; and in forms ha' Sc. ; 
haaf Nhb. 1 ; halgh Lan. ; hauch Sc. ; haulgh Lan. ; haw 
Dur. n.Yks. 8 [Sc. ha x .] 1. Low-lying, level ground by 
the side of a river ; also used Jig. andattrib. Cfihale, sb. 2 
Sc. The margin of the brook . . . displayed a narrow meadow, 
or haugh, as it was called, which formed a small washing-green, 
SCOTT Waverley (1814) ix ; In a lythe, cantie hauch, in a cottage, 
JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) I. 292. Mry. Gi'e me the land where 
Lossie pours By haugh and flowery mead, HAY Lintie (1851) 45. 
Bnff. More particularly when wandering amongst the delightful 
haughs of Grandholm, SMILES Natur. (1876) ix. Abd. The prisoner 
... set off wildly over the adjacent haugh, Deeside Tales (1872) 
77. Kcd. The Feugh cam' rairin' doon fae Birse, An' swept the 
haughs o' Stra'an, GRANT Lays (1884) a. Frf. The village com- 
monage . . . running down on one side to the haughs bordering 
the North Esk, INGLIS Ain Flk. (1895) 68. Per. It wes the haugh 
field of aits, IAN MACLAREN K. Carnegie (1896) 19. Slg. QAM.) 
Rnf. In flow'ry dells, and haughs, and glades, Where streamlets 
rin, M c GiLVRAY Poems (ed. 1862) 151. Ayr. Let husky wheat 
tht haughs adorn, BURNS Sr. Drink (1786) st. 3. Lnk. Howes, 

an' haughs, an' laigh lyin' leas Were a' like lochs, or ragin' seas, 
THOMSON Musings (1881) 55. e.Lth. Auld clover riggs! thy cleuchs 
and craigs, Green haughs an' winding river, MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes 
(1885) 13. Edb. Thou's aften dander'd wi' the musie Down burnie's 
haughs, LIDDLE Poems (1821) 135. Feb. Ilk to the green haugh 
hies, Lintoun Green (1685) 21, ed. 1817. Slk. And rounde onne 
Ettrickis baittle haughis, HOGG Poems (ed. 1865^1 84. Rxb. The 
bairns was laughin' an' scratchin' among the saughs doun i' the 
haugh, ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 714. Dmf. Her glance she cast 
Ower holm an' haugh, THOM Jock o' Knowe (1878) 13. Gall. By 
Skeldon haughs, CROCKETT Grey Man (1896) 93. n.Cy. Border Gl. 
(Coll. L.L.B.) ; A green plot in a valley (K.) ; N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Oer 
the gay daisied haughs will I roam, RICHARDSON Borderer's Table- 
bk. (1846) VII. 78 ; Low-lying spreads of loam, sand, or gravel 
which form the lowest ground of the river valleys which are still 
flooded from time to time, or which, although they may have for 
years kept above water, may yet conceivably still be flooded in 
unusual seasons. Such are most of the haughs of Northumberland, 
LEBOUR Geol. Nhb. and Dur. (ed. 1886) 9; Nhb. 1 , Dur. (K.) s.Dur. 
The Haughs at Egglestone is a pasture, very smooth and flat, 
the river Tees flowing on one side (J.E.D.). Cum. 1 Wm. 
Cuckoos love to change to mare sunny hawghs, HUTTON Bran 
New Work (1785) 1. 42. n.Yks. ATKINSON Whitby (1894) 80; 
n.Yks. 3 Lan. ./V. & Q. (1870) 4th S. v. 570. ne.Lan. 1 

2. Comp. (i) Ha'-bink, the bank of a ' haugh' overhanging 
a stream ; (2) Haugh-grund, (3) -land, low-lying ground 
by the side of a stream or river. 

(i) Sc. Ha' binks are sliddery, RAMSAY Prov. (1737). (2) Lnk. 
The haugh-ground is gen. ploughed 3, and sometimes 4 years, for 
oats, and then allowed to lie as long in natural grass, Statist. Ace. 
XII. 34 (JAM.). e.Lth. As guid a bit o' haugh-grund for crappin 
as there was in the pairish, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895") 161. (3) 
Fif. The corn-craik scraiched among the ' skellochs ' in the haugh- 
land, COLVILLE Vernacular (1899) 13. Rxb. His haid fields o' 
haughland corn On flood-red tumbling waves are borne, A. SCOTT 
Poems (1811) 19 (JAM.). 

[1. Amid the hawchis, and euery lusty vaill, DOUGLAS 
Eneados (1513), ed. 1874, iv. 168 ; The hawch (v.r. halche) 
of lyntoun-le, BARBOVR Bruce (1375) xvi. 336. OE.healh,in 
the place-name ' on Streams heale ' (Chron. an. 680).] 

HAUGH, see Haw, int. 1 , Hawk, v.\ Hough, sb.\ 
How, sb. 1 

HAUGHENDOLE, sb. Obs. or obsol. Lan. Also in 
forms aghendole Lan. e.Lan. 1 ; haughendo Lan. 1 ; 
nackendole Lan. ; nackleton, naghendal, naghendole, 
naghleton e.Lan. 1 A half part or half measure ; a meal- 
measure of 8 or 8| Ib. ; the quantity of meal usually taken 
for kneading at one time. 

Trans. Phil. Soc. (1858) 164; There seems to have been some 
uncertainty about the use of this word, but properly it means a 
dole of eight pounds (J.D.); Lan. 1 e.Lan. lohn Device . . . did 
covenant with thesaid Anne [Chattox] that if she would hurt neither 
of them, she should yearely have one aghendole of meale, POTTS 
Dt'scoverie of Witches (1613) sign. 4; Still in use in Little Har- 
wood, in the district of Pendle, Chet. Soc. (1845) VI. note; Still 
used about Padiham, and denotes a batch (sufficient for one baking") 
of meal for oatcakes (S.W.) ; Now almost obs. in those parts of 
Lan. where it was formerly known, N. EJ* Q. (1852) ist S. vi. 9 ; 
e.Lan. 1 The quantity supposed to have been doled out weekly by 
the Saxon employer to each of his manservants. 

[The same as ME. eyjtyndele, mesure, 'satum' (Prompt.).] 
HAUGHLE, see Hauchle. 

HAUGHTY, adj. Obs. eAn. In phr. haughty weather, 
windy weather. 

e.An. 1 Nrf. GROSE (1790). e.Nrf. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1787). 
HAUGO, see Hogo. 

HAUGULL, sb. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) A cold damp wind 
blowing from the sea during summer. ne.Sc. 

Hence Haugullin', adj. of the weather: drizzling, cold 
and damp. Fif. 

[Norw. dial, havgula and havgul, a wind blowing from 
the sea, esp. the wind which blows into the fjords in the 
afternoon in warm weather ; hav, the sea +gul (alsogula), 
a steady wind, ON. haf+gol (Icel. gola), a breeze (AASEN).] 
HAUK, HAUKA, see Hack, sb. 1 , Hawk, v. 1 , Howk, v. 1 , 

HAUKUM-PLAUKUM, adj. Bwk. (JAM.) [Not known 
to our correspondents.] Equal in every way. 

M a 




HAUK-WALK, s*. Obs. Lan. A path across Chat 

In the course of an important trial at the Liverpool Assizes some 
forty years ago, involving the ownership of a portion of the well- 
known Chat Moss, mention was made of certain roadsorpaths across 
the Moss which bore the name of Hauk- walks, N. V Q. (1878) 
5th S. x. 118. 

HAUL, v. and s*. 1 Sc. Nhb. Lin. Wor. Shr. Hrf. 
Glo. Sus. Dor. Som. Dev. Also written hall Nhb. [h)?!.] 

1. v. To draw a vehicle ; to tow, to tug a vessel up 
stream. Cf. hale, v. 2 

Shr. 2 Confined to the river side and chiefly applied to men or 
horses drawing small or large craft on the Severn against the 
stream (s.v. Hale). Glo. 2 Dor. He drove his ekkipage hisself, 
and it was always hauled by four beautiful white horses, HARDY 
Laodicean (ed. 1896) bk. i. v. Som. They hauled the waggon home 
beside the rick, RAYMOND Tryphena (1895) 14. 

Hence (i) Hauling-horse, sb. a horse used for towing ; 
(2) -path, sb. a tow-path. 

(i) n.Lin. 1 (a) ib. The occupiers of land . . . where there is no 
hauling-path are authorized to discharge all persons trespassing 
thereon, Ancholme Navigation Notice (Oct. 6, 1874). 

2. Phr. to haul upon the right tow, to say the right thing. 
Sh.I. Dooaye hauls ipoda richt tow, BURGESS Sketches landed.) 76. 

3. Comp. Haul-to, a three-pronged dung-rake. w.Dev. 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1796). 

4. To carry on the trade of a carrier, to cart, carry. Cf. 
hale, v. 2 2. 

Nhb. A sledge of wood, hailed all along the barrow-way to the 
pit shaft, J.C. Compleat Collier (1708) 36. se.Wor. 1 (s.v. Haulier). 
Shr. 1 1805, Dec. 7th, hawling load coals to the workhouse, i-o-o, 
Par.Acc.^MuchWenlock. Hrf. 1 Glo. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1789); 
Gl. (1851) ; Glo. 1 Som. I'll be glad to haul for you if you've got 
any goods lying at the station (W.F.R.). 

6. To throw. e.Sns. Haul up that stick, HOLLOWAY. 

6. sb. A large quantity or amount. 

Bnff. 1 Thir uncle's dead, an' left thim a haul o' siller. The coo 
jist gees hauls o' milk. Cld. (JAM.) Gall. Never had any great 
haul of sense, CROCKETT Grey Man (1896) 2. 

HAUL, sb. 2 Yks. [oal.] A small inlet or recess into 
which boats from the beach are drawn up for safety. 

n.Yks. 2 We put her into a bit of a haul. 

HAUL, v? Ken. [!.] To shout. (G.B.), Ken. 1 

[EFris. hallen, ' hallen, schallen, tonen ' (KOOLMAN) ; so 

HAUL, see Hall, sb. 2 , Hold, v., Hole, sb. 1 

HAULD, HAULGH, see Hold, v., Haugh. 

HAULIER, sb. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. Dor. Som. 
Also in forms allier s.Wor. 1 ; jiallier s.Wor. 1 Hrf. 1 Glo. ; 
hallyer se.Wor. 1 [p-lia(r), p-ljsfr).] A person whose 
business is to do ' hauling,' with horse and cart for hire ; 
a carrier, carter. Cf. haul, v: 1 4. 

Wor. (J.W.) s.Wor. (H.K.) ; s.Wor. 1 One who draws coal, 
timber, bricks, &c. se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 I've bin to Philips the'aulier 
to axe 'im w'en 'e can fatch me a looad o' coal from the Cut- 
w'arf. Hrf. 1 Glo. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1789) ; BAYLIS Illus. 
Dial. (1870) ; Glo. 1 , Oxf. (G.O.) Dor. Dewy and Son, tranters and 
hauliers. . . Furniture, coals, potatoes, live and dead stock, removed 
to any distance on the shortest notice, HARDY Greenwd. Tree 
(1872) pt. iv. vii. w-Som. 1 

HAULIN, see Hawlin. 

HAULING, vbl. sb. Sc. A method of fishing by means 
of a pock-net ; see below. 

Dmf. A second mode of fishing, called haaving or hauling, is 
standing in the stream, either at the flowing or ebbing of the tide, 
with a pock-net fixed to a kind of frame consisting of a beam 
13 or 14 ft. long, having three small sticks or rungs fixed into it. 
Whenever a fish strikes against the net they, by means of the 
middle rung, instantly haul up the mouth of the net above water, 
Statist. Ace. II. 16 UAM., s.v. Haave). 

HAULING-HOME, sb. Irel. The bringing home of 
thebnde.the weddingday; a\5oca\\&Atheltauling-homeday. 

Ir. On the marriage the father of the bride gives a feast, after 
which the husband stops with her a few days ; then he returns 
home, and on the seventh day comes with his friends to haul her 
home, when he gives a feast. In some places, however, the 
hauling home takes place on the marriage day, Flit-Lore Rec. 
(1881) IV. no. Wxt Such a well-looking young girl as Miss 

Mary there, that . . . could bring about seventy or eighty pounds 
with her on the day of the Hauling Home, KENNEDY Banks Boro 
(1867) 158 ; To provide a good chest of linen for the hauling home 
day, ib. Evenings Duffrey ( 1 869) 304. 

HAULKET, see Hawkit. 

HAULLY, sb. Obs. Sc. A ' hauling,' rough handling. 

Edb. They ae puir fuddl'd chiel did hook, An' gied him a rough 
haully To the guard that morn, New Year's Morning (1793) is. 

HAULM, sb. and v. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Yks. Midi. 
e., s. and w. counties. Also written hawlm Lin. 1 s.Cy. ; 
and in forms arm e.Hmp. ; aum Lei. 1 ; awm Nrf. ; elam. 
ellamHmp.; ellum Brks. 1 ; elm Hmp. 1 Wil. 1 ; haam Oxf. 1 
Brks. 1 I.W. 1 Wil. 1 ; hahm Suf. 1 ; halm Nhp. 2 War. 4 Wor. 
Hrf. 1 Bdf. Nrf. Ken. 1 Hmp. 1 ; ham War. 2 Glo. 1 I.W. Wil. 1 ; 
hame Ken. 1 Dor. 1 ; harm Nrf. Suf.; haulin Stf. 1 Not; 
haum n.Lin. 1 Hrf. Sus. 2 ; hawhm Suf. 1 ; hawme e.Yks. ; 
hellam w.Yks. ; helium w.Som. 1 Dev. ; helm w. Yks. Glo. 1 
Hrt. Ken. 12 s.Cy. Hmp. 1 Wil. 1 Som.; norm Bdf. ; ullum 
w.Som. 1 ; yalmGlo. 1 ; yelben Nhp. 1 ; yelhamHrt; yellum 
Suf. Ess. Sus.; yelm Nhp. 12 Lei. 1 Oxf. 1 Brks. 1 Bdf. Hrt. 
e.An. 1 Suf. Sus. Wil. 1 ; yelven Nhp. 1 ; yolm Glo. 1 ; yullum 
Suf. [901, am, elm, jelm.] 1. sb. Straw, stubble; the 
dried stalks of peas, beans, &c. 

Sc. fA.W.) w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 258. Stf. 1 
Lin. 1 Peas-straw. n.Lin. 1 The straw of beans, peas, tares. Nhp. 1 
Wheat stubble for thatching ; the gathering of which, after the 
harvest, in the neighbourhood of Northampton, is called 'peeking 
thehaultn'; in other parts of the county, the same operation is called 
' bagging the haulm ' ; Nhp. 2 War. 2 ; War.* Wha'at be yer a 
putting that halm on the roof for ? It's full of mullock. Shr. 1 
Hrf. COOPER Gl. (1853). Glo. (A.B.) ; GROSE (1790; ; Glo. 2 Oxf. 1 
Applied to the straw of white crops only. Brks. 1 Bdf. (J.W.B.); 
Cutting of the haulm, or wheat stubble, costs about is. 6d. per acre, 
BATCHELOR Agric. (1813) 108. Hrt. The straw, helm, &c. with 
which the cattle are littered, MARSHALL Review (1817) V. 14. 
Hnt. (T.P.F.), Nrf. (A.G.) Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 296, ed. 
1849 I Suf. 1 The stubble of wheat. It is raked together in heaps 
by women generally at i6d. or i8d. an acre. If done before it be 
a little frosted it is man's work with a scythe. s.Cy. RAY (1691) ; 
GROSE ^1790"). Ken. (G.B.),Ken. 12 Sur. 1 The straw of peas, tares, 
beans, potatoes, but never used of white crops in this district ; 
Sus. 12 , I.W. 1 Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825). Dev. 13 

Hence (i) Haulm-rick, sb. a rick consisting of the stubble 
or straw of vetches, peas, beans, c. ; (2) -wall, sb. a wall 
made of haulm or stubble. 

(i) Brks. 1 The ' Haam' rick in the Vale of Brks. is of bean or 
wheat straw, and there they do not usually speak of a ' vetch haam 
rick' as in the hill part of the county. (2) Ess. And hid them in 
the ditches or the haulm walls, HEYGATE Poems (1870) 187. 

2. A stubble-stack. War. 4 , s.War. 1 

3. Straw made ready for thatching ; bundles or handfuls 
of straw prepared and laid ready for the thatcher. 

Nhp. A'. & Q. (1880) 6th S. i. 330 ; Nhp. 12 Lei. 1 As much corn 
in the straw as can be embraced in both arms. Brks. 1 Bdf. 
fJ.W.B.) ; BATCHELOR ^Ha/. Eng. Lang. (1809) 147. Hrt. (H.G.); 
F.LLIS Cy. Hswf. (1750) 231. e.An. 1 Suf. (C.T.) ; RAINBIRD 
Agric. (1819) 302, ed. 1849. Ess - (H.M.M.) s.Cy. A straw of 
wheat or rye unbruised, bound in bundles for matching, RAY 
(1691). Sus. A narrow flat bundle of thatch drawn for fixing to 
a roof(F.E.);(F.A.A.) Hmp. (H.E.); A handful of thatch. Three 
clams make a bundle, 20 bundles i score, 4 scores i ton, WISE 
New Forest (1883) 282; Hmp. 1 w.Cy. The best unbroken straw 
for thatching, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (i863\ WH. He is attended 
by a man to carry up the ' yelms," JEFFERIES Wild Life (1879) 124; 
Wil. 1 n.Wil. Long straws selected for thatching (W.C.P.). Som. 
Straw prepared for thatching by having the ears cut off (W.F.R.) ; 
(F.A.A.) ; JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 

Hence (i) Helm-sheaf, sb. a sheaf of straw ready for 
use in thatching ; (a) Yelm- or Elm-stock, sb. a forked 
stick used for carrying straw for thatching. 

(i) Som. Properly a helm-sheaf is the length of the strand, 5^ ft. 
round (W.F.R.). (a) Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892) ; WU. 1 

4. The stalk of certain cultivated plants, esp. of potatoes, 
peas, or beans; the green, unripened stalks of cereals. 

Sc. (A.W.) Ir. But we swore it was merely a heap of haulms 
rottin', BARLOW Bogland(iSga') 20, ed. 1893 ; [Of potatoes] Ne'er a 
big crop you'll get under that heigth of haulms, ib. Lisconnel (1895) 
104. w.Yk. All around me the young growths were showing 


[8 5 ] 


purple haulms or green leaf, SNOWDEN Web of Weaver (1896) xiii; 
The ries [sticks] for peas, &c. (J.T.) s.Chs. 1 Not used of the 
stalk of any kind of corn. Not. 1 n.Lin. An' lets him hev . . . 
taatie-haums, PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes (1886) 69. n.Lin. 1 The 
stalks of rape and turnips. The stalk of flax and hemp. Lei. 1 , 
War. 23 , Wor. (W.C.B.), Shr. 1 Hrf. 1 That part of the vegetable 
above the ground. Rdn. MORGAN Wds. (1881). . Glo. Beans . . . 
are very short in the haulm, Evesham Jrn. (July 18, 1896) ; Used 
chiefly of potatoes (J.A.B.) ; Glo. 1 ' Tater hams,' ' peas' hams,' 
&c. Bdf. (J.W.B.) Nrf. The disease begin to show itself among 
them taturs, Sir; hadn't we better cut the harms off? (W.R.E.) 
Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 294, ed. 1849; Suf. 1 The risps of 
potatoes and of pease ... as well as the remnant of beans, when 
they have been cut by the sickle. Ken. 1 , ne.Ken. (H. M.), Hmp. 1 
e.Hmp. They be ready for diggin' now their arms be died off 
(W.M.E.F.). I.W. (J.D.R.) Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892) ; Wil. 1 , Dor. 1 
Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Soni. 1 Not used to denote straw of 
any kind. A coarse kind of stalk is implied : if clover has been 
left to ripen its seed, the stalk becomes rank, and after the seed 
has been thrashed out, the residuum is always ' clover helium.' 
Dev. Us 'ad best ways burn up awl tha heliums and rubbage that's 
lying about, HEWETT Peas. Sf>. (1892). 

5. The husk of corn or of peas, beans, &c., chaff; the 
beard of barley. 

Not. (J.H.B.), Lin. 1 , n.Lin. 1 Nrf. Trans. Phil. Soc. (1855) 32. 
Suf. (W.W.S.) 

6. The fruit of the hawthorn, Crataegus Oxyacantha, esp. 
in phr. haulms and figs, hips and haws. Ken. 1 

7. v. To cut off the ears of wheat previous to threshing; 
to prepare straw for thatching and lay it in bundles ready 
for the thatcher. 

Glo. To cut the ears from the stems of wheat, previous to 
thrashing, MARSHALL Rur. Earn. (1789); BAYLIS Illus. Dial. 
(1870) ; Glo. 1 To comb off the flag, and then to cut off the ears. 
Oxf. 1 Women sometimes yelm, but they do not thatch. Brks. 1 
Bdf. This operation consists in throwing water over the straw and 
drawing it forcibly under one's foot (J.W.B.). e.An.To lay straw in 
convenient quantities to be used by the thatcher,or forthe chaff-cutter, 
MORTON Cydo. Agric. ( 1863) ; e.An. 1 Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. CiSig) 
302, ed. 1814. Ess. The wheat stubbles are haulmed immediately 
after harvest, MARSHALL Review (1811) I. 481. Hmp. 1 Wil. Two 
or three women are busy 'yelming,' i.e. separating the straw, 
selecting the longest and laying it level and parallel, damping it 
with water, and preparing it for the yokes, JEFFERIES Wild Life 
(1879) vi ; Wil. 1 , Som. (W.F.R. N , 

Hence (i) Haulming, vbl. sb. the process of preparing 
straw for thatching ; (a) Yelbener, sb. one who prepares 
straw for the thatcher. 

(i) Bdf. Which, added to the cutting, makes the whole expense 
of haulming2s. 30!. per acre, BATCHELOR Agric. (1813) 108. n.Wil. 
(W.C.P.) (2) Nhp. 1 

8. To pull up stubble. 

e.Yks. Wee have beene forced to hawme wheat and rye stubble 
and therewith to thatch our stacks, BEST Rur. Econ. (1642) 60. 

9. To reap peas or beans with a hook. s.Not. (J.P.K.) 
[1. Halm or stobyl, stipula, Prompt. ON. halmr, straw 

(VIGFUSSON). 4. OE. healm, stem of grass, stalk of a plant 

HAULM, see Hawm, sb. 

HAULY-CAULY, sb. Mid. Slang. Also in forms 
auly-cauly, auly-crauly w.Mid. ; hawley-auley Slang. 
The name of a game at ball ; see below. 

w.Mid. One player throws the ball upon the sloping roof of a 
building, at the same time calling out, ' Hauly-cauly (boy's name).' 
If the boy named can catch the ball before it touches the ground 
he throws it up again and calls upon someone else to do likewise; 
but if not, he picks it up and throws it at one of the others, who 
scatter to avoid being hit. Any boy he may hit has to pay a 
penalty, which he incurs himself if he misses. At the end of the 
game those who have incurred penalties must place one of their 
hands against the wall and allow one of the others to throw at it 
once for each penalty they have incurred. Formerly very popular 
in this neighbourhood (W.P.M.). Slang. A game played in 
Commoners [Winchester College]. It was played with a red 
india-rubber ball. As far as I know the game consisted in the boy 
who got possession of the ball selecting another boy whom he 
tried to hit with it, the object of the latter being either to escape 
the ball when thrown at him, or to catch it, SHADWELL Wyke- 
hamical Slang (1859-1864). 

HAUM, see Hame, sb. 1 , Haulm. 

sb. 1 , Hamble, Hamshoch. 

HAUNCH,?;. 1 Lin. To fondle, pet. (HALL.) 

HAUNCH, v. 2 Lakel. 2 To throw. See Hainch, v. 4. 

HAUNCH, see Hanch, v. 

HAUNGE, v. Lin. To hover about waiting to seize 
anything that turns up. Cf. hanch, v. 

m.Lin. That greedy hulks of a feller was haunging about at the 
club feast waatin' for owt he could laa' hands on (T.H.R.). 

HAUNGE, HAUNIE, see Hunch, sb. 1 , Handy, sb. 1 

HAUNT, v. and sb. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. Chs. Der. 
Not. Hmp. Som. Also in form hant Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 e.Dur. 1 Cum. n.Yks. 4 e.Yks. [h)9nt, h)ant, 
h)ant] 1. v. To accustom, habituate ; used re/I., or in 
pass, to become accustomed to. 

Nhb. We let her oot ower suin; afore she'd getten hanted 
(R.O. H.) ; Aa wasn't reel hanted wid, an hadn't getten the way, 
HALDANE His Other Eye (1880) 3; Nhb. 1 Cum. 4 'To be haunted 
to a place," said principally in reference to cattle. n.Yks. 1 2 
ne.Yks. 1 Ah s'all nivver git hanted ti t'job. e.Yks. 1 He'll seean get 
maisther o' deeahin on't, if he'll hant his-sen tiv it, MS. add. 
(T.H.I m.Yks. 1 

2. To practise. Sc. FRANCISQUE-MICHEL Lang. (1882) 366. 

3. To frequent, resort to ; to visit frequently, to pester 
with one's company. 

s.Sc. The blaeberry bank where we haunted langsyne, WATSON 
Bards (1859) 7. Lnk. They observed the bulk of them so immoral 
and profane, that they were ashamed to haunt their company, 
WODROW Ch. Hist. (1721) I. 335, ed. 1828. Rxb. Canty we might 
be, Did nae she haunt me like a de'il About my dear rappee, 
WiLSON/V*s;i824)2o. hantit o'roundaboutScallowbeck 
steann, DICKINSON Scallow Beck (1866) 1. 8. n.Yks. 2 He haunts 
t'yal-house ; n.Yks. 4 He's awlus sumwheear nigh at hand, All's 
fairly hanted wi' t'lad. s.Chs. 1 A person is haunted with a subject 
when he has it continually brought before his notice. nw.Der. 1 
Said of an ailment or disease, which attacks any one periodically. 
s.Not. 'E uster to reglar haunt me; ah hed to fall out wee 'im 

Hence Hauntskip, sb. a place of resort. 

Abd. The evil spirit took up a hauntskip in the folk's peat neuk, 
MILNE Sags. (1871) 89. 

4. To cause animals to resort to a certain spot. 

Hmp. 1 To haunt pigs or cattle in the New Forest, is to accustom 
them to repair to a certain spot, by throwing down beans or fodder 
there when they are first turned out. 

5. To provide a haunt for. 

Ayr. For haunting drucken groups, On Sabbath days, FISHER 
Poems (1790) 66. 

6. sb. A custom, practice, habit. 

Sc. Ye'll ne'er turn an auld cat fra ill hants QAM. Sup/>l.\ N.Cy. 1 
' At your aud hants,' at your old habits. Nhb. Aa'd getten canny 
inte the hant o' weerin' me new blinker, HALDANE His Other Eye 
(1880) 6 ; Nhb. 1 e.Dur. 1 He has a nasty hant of doing that. 
n.Yks. 12 , ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. He's getten a hant o' scrattin' his heead 
when he's talkin' ti yan, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Nov. 4, 1893) ; Os 
az gotten a hant o she-in [The horse has got a trick of shying] 
(Miss A.). m.Yks. 1 s.Chs. 1 Ahy)shl aav warn urn of ekspek'tin 
thing-z brau-t urn frum maa-rkit, els dhi)n gy'et u au-nt on it [I 
shall have wane 'em off expectin' things brought 'em from market, 
else they'n get a haunt on it]. Som. They have such a haunt of 
mooching (W.F.R.). 

7. Obs. Phr. to get haunt of, to go among. 

e.Yks. They shoulde not gette haunt of the wheate and rye, 
BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 72. 

HAUNTY, adj. Sc. n.Cy. Nhb. Stf. Nhp. War. Wor. 
Glo. Also in form hanty N.Cy. 12 Nhb. 1 Wanton, unruly! 
full of spirit, mettlesome ; excited, frisky, gen. used of horses. 

n.Cy. BAILEY (1721); GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy. 2 Spoken 
of a horse or the like when provender pricks him. Nhb. 1 Stf. 
NORTHALL Flk-Phr. (1894). s.Stf. I should think yo'm haunty, 
olliprancin' about like that, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Nhp. 1 
Playful, without being vicious ; applied almost exclusively to cows. 
War. B'hant Wkly. Post (June 10, 1893) ; War. 1 As applied to a 
horse, it conveys the idea of his being so from overfeeding and 
too much rest. Not synonymous with restive ; War. 28 Wor., 
Glo. NORTHALL Flk-Phr. (1894). 

HAUNTY, see Hanty. 




HAUP, v. Obs. Sc. To limp. 

He cam hauping on ae foot, KINLOCH Ballads (1837) 19. 

HAUP, HAUPS, HAUR, see Hap, v. 23 , Hawps, Haar, 
sb. 1 ', Har(r. 

HAURK, v. Sc. In imp. used by huntsmen as an 
encouragement to the foxhounds ; see below. 

Gall. A term much used by Sc. fox-hunters when the hounds 
find the scent of Reynard in one of his keeps, or challenge him. 
The hunter . . . bawls down to ' Haurk to him, haurk to him, ye 
wee blasties ' ; so in defiance of the tusks of the fox they seize on 
and drag out the crafty villain, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1834). 

HAURL, HAURN, see Harl(e, v., Harden, v. 

HAURRAGE, sb. Sc. A blackguard crew of people. 
Cf. harriage. 

Encycl. (1834). 

HAUSE, HAUSLET, see Halse.s&SHawse, v. 1 , Haslet. 

HAUSS-SPANG, sb. Or.I. An iron rod of a plough. 

[It] surrounds the beam and handle of the Orcadian plough at 
the place where the one is morticed into the other (JAM.) ; S. fc Ork. 1 

HAUST, see Hoast, sb. 1 

HAUT, v. 1 and sb. Sc. 1. v. To limp ; to hop. Cld., 

Slk. (JAM.) 

Hence Hauter, sb. one who can hop. Cld. (ib.) 

2. sb. The act of limping, a hop. Cld. (ib.) 

3. Phr. (i) haut, stap, an' loup, a hop, skip, and a jump ; 
(2) stride and loup, a very short distance, a ' step.' 

(i) ib. (a) Slk. It's nae gate ava to Gorranberry, a mere haut- 
stride and loup, HOGG Tales (1838) 619, ed. 1866. 

HAUT, v? Obs. Sc. To gather with the fingers, as 
one collects stones with a garden-rake ; in phr. to haut the 
kirn, to take off all the butter. 

Slk. He steal't the key, and hautit the kirn, HOGG Jacobite Relics 
(ed. 1874) I. 96; (JAM.) 
HAUT, see Holt, sb. 1 , Hot(t. 
HAUTER, HAUV(E, see Halter, Half, Halve. 
HAUVE, s6. Stf. Hrf. Rdn. [9V.] The haft or handle 
of an axe or pick. 

n.Stf. (J.T.), Hrf. 1 Rdn. MORGAN Wds. (1881). 
HAUVE, v. 1 Yks. Der. Not. Lin. Also written hawve 
Lin. 1 ; and in forms aauve, arv(e Yks. ; auve w.Yks. 2 
s.Not. Lin. ; awve sw.Lin. 1 ; haave n.Yks. ; half Yks. ; 
harv n.Yks. 14 ne.Yks. 1 ; harve n.Yks. 2 ; hoave e.Yks. 1 ; 
horve nw.Der. 1 Not. 3 ; howve Der. 1 ; orve w.Yks. 2 Not. 2 
[v.] Of horses: to turn to the left towards the driver; 
gen. used as an int. : a carter's or ploughman's command 
to his team. Also usedyTg-. 

Yks. 'Aauve the cum hither,' followed by the name of the horse 
which the driver wishes to bear towards himself on the left 
(G.W.W.) ; MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). n.Yks. Gen. used in 
full form, ' Haave, come here ! ' (R.H.H.) ; n.Yks. 1 Replaces the 
older word ' hait ' ; n.Yks. 2 ' She will nowther jee nor harve,' will 
not turn one way or the other; said of a stubborn woman (s.v. 
Jee) ; n.Yks. 4 , ne.Yks. 1 , e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 12 Der. 1 In modified use. 
nw.Der. 1 , Not. (J.H.B.) Not. 2 In rare use. The more common 
word is 'boc'; Not. 8 'Orve again. s.Not. Gen. used with some adv., 
as 'up,' 'ower,' 'again,' 'then' (J.P.K.). Lin. BROWN Lit. Laur. 
(1890) 64 ; Lin. 1 n.Lin. SUTTON Wds. (1881) ; n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 
They have to take care in awving and gee-ing [turning round at 
the end of the furrows in ploughing]. 

Hence Hoave-gee or -gee wohop, int. a call to a horse 
to go straight forward. e.Yks. 1 

HAUVE, v? Yks. Lin. Also written hawve e.Yks. ; 
hoave n.Yks. 1 * e.Yks. 1 ; hove e.Yks. 1 w.Yks.; oave 
m.Yks. 1 [v.] 1. To stare, to gaze vacantly or in 
astonishment. See Awf. 

Yks. What are ye hauvin' an' gauvin' at ? MACQUOID Doris 
Barugh (1877) xxxiii. n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 What are you hauving 
at t n.Yks. 4 , m.Yks. 1 , n-Lin. 1 

Hence (i) Hauven, sb. a lout, a coarse rude fellow; (2) 
Hauvenish, adj. loutish ; (3) Hauving, ppl. adj. simple- 
wilted, foolish, clownish ; (4) -gam, sb. a stupid person ; 
(5) Hauvish , adj., see (3); (6) Hauvison, (7) Hauvy, 
(8) Hauvy-gauvy, sb. a simpleton ; a clownish, awkward 

(i, a) n.Un. (3) n.Yks.', m.Yks. 1 (4) e.Yks. 1 (5) n.Yks. 14 
w.Yks. He's up to o sooarts o hoveish wark. It's nobbut one ov 

his hovish speyks [i.e. remarks] (D.L.): w.Yks. 1 (6) n.Yks. 2 , 
m.Yks. 1 (7) m.Yks. 1 (8) n.Yks. (T.S.), n.Yks. 124 , ne.Yks.l 
e.Yks. What a hawvy-gawvy Sammy-Codlin sooat ov a chap oor 
Jack is, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 90; e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) 
mYks. 1 ,w.Yks. 2 's 
2. To walk blunderingly or stupidly. 

e.Yks. 1 Giles hoav'd inti wrang shop, an' Roger hoav'd eftcr him. 

HAUVE, HAUVER, see Haaf, sb. 1 , Haver, sb.' 

HAUX, v. Hrf. 2 To stroll. 

Where are you hauxing off to ? 

HAV, see Haw, sb. 1 

HAVAGE, sb. Dev. Cor. Also written haveage. 
[ae'vidg.] Race, lineage, family stock. 

Dev. Both the father and mother being pure North- Devoners, 
and claiming descent from two good old county families, they were 
proud of the ' haveage ' to which they belonged, Mem. Rev. J. 
Russell (1883) vi ; Dev. 1 Her come vrom a good havage the very 
daps of her mother, 7. n.Dev. 'E'm too good haveage vor'n by 
haff, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) St. 87. nw.Dev. 1 He kom'th of a 
good havage. Cor. I'd like my old bones to be carr'd home to 
Came, an' laid to rest 'long wi' my haveage, ' Q.' Troy Town (1888) 
xix ; A comprehensive word, applied to the lineage of a person ; 
his family, and companions with whom it is natural for him to 
associate. It thus marks the race from which he has sprung and 
his station in society, N. &- Q. (1854) ist S. x. 318-9 ; The havage 
of my family wain't be easy for to find, J. TRENOODLE Spec. Dial. 
(1846) 9; Cor. 1 The children of a family of ill repute are said to 
be ' o' bad havage ' ; Cor. 2 

HAVANCE, sb. Obs. Sc. Dev. Also written havence 
Frf. Manners, behaviour. Cf. havings. 

Frf. Now ilka lad does taunt her wi' her havence, MORISON 
Poems (1790) 151. Dev. GROSE (1790) ; (HALL.) 

HAVE, v. and sb. Van dial, forms and uses in Sc. Irel. 
Eng. and Amer. I. Dial, forms. 1. Indicative Mood, 
Present Tense, i. Simple Affirmative. 

Sc. Aa hae or haev, hey hass, wey hae or haev ; contracted forms : 
aa've, hey's, wey've, MURRAY Dial. (1873) 219; Hez, ELLIS 
Pronunc. ( 1889) 684. Sh.I. The ill-vicked coo haes short horns, 
SPENCE Fit Lore (1899) 229; A'm heard o' nae rot yit, S/i. News 
(Oct. 7, 1899) ; Da tatties ... is been lack braed, ib. ; Ye're 
shurely brunt dis broth folk, ib. (Dec. 16, 1899) ; Dere am I lost 
mi coont, ib. [For other dial, uses of 'be' for 'have,' see Be, 
VIII. 4.] Doo haes, s.h(i's tell'd, ye hae, ib. ; Ye 'a, ib. (Aug. 27, 
1898). Or.I. Du hiz, ELLIS ib. 796. Cat. 1 I hiv; he, hid his; we, 
&c. hiv ; 'e man his ; "e men hiv. Bnff. 1 He hiz as ... hang-dog- 
like a leuck's iver I saw (s.v. Hang-dog") ; He's taen,iA. 21. e.Sc. 
I've been feeared for this, SETOUN R. Urquhart (1896) xxv ; The 
loon an' you's been aye haein bits o' sharries, ib. viii; Hae, hiv 
[have], his [has] (G.W.V Frf. I hiv or hae ; he, it his; we, &c. 
hiv or hae ; the man his a hoose ; the men hiv hooses (J.B.). 
w.Frf., e.Per. Ai'v, emph. ai hev; 'e, at hez, emph. hi, et hez; 
wa, &c. hev, emph. wi hev ; Sa men hez or hev husaz (W.A.C). 
n.Ayr. I ha'e or hiv; he his; we, &c. hae or hiv (J.F.). Rxb. Iv 
[you havel, ELLIS 16.714; haez, ib. 717; Oo've [we have] nae 
need o' sodgers' claes, MURRAY Hawick Sngs. (1892) 31. Dinf. 
We hae goods, SHENNAN Talcs (1831) 43. Wgt. I've, I hiv or hae ; 
thou'st ; he his, he's ; we've, we, &c. hiv or hae; the men hiv or 
hae houses (A.W.). Ant. A hae ; he haes ; we, &c. hae ( W.J. K.). 
n.Ldd. I have ; he, it hs ; we, &c. have orhev (A.J.T.). Wxf. 1 Obs. 
Cha, for ich ha [I have]. n.Cy. I han, GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 Hes, 
ban pi. Nhb. Simple: Aa'v, thoo'st, hee'z, it'z; stressed: aa he* 
or hev ; thoo, he, it hez. Simple : We, &c. *v ; stressed : we, &c. 
he' or hev ; the men he' hoozes. The forms he" and hev are used, 
the former when a consonant follows' Aa he' nowt to gi' ye ' ; 
the latter when it is followed by a vowel or ' h ' mute ' Aa hev 
on'y sixpence; aa hev 'im noo' (R.O.H.) ; Hest [hast], ib. ; 
Whot isnt gyud that the minister hes ? RICHARDSON Borderer's 
Table-bt. (1846) VIII. 201 ; The hens, poor things, hes nowt, 
ROBSON Evangeline (1870^ 320. Dur. A he, hev ; dhu, hi hez ; wi 
hev; hi hest [he has it], ELLIS ib. 618 ; Dur. 1 Hev, hez. Cum. Ye 
that hae gear, ANDERSON Ballads (ed. 1840) 57 ; Cum. 1 Ah hev, 
I ha'; Cum. 8 I've nit sea offen hed, 3; Thou's cheatit them, ib. 
40 ; I's sworry it hes, ib. 42 ; We've summat else to deu, I. 
c.Cum. Ah hev ; thoo, he, it hes ; we, &c. hev ( J.A.). s.Cnm .1 hev ; 
thou, he, it hez ; we, &c. hev; the men hev or hez houses (J.P.). 
Cum., Wm. Av, az [I have], ELLIS ib. 569. Wm. I hae gitten a 
swoap, WHEELER Dial. (1790) 113, ed. 1831 ; Sail hes hort her 
heel, ib. 112. n.Win. I heve or heh ; thou, he, it hez; we, &c. 
've ; the men hev or hez houses (B.K.). s.Wm. I hev or hes ; 
thoo, he, it hes; we, &c. hev. Also the abbreviated forms 's, 've: 




I's gitten ; thoo's, he's, we've, ye've, they've gitten (J.M.). n.Yks. 
Ah hev a_paper, CASTILLO Poems (1878) 42; Az [I have], ELLIS 
ib. 504 ; AV a lot a biznis (W.H.) ; Thou hez meead my heart 
glad! TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 34; It's ommest deed 
away, ib. a; Yah hea neea wealth, ib. 42; n.Yks. 1 Ah's bin 
chassin' t'harras, 95 ; Thou's getten a sair clash, ib. 102 ; He's 
getten t'farm, ib. 29; They've getten fairly agate, ib. 3; n.Yks. 2 
Hae, hev [have]; hez [has]. ne.Yks. 1 Ah a'e, ev, or Ve ; thoo 
ez, es, or 'z ; he ez or 'z ; we, &c. a'e, ev, or've, 30. e.Yks. Az or 
av dian [I have done!, ELLIS ib. 504 ; I 'ev, (e') ; thoo, he, it 'ez ; 
we, &c. 'ev (e') ; the men 'ev, e', or'ez houses (R.S.) ; Hey [has], 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788) ; e.Yks. 1 I hev or hez ; thoo, he hez ; 
we, &c. hev. m.Yks. 1 Aa ev ; dhoo, ey ez ; wey, &c. ev; aa' ez' 
is freq. heard for ' I have,' Introd. 47. w.Yks. Aiv, av, iv; Saz, 
Caz ; iz ; wlv ; ylv ; Seav, Sev, WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 
154 ; The plural forms wlv, &c. are only used in comb, with 
personal pronouns, in other cases we use ez, az, z, s, just as in 
the second and third pers. s., ib. 156; At hez him near two hands 
in height, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 258 ; We'n a wooden 
ax somewhere, Gossips, 18 ; Here yo'n been spendin all, ib. 12; 
Ahr voines hae tender grapes, ROGERS Sng. Sol. (1860) ii. 15; 
w.Yks. 1 I've [I have] ; ha, hay, hev orhey [have] ; hes [has] ; han 
[they have] ; w.Yks. 2 I ha but sixpence; they han ; w.Yks. 3 We 
han him. Much used for pi. ; w.Yks. 4 Han pi. ; w.Yks. 5 He's 
gotten 't; hehestu. Lan.l'n been clean again, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH 
Scarsdale (1860) I. 94 ; I han got no money, GASKELL M. Barton 
(1848) vi ; He's etten all t'goose, WAUGH Heather (ed. Milner) I. 
90; ' Han 'gen. becomes shortened into ''n,' when preceded by 
the personal pronouns. We'n better i' th' heawse. Yo'n, they'n, 
GASKELL Lectures Dial. (1854) 25 ; Yoan hameh [have my] sneeze 
urn, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1740) 29; Theer yo' han him pinned, 
BRIERLEY Old Radicals, 6; Lan. 1 Han pi. we'n, we'en, yo'n. 
e.Lan. 1 Han//, so. Lan. Aw've ; theaw'st or theaw's ; he, it 's; 
we, &c. 'n or han ; th' mon's getten a heawse ; th' men have 
getten heawses (F.E.T.). s.Lan. Aw've; thea's or thea has ; he's; 
we. &c. 've or we han ; th' mon's getten a house (S.W.) ; Ez, az 
[has], ELLIS ib. 332; Ov dun [I have done], ib. 333. I.Ma. I hev, 
I've; thou, he, we, &c. hev (E.G.); 3z [has], ELLIS ib. 362. 
w.I. Ma. Oi, thou, he, we, &c. 've ; it hev; the man have a house; 
the men hev houses (G.K. ). Chs. Ye an heerd it mony a time, 
CROSTON Enoch Crump (1887) 7 ; Chs. 1 We'n, yo'n ; Chs. 2 They 
han; Chs. 3 Han pi. s.Chs. 1 Aaz', 2nd and 3rd sg. , pi. aan- ; 
Ahy)v got'n u ky'aay [I have got a cow], ib. 71. Stf. 'z [has], 
ELLIS ib. 473; win bin, ib. 478; you bin, ib. 477. n.Stf. Thy poor 
feyther. . . as I'n washed for, GEO. ELIOT A. Bede (1859) 1.155 ; Oi 
av, Sei ast, ei as ; wei, &c. an or av (T.C.W.). s.Stf. I've, thee'st, 
he's; we ha(ve)n of we'n; yo', they han or 'n ; the mon's got a 
house (G.T.L.). Der. Iv dun, ELLIS ib. 429; 'z [has], ib. 427; 
Der. 1 Han pi. nw.Der. 1 Ha'n pi. Not. Ai ev ta gjiv ; iz [he has] 
got it, ELLIS ib. 449 ; Han (J.H.B.). s.Not. I hev, 've, hae, ha, a; 
he, it hes or 's ; we, &c. hev, 've, hae, ha, a (J.P.K.). Lin. Thou's 
rode of 'is back, TENNYSON Owd Roa (1889). n.Lin. I hev, ha', or 
I've ; thoo, he, it hes ; we, &c. hev or Ve ; th' man's a hoose ; th' 
man hes a hoose ; th' men hev or hes hooses. In all cases the ' h' 
is silent unless emphasis is thrown on the word. The verb often 
varies in sound before certain words e.g. ' We hetta (or hatta) 
goa' for ' we hev ta goa' (M.P.). m.Lin. Ai a dun, ELLIS ib. 304. 
s.Lin. Hiz [he has] gotn, ib. 298. Rut. 3z gon, ib. 255. Lei. Aiv 
dun, ib. 465 ; 'z [has], ib. 473 ; My brother always haves his supper 
with us (C.E.); Lei. 1 Emph. I hev or han ; thee has or hast ; he, 
we have, hev, or han. Unemph. I've, I hae, hea, I'n ; thee's or 
thee'st ; he's, he've, he hae, he hea, he'n ; we've, we hae, hea, 
we'n, 30. Nbp. I am got a bad cold, or I are got a bad cold ; the men 
are got housen (C.A.M.). [For other dial, uses of ' be' for ' have,' 
see Be, VIII. 4.] 3 bin [has been], ELLIS ib. 216; 'z bin, ib. 217 ; 
Nhp. 1 I ha'. n.Nhp. 3z [has] ; aiv [I have], ib. 213. War. I've 
or I hay ; thee'st ; he, it 's or hay ; we, &c. 've or hay. The aspirate 
was only used by the educated few. ' I am ' was also frequently 
used for 'I have' I'm done my work (E.S.); War. 1 Han pi. 
Ween bin to market, ib. Pref. 15; You'n done it, ib. 16 ; War. 2 
Han pi. nw.War. I've, I 'ave ; he's, he 'as ; we've, we 'ave; yo've, 
yO 'ave, yo'n; they've, they 'ave ; the mon's a (got) 'ouse; the 
men 'ave (got) 'ouses (G.T.N.). e.War. Oin dun, ELLIS ib. 465. 
m.Wor. Hi or A 'ave, 've, 'a, 's; thee 'ast, 'st ; E or A 'aves, 'ave, 
's ; 't 'ave ; us 'ave, 'as, 've, 's ; you 'as, 's, 'a' ; thahy or A 'as, 
've, 's; the mon 'ave or 'a' a 'ouse; the men a 'ousen (H.K.). 
w.Wor. 1 I 'ave or 'a ; thee'st, 'ast ; 'e, 'a, or'er 'as ; us 'as or 'ave ; 
you 'ave or 'a ; thaay 'as, Introd. 26. Shr. 'z [has], ELLIS ib. 473 ; 
Shr. 1 I've or I han ; thee'st ; we, yo han or 'n ; they han or a'n or 
'n, Gram. Outlines, 58. Hrf. He a-done it now ; he have then ; her 
have (J.B.); 3i 3 den [I have done], ELLIS ib. 70; 'z [has], ib. 

176 ; Dhai av dan [they have done], ib. 177 ; Hrf. 1 Han pi. s.Wal. 
Johnnie George have lost more in her than he do know, Longman's 
Mag. (Dec. 1899) 144. Pern. Hav agon [has gone], ELLIS ib. 32. 
Glo. Mebbe I 'ev time to tell 'e, GISSING Vill. Hampden (1890) I. 
i ; I ha' zeed its full length, ib. Both of this Parish (1889) I. 98; I, 
he, it a; thees't a; we, &c. a (H.S.H.) ; 3z or Iz bin [he has 
been], ELLIS ib. 66. Oxf. I has or haves ; he, it have or haves ; 
we, &c. has or haves ; Tom have come home from school ; we haves 
eggs for brekfust (G.O.) ; I av or ae ; thee 'ast ; 'ee, it 'av or a ; 
we, &c. 'av or aa; th' man 'a got a 'ouse ; th' men 'a got some 
'ousen. Aa for 'av is not used before a vowel (A. P.) ; I hath a 
been thinking, BLACKMORE Cripps (ed. 1895) xix; 'z [has], ELLIS 
ib. 93 ; They has a cart (M.R.). Brks. The squire hev promised, 
HUGHES Scour. White Horse (1859) iv; Brks. 1 I hev of has; thee 
or 'e hast, has, hev, or hevs ; he hev, hevs, or has ; we or us hev ; 
thaay, them, or um hev, hevs, or has, 8. Bdf. Uy hev [I have], 
BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809) 157; 3v gon [has gone], 
ELLIS ib. 94 ; 'z [has], ib. 206; 3z [has], ib. 207; Jiu a bin [you 
have been], ib. 208. Hrt. Oi a dun [I have done] ; Ez [has], it. 
198 ; 3 gon [has gone], ib. 200. Hnt 'z [has], ib. an. Cmb. I 
'av, I've; 'e 'az, 'e'z (W.W.S.); He haves the book (W.M.B.); 
'z gon [has gone], ELLIS ib. 249. Nrf. Ai hae den [I have done], 
ib. 273 ; 3z gon [has gone], ib, 263 ; Miss Woodhouse have had 
it, MRS. A. GODWIN Lett. (1805) in W. Godwin (1876) II. 135. 
e.Nrf. I ha' ; he, it ha' or have ; we, &c. ha' (M.C.H.B.). Suf. Ai 
a den [I have done], ELLIS ib. 280; His [he has] (C.G.B.); Suf. 1 
Mr. Johnson he have two sons. n.Suf. 'z [has], ELLIS ib. 278. 
e.Suf. He, it hev ; we, &c. hev (F.H.). w.Suf. He have (C.L.F.). 
Ess. He hev, or in shortened form 'ha' or ' a' (H.H.M.); 3z g$n 
[has gone], ELLIS it. 223. n.Ken. Ai a den [I have done], ib. 137. 
e.Ken. 3z [has], ib. 142. Sur. I be glad I'se said summat, BICKLEY 
Sur. Hills (1890) I. xii ; I has fits, ib. x ; Whaat he an givun, he 
an givun, ib. 111. xvi ; We ha' no minister, JENNINGS Field Paths 
(1884) 64; The3' must ha' lain here. That must ha' rotted away, 
ib. 69. Sus. He or her have (R.B.). w.Sus. I, thee, he, we, &c. 
hev ( E. E. S. ). Hmp. I don't think she have ( W.M. E. F.) ; 3z [has] , 
ELLIS ib. 105. n.Hnip. Oi 'as ; thou 'ast ; 'e, she has ; we 'ave or 
'as ; you, they 'ave. The verb ' to get ' used after ' to have ' in a 
sentence of any length (E.H.R.). s.Hmp. 'They have,' 'we 
have,' when used as auxiliaries, are often changed into ' they'm ' 
and 'we'm.' 'They'm bought a cow" (H.W.E.). I.W. He've 
(J.D.R.). Wil. Hsev [has], ELLIS ib. 58; emph.Zha sevz'n [she 
has him] ; unemph. 3rz -got'n [she's got him], ib. 47. n.Wil. I've, 
thee'st, he have or 've ; we've, you've, they've or ha' ; the man 
have a got a house; the men ha' got housen (E.H.G.); Th' king 
ha' vot m' into huz cheammurs, KITE Sng. Sol. (1860) i.4. s.Wil. 
Oi ha', thee'st, her' ve or have ; us ha", you've, thaai've (C.V.G. ). 
Dor. Chave [I have], HAYNES Voc. (c. 1730) in N. & Q. (1883) 
6th S. vii. 366; I've, he've; we, &c. 've, BARNES Gl. (1863) 25; 
I've a got, thee'st a got, he've a got (H.J.M.) ; Hav agon [has 
gone] ; John ha [John has], ELLIS ib. 76. Som. 'Ch'ave [I have], 
W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; Hav agon [has gone], ELLIS ib. 85. w.Som. 
Aay-v u-zoa'ld ; dhee-s u-toa'urd ; ee'dh or ee'v u-wuypd ; wee, 
&c. 'v u-shaud', ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 57. Dev. Chave un ! 
Chave un ! Jet gae on now reart an tha whult, MADOX-BROWN 
Ditiale Bluth (1876) bk. i. iv ; I ha put auf ma cote, BAIRD Sng. 
Sol. (1860) v. 3 ; Thow ist duv's eyes, ib. iv. I ; Tha king ith brort 
ma inta es chimbers, ib. i. 4 ; Cuvert 'ath a-dofled his wings, 
SALMON Ballads (1899) 76. n.Dev. I've ; thee'st ; he, it hath or 
he'th ; us ha' ; you, they 've ; the man's a-got a 'ouze ; the men 
hev a-got 'ouzes (R.P.C.) ; And chave an over arrant to tha mun, 
Exm. Crtshp. (1746) 1. 396; Obs. Use in text prob. exaggerated, 
ib. Gl. e.Dev. Th' zun hev a-tann'd me, PULMAN Sng. Sol. (1860) 
i. 6. s.Dev. Hez [has], ELLIS ib. 162. Cor. 'z [has], ib. 166 ; 3z, 
ib. 169 ; The best custom we ha' got, FORFAR Pentowan (1859) i ; 
Cor. 2 I haave a ben ; thee'st, a haave, we haave, or wee've, 61 ; 
Cor. 3 Gen. used with ' got.' I have got a book. w.Cor. Have is 
com.hav'. In the last generation it was pronounced have (M.A.C.). 

ii. Simple Negative. 

Sc. I haena fund Miss Clara, SCOTT St. Ronan (1824) xxxvii ; 
He hasna a divot-cast of land, ib. Midlothian (1818) xii ; They 
havena sae mickle, ib. Leg. of Mont. (1818) iii. Sh.I. If shd's no 
tell'd, S/i. News (Dec. 16, 1899). Cai. 1 I hivna; he, hid hisna ; 
we, &c. hivna. Bnff. Hinna [have not], ELLIS ib. 779. Abd. 
I haena; he, it hasna; we, &c. haena (G.W.) ; Ai hi)ne, ELLIS' 
ib. 769 ; I suppose ye hinna jist a lot o' siller, GREIG Logit 
o' Buchan (1899) 203. Frf. I hivna or hinna ; he, it hisna ; we, 
&c. hivna or hinna (J.B.); We hivena been sic a short time 
acquaint, LOWSON Guidfollow (1890) 30. w.Frf., e.Per. Ai hevna, 
hana ; 'e, at hezna ; wa, &c. hevna, hana ; also dezna he ; Sa 
men hezna husaz (W.A.C.). w.Sc. Henna and hinna [have not] 




represent the com. pronun. (jAit.Suppl.} Rnf. Some puir creatures 
haena where to lay their heads, A. WILSON Poems (1816) 321, ed. 
1876 (JAM. Stippl.}. n.Ayr. I hae nae (pron. hinney^; he his nae; 
we, &c. hae nae (J.F.). Lnk. I hinna the power, WARDROP /. 
Malhison (1881) 36. Wgt. I, we, &c. hinna, haena, hivna; thou'st 
not ; he, it hisna (A.W.). Ant. I, we, &c. haenae or hae not ; 
he haesnae. ' I have not ' would be rendered ' A haenae ' and 
' A hae not ' according as the question required. ' Have you six- 
pence ? ' ' No, I haenae ony mony.' ' Have you got your break- 
fast?' 'Ihaenot.' And so of some others (W.J.K.). N.Cy.'Henna, 
hanna [have not], Nhb. Simple: Aa hevn't; Aa henna; thoo, he, it 
hezn't; we, &c. hevn't. Stressed: Aa'venot; thoo'snot; he'znot; 
it'z not; we, &c. 've not. Used as follows. Absolute: 'Aa 
hevn't.' When followed by a phr. beginning with a consonant : 
'Aa henna,' e.g. 'Aa henna seen him.' Phrasal, when a vowel 
follows: 'Aa hennit,' e.g. ' Aa hennit a penny' (R.O.H.) ; I hev 
not a boat, ALLAN Tyneside Sngs, (1891) 8 ; A keahm hes-int been 
int this twe months, BEWICK Tyneside Tales (1850) 10; They hennet 
te touch the", ROBSON Bk. Ruth (1860) xi. 9. Dur. A hev'nt, 
licnat, hena ; dhu, he hez'nt, ELLIS ib. 618. Cum. I hae nea 
power, BURN Ballads (1877) 62 ; There hes-na gaen a month, ib. 
7 ; Cum. 1 Hewent, hennet [have not]. c.Cum. Ah hevent ; thou, 
he, ithessent; we, &c. hevvent (J.A.). n.Wm. I hev'nt; thou, 
he, it hezzant ; we, you hevvant ; they hevvant or hezzant; the men 
lit want orhezzant. When emphasis is required, ' Ah've, we've, &c. 
nut ' is substituted (B.K.). a.Wm. I hevn't or hesn't ; thou, he, it 
hesn't; we, &c. hevn't (J.M.). n.Ylts. Ah aint neea mair te say, 
TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 8; Ah essent patience, ib. 37; 
We aint mitch trade, ib. 19 ; Tha hevvent deed, CASTILLO Poems 
(1878) 25 ; Thoo ezent tried (W.H.) ; Hezzent [has not]; hennut 
[have not] (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 1 Ah hevn't strucken a bat, 32 ; n.Yks. 4 
' Hennet ' [have not] should be written ' a'e nut.' ne.Yks. 1 Ah 
a'e n't ; thoo, he ez n't ; we a'e n't or we ev n't ; you, they 
a'e n't, 30. e.Yks. I, we, &c. ain't; thoo, 'e, itezn't; the men 
ain't or ez'nt houses (R.S.) ; Ah a'e nut or'ev nut; thoo, he, it 
'esnut; we, &c. a'e nut(M.C.F.M.); e.Yks. 1 Ah hain't niwerthried; 
haan't [have not]. m.Yks. 1 Besides the com. neg. ' evu'nt,' there is 
an additional form 'en-ut.' ' Aa-ez-u'nt' [I have] is freq. heard, //></. 
47. w.Yks. I havvant a penny, BURNLEY Yks. Stories Retold, 146 ; 
Ah hevn't goan, Yksman. (1888) 223, col. a ; Tha hessn't long to 
live, KeighleyNews (Mar. 16, 1889) 7, col. 7 ; If she'y hezzant, LUCAS 
Stud. A'iddcrdale (c. 1882) 34; Ai, a, i evnt ; S3, ta, ta eznt, 
WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 154 ; w.Yks. 1 Hanno [have not] ; 
I hennot doon wi' the yet, ib. it. 336 ; w.Yks. 5 Hen't [hasn't]. 
Lan. He has no, BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) v; Yo" hanna seen, 
ACKWORTH Clog Shop Chron. (1896) 279. e.Lan. 1 Hannot ^Roch- 
dale), harnd (Rossendale) [have not]. se.Lan. Aw've no' or 
aw hannot; theawst no' or theaw hasno; he, it's no', or he hasno'; 
we, &c. hanno' or hannot i^F.E.T.). s.L.-m. Awve not or 1 hanna 
or hannot ; thea, he, it hasna or hasn't ; we, &c. hanna or hannot 
(S.W.); Ii &c. hanno, BAMFORD Dial. (1854). I.Ha. I hev'n; 
thou hev'n ; he hev'n; they hev'n; the men hev'n houssesi,E.G.). 
Chs. Nay I han'not, CROSTON Enoch Crump (1887) 7; They surely 
hanno' bin berryin' somebody wick,i'6. la; Chs. 1 Hanna or hanner 
[have not] ; Chs. 2 Hannah ; Chs. 3 Hanna. s.Chs. 1 Ahy aa)nu ; 
DhD aa-(na bin, 92. n.Stf. Oi ana; Shei astna; ei, it asna ; we, 
&c. ana or anna (T.C.W.). s.Stf. I ha'nt; thee has'nt ; he ha't 
or han't ; we ha' or han't (G.T.L.) ; Ai et [I have not], ELLIS ib. 
461. Der. Ye hanna suppered up thae five new heifers, VERNEY 
Stone Edge (1868) viii. nw.Der. 1 Hanna. Not. He aint or haint 
got it (J.H.B.). s.Not. I haint or hevn't ; he, it hain't, hesn't, or 
hesna; we, &c. hain't or hevn't. 'Hesna'is undoubtedly some- 
times used by the old ; it may be an introduction, but I have found 
it in central parts of the district (J.P.K. ). n.Lin. I hevn't or 
ha'nt ; thoo, he, it hesn't ; we, &c. hevn't or ha'nt ; th' man's not 
a noose; th' men hesn't noa hooses (M.P.). s.Lin. I haent; thou, 
he, it hesn't ; we, &c. hafint (T.H.R.). Lei. [The use of ' be ' 
instead of 'have' is] very common. I'm not brought my paper. 
He is'nt got none (C.E.). [For other dial uses of ' be' for ' have,' 
see Be, VIII. 4.] Lei. 1 I haven't, hevn't, havena, hanna, or I 
hannot, hain't, hean't, 31. Nhp. 1 Hanna [have not]. She ha'n't 
got it It hassant done no hurt. War. I hanna seen my mate yet, 
WHITE Wrekin (1860) xxiv ; Thee hanna roggled to be such a 
good wench, B'ham Wkly. Post (Apr. 29, 1899) ; War. 2 Han not, 
pi. Now confined to remote hamlets ; replaced by ' ain't ' and 
' arn't,' which are employed with a sing, or pi. pron. ; War. 3 I, 
thee, he, it haint ; we, &c. harn't ; I aint been ; I hent been a 
naughty girl ; War. 4 I harnt got it. nw.War. I ain't, arn't, 
'annot (rare) ; Yo, he, it, we ain't, arn't (G.T.N.). Wor. I 'ant 
got the money, Evesham Jrn. (Nov. 18, 1899). m.Wor. I 'an't ; 
thou 'ast or 'st not ; he, it 'ave, 've not, 'an't ; we 'ave, Ve, 'as, 

'an't ; you 'as, 's, 'an't ; they 'as, Ve, 's, 'an't (H.K.) ; No he h'ant 
or aant (J.C.). w.Wor. 1 I 'anna or 'avna ; thee 'asna ; 'e 'anna or 
'asna ; us, yer 'anna or 'avna ; thaay 'anna or 'asna, Introd. 26. 
Shr. They hanna got nothing to do (A.J.M. ); Shr.l I hanna; 
thee has'na ; A, 'e, or 'er hanna ; we, &c. hanna, Gram. Outlines, 
58 ; Hrf. 2 Hanna [has not] ; havena [have not]. s.Wal. You 
ain't got no spirit, Longman's Mag. (Dec. 1899) 144. Glo. I han't; 
thee hastn't; he, it, we, you hant; they hant or hanna (H.S.H.); 
I'sn't carried a pall afore, GISSING Both of this Par. (1889) I. 104 ; 
Ye ent zeed the last of I, ib. VM. Hampden (1890) III. iv. Oxf. I 
ain't or ent ; thou, he, it ain't ; we ain't or ent ; you, they ain't. 
An't is sometimes used; eg. 'I'll be jiggered if some young uns 
an't bin in my garden '(G.O.) ; laa'nt; thee'asn't; Ee, itaan't; us 
orwe,&c.,um, or theyaan't; th'menaan'tgotno'ouzen(A.P.); I,&c. 
'an't got ; the man 'an't got a house (M.R.) ; I han't no patience with 
thee, BLACKMORE Cripps (ed. 1895) ii. Brks. Haeaent got [has not], 
ELLIS ib. 97 ; Brks. 1 Haint or hev'nt [have not] ; I, he ent, aint, 
hev'nt, or yent ; thee or 'e hasn't or hevn't, ib. 10. Bdf. Uy he nu 
[I have not], BATCHEI.OR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809) 154. Hrt. Ent 
[have not], ELLIS ib. 199. Cmb. I 'av'n't or I ain't ; 'e 'avn't or'e 
ain't (W.W.S.). e.Nrf. I, &c. haint (M.C.H.B.). Suf. I, &c. 
ha'nt ; aint [has not] (C.G B.) ; Suf. 1 Heent [has or have not] ; 
'A heent got a wad ta sah. e.Suf. He haint (F.H.) ; Hint got 
[has not got], ELLIS ib. 279. Ess. I hant (H.H.M.). Ken. I ain't 
done it yet. He ain't got none (D.W.L.). Snr. I ain't got none, 
lad, but I ainna wi' in a drop, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) I. i ; 
Thou hasl'na faither, ib. II. xv; They as hanna enou' for theysen, 
ib. i. Sus. He or her have not (R.B.). w.Sus. I aint; thee ant; 
he, &c. aint (E.E.S.). Hmp. Ha'nt got [has not] got, ELLIS ib. 
97. n Hmp. Oi 'avnt ; thou 'asnt ; he 'asnt ; we, &c. 'avnt 
(E.H.R.). s.Hmp. I ain't [ent] ; they ain't [ent] (J.B. P.). w.Cy. 
Yent [you have not] no need, Cornh. Mag. (Dec. 1895') 601. 
n.Wil. I haa'n't a keep'd, KITE Sng. Sol. (1860) I. 6 ; 1 ha'nt ; 
thee hass'nt ; he ha'nt ; we, &c. ha'nt ; the man ha'nt got no 
house; the men ha'nt got no housen (E.H.G.). Dor. The man 
ha'nt got ar a house (H.J.M.) ; Dor. 1 Hassen [hast not]. w.Soni. 
Aay aa'n; dhee as-n ; Ee (or ai) aa'n (or aa'th-n); wee aa'n, 
ELWORTHY Gram. U 8 77) 57; w.Som. 1 I han't; thee has'n ; he 
han't or hath'n ; we, &c. hant. Often written 'ant.' Dev. I be 
zartin that thee ant, SALMON Ballads (1899) 64. n.Dev. I ha'nt or 
heb'm ; thee hass'n ; he hath'n, han't, or heb'm ; it han't or tan't; 
us, &c. ha'nt or heb'm (R.P.C.). nw.Dev. 1 Ant. 

iii. Simple Interrogative. 

Sc. Hitvaa? hass-hey ? hse-wey ? MURRAY Dial. (1873) 219. 
Sh.I. Heas doo mair levin? Sh. News (Nov. 4, 1899) ; Is doo ? 
[hast thou?] ib. ^Dec. 16, 1899). Cai. 1 Hiv I, we, ye, 'ey ? his 
he? Abd. His't? hae you or [hive] ye? (G.W.) Frf. Hiv I? 
his he! his't? hivwe? &c. (J.B.) w.Frf., e.Per. Hev a? hez 'e 
or't? hev we? &c. (W.A.C.) n.Ayr. Hae or hiv I ? his 'e f hae 
we or ye? hiv or hae they? (J.F.) Rxb. Hae i? [have you?j 
ELLIS ib. 714. Wgt. Hiv or hae I ? his he ? hiv or hae we ? &c. 
(A.W.) Ant. Hae a? haes he? hae we? &c. (W.J.K.) Nhb. 
Hevaa! hesta or hez tha ? hez'ee? hest ? he' we? &c. Hez ony 
on ye getten deun ? (R.O.H.) ; What hasta been daein'? CLARE 
Love of Lass (1890) 1. 6 ; Where hest te been, ma canny hinny ? 
Old Sng., Ma Canny Hinny; How monny bayrnes hes thee 
muther now? BEWICK Tyneside Tales (1850) ii ; Ha' ye heard? 
OLIVER Local Sngs. (1824) 6; Nhb. 1 Hev, the emphatic form . . . 
used . . . when the word following begins with an open vowel or 
h mute. Cum. Hesta a job frat Castle foke ? Poll Bk. Whitehaven 
(1832) 35 ; What heste got to say agean it? DICKINSON Cumbr. 
(1876) 41. c.Cum. Hev ah! hesta? hes he! hes it or hes't? hev 
we! hevya, they ! orha'ya, they! (J.A.) s.Cum. Hev I, we, you, 
they ? hez thou, he, it ? hev or hez the men houses ? (J.P.) Win. 
What hesta deean weet cheeses? Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 6. 
n.Wm. Heve or heh, I, we? &c. ; hez he, it? heve or hest 
the men houses ? hest gone ten ? hest [has the] coo cauved ? 
(B.K.) s.Wm. Hev I or hes I! hes te, he, it? hev we? &c. 
(J.M.) Yks. Yo've not been wanting to go long, han yo? 
GASKELL Sylvia (1863) I. xii. n.Yks. Ez-ta gitten the lesson off? 
Eh ya gitten a beuk? (W.H.) ; Weea hez te there? TWEDDELL 
Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 16 ; Hasta, has-thah, or hez theh? hey-yah? 
(T.S.) ; n.Yks. 2 Hae ye hitten on yet ? 95. ne.Yks. 1 Ev ah? es 
ta? ez a? A'e wa? &c., 30. e.Yks. 'Ev ah! 'ez thoo? 'ez 'e, it? 
'ev or 'e we? (R.S.); 'Ev ah? 'es ta? or a'e thoo! 'es he, it? 
a'e wa? &c. (M.C.F.M.) ; e.Yks. 1 Hes-ta or hez-tha. w.Yks. 
Hezta gotten owt nice ? Bradford Life, 198 ; Evi ! esta ! eza ! e we? 
WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. (1892)155; Ez oni on ja onion ja? (J.W.); 
Han yo ony moorweft ! (D.L.) ; An ye? (S.P.U.) ; w.Yks. 1 Hasto? 
Hayeonny? w.Yks. 2 Asia or astow ; w.Yks. 5 Hes tuh gotten that 
to-daay ? Lan. Hasta bin axin him for brass ? CLEGG David's Loom 




(1894) i ; Whatever hasto bin doin', lad ? WAUGH Hermit Cobbler,m ; 
Whohes? ib. Heather (ed. Milner)!. go; Hanneyfawn eawt withur, 
measter? TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (ed. 1806) 16; An they been 
sellin'a mill? HAMERTON Wenderholme (1869) Ixiv; Lan. 1 Thae's 
never browt o' that lumber wi* thi', asto ? ne.Lan. What han yo 
done wi' him? MATHER Idylls (1895) 221 ; Wots ta gjetn ? ELLIS 
>f>- 553- e.Lan. 1 se. Lan. Have aw? hast' or hasto? has he, it? 
han we ? &c. (F.E.T.) s.Lan. Hanni ? [have you ?] BAMFORD 
Dial. (1854). I.Ma. Hev I? &c., throughout (E.G.). w.I.Ma. 
Hev oi, he, it? have thaa ? hev we, thee? have, yea? (G.K.) 
Chs. 1 Hasta? han yo ? s.Chs. 1 Aas't bin? 92. Oo'u)z bin ? ib. 
66; Aaz- do uurt fir ? [has she hurt herself?] ib. 69 ; Aan) yu ? ib. 
72. Stf. Wiar as bin ? [where hast thou been ?] ELLIS ib. 478. 
n.Stf. Av oi? ast Sei ? as ei, it? an wei ? &c. (t.C.W.) s.Stf. 
Han' I, we, yo', they? has 't ? (G.T.L.) Der. 1 Hasto? [hast thou 
all ?] Der. 2 Ha'n ? pi. Not. Hae yer got it? (J.H.B.) s.Not. Hev 
a or hae a ? hasta ? hes 'e, it ? hev or hae we ? &c. Hasta almost 
entirely addressed to children and fast dying out (J.P.K.). Lin. 
Whecr 'asta bean ? TENNYSON A'. Farmer, Old Style (1864) st. I. 
n.Lin. Es ta a raake? Es thi fayther gon' 66t? (J.P.F.) ; Hev I ? 
Hestaortha? hes he, it? hev wS ? hev or ha' y6 ? hev orha' thaay 
orth'? (M.P.) ; n.Lin. 1 Hast ta gotten thy dinner ? Lei.Hevyubin 
dheer? Am I ? (C.E.) ; Lei. 1 Ow hev ye ? Nhp. 1 What ha' ye got 
theere ? Han y' got any 'taters ? War. 3 Ha [hay] I, thee. he, 
we? &c. nw.War. 'Ave I, we, yo? 'As or a', 'e, it? (G.T.N.) 
e.War. An jo ? ELLIS ib. 487. m.Wor. Ave or 'a hi ? 'ast or 'ast 
thou? ave 'e or a? ave't? a 't ? pi. Ave or a'? (H.Kj s.Wor. 
Hast? [hast thou?] PORSON Quaint Wds. (1895) 7. Shr. An ja 
dun ? ELLIS ib. 476 ; Shr. 1 Have I ? hast 'ee ! has a ? pi. han ? 
Gram. Outlines, 59. Glo. Ha I, he, we? &c.: hast? (H.S.H.) 
Oxf. 'Av I ? 'ast ? 'ast thee ? av a ? av ee ? pi. 'Av or a' ? (A.P.) ; 
Wo's bin a duin ? [what hast thou been doing?] ELLIS ib. 126; 
Have it bin seen to? (G.O.); 'Ave ee? 'ave em? (M.R.) Cmb. 
'Ave I ? 'av we? &c. (W.W.S.) Nrf. Hay you got the guy rope ? 
RYE Hist. Nrf. (1885) xv. e.Nrf. Have he, it? ha 1 we? &c. 
(M.C.H.B.) Suf. Have he, that ? (C.G.B.) e.Suf. Hev he, it ? 
(F.H.) Sur. What ah 'ee sent they hops over there fur? BICKLEY 
Sur. Hills (1890) I. i. Sus. Have ee [thou]? have he, it? (R.B.) 
w.Sus. Hev I, he, it, we? &c. ; hes thee? (E.E.S.) n.Hmp. 'ave 
oi ? 'ast 'a ? 'ave 'e? 'aveun ? 'ave we ? 'ave 'e? 'ave they ? (E.H.R.) 
Wil. Hast? [have you?] SLOW Gl. (1892). n.Wil. Hast thee? 
have he, it? (E.H.G.) s.Wil. H've oi ? hast thee? h've ee orher or 
ur? h'veus? &c. (C.V.G.) Dor. V I a got ? (H.J.M.) Som. Hsest 
dhi lukt? ELLIS ib. 90. w.Som. Uv aay ? us thee ? uv uur? &c., 
ELWORTHY Gran:. (1877) 58. n.Dev. Hev I? hast? hath a? hev 
us ? &c. (R.P.C.) ; Avi [have you] got eni ? ELLIS ib. 160. Cor. 3 
Hasta? w.Cor. Hast-ee orhav'-ee? sometimes hab'-ee ? In com. 
use (M.A.C.). 

iv. Interrogative Negative. 

Sc. Havena I been telling ye? SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xviii. 
Cai. 1 Hivna I? hisna he? his'nt 'id? hivna we? &c. Abd. 
Haenaorhivna I ? &c. (G.W.) Frf. Hiv I no ? his he ho? his'tno? 
hiv we, &c. no ? hisna the man a hoose ? hinna the men hooses ? 
(J.B.) w.Frf., e.Per. Hev 3 no? hez 'e no? hez't no? hev wa, 
&c. no? dez Sa man no he a hus? div fta men no hg husaz ? 
(W.A.C.) Rnf. Hinna ye heard, man, o' Barrochan Jean? 
TANNAHILL Poems (180';} 204, ed. 1817. n.Ayr. Hae or hiv I not? 
his he not? hiv or hae we, &c. not ? (J.F.) Wgt. Hivna, hinna, or 
haena I, we, you? &c. ; his he na? his na he? (A.W.) Ant. 
Hae A no? haes he no ? hae we, &c. no? (WJ.K.) Nhb. Hev 
aa not? [hevn't aa?] hez thoo not? [hezn't thoo?] hez 'ee not ? 
[hezn't 'ee?] he' we, ye not? [hevn't we, ye?] he' they not? 
[he'na they ?] The pronoun is almost invariably used at the end 
of the phr., e.g. 'Hevn't aa?' (R.O.H.) c.Cum. Hevent ah? 
hessent thoo, he, it? hevn't we ? hewentya, they ? (J.A.) s.Cum. 
Hev I, we, you, they, not ? hez thou, he, it not ? hev or hez not 
the men houses? (J.P.) n.Wra. Hevvant I ? hezzant thoo, he, it ? 
hevvant we ? &c. Hezzant freq. used for the pi. ' hevvant,' e. g. 
'Hezzant oor lads come?' (B.K.) s.Wm. Hevn't I or hesn't I? 
hes te nut orhesn'te ? hes he nut or hesn't he ? hes 't nut or hesn' 
't ? hevn't t'men ? Also Hev I nut or hes I nut? when em- 
phasis is required (J.M.). n.Yks. Haa'nt ah? (T.S.) e.Yks. 
'Ain't ah? 'ezn't thoo, 'e, it? 'ain't we? &c. (R.S.) ; A'en't ah? 
a'en't or 'esn't thoo? 'esn't he, it? a'en't wa ? &c. (M.C.F.M.) 
w.Yks. Evnt I? eznt ta? eznt a? evnt wa? &c. (J.W.) ; w.Yks.s 
Hesn't he? hent? [has not?] Lan. Hannot yo yerd ? CLEGG 
David's Loom (1894^ iii ; Han ley not t'murrain ? KAY-SHUTTLE- 
WORTH Scarsdale (1860) I. 36. se.Lan. Hannot aw? hastno' ? 
hasno' he? hanno' or hannot we? &c. (F.E.T.) s.Lan. Hastono'? 
BAMFORD Dial. (18541 ; Hav'n't or hannot I? hastn't or hasn't 
to? hasn't he ? hanna or hannot we ? &c. (S.W.) I.Ma. Haven' 

he got the tools to his hand ? BROWN Doctor (1887) a ; Hev'n I ? 
&c. (E.G.) s.Chs. 1 Aan-t? [haven't or hasn't?] 77. n.Stf. The 
gentry says ' hevn't you ? ' the people about here says ' hanna 
yey ?' GEO. ELIOT A. Bede (1859) I. 19; Avno or ana oi ? astna 
Cei? asna or ava ei? ana wei? &c. (T.C.W.) s.Stf. Han't I, he, 
we? hasn't thee? (G.T.L.) s.Not. Hevn't or hain't a ? hesn't a? 
hesn't or hain't e? hevn't or hain't we ? &c.(J.P.K.) n.Lin. Ev'nt I, 
we? &c. ; has'nt e? (J.P.F.) ; Hevn't or ha'n't I? hesn't thoo, 
he? hevn't or ha'n't we, thaay ? (M.P.) s.Lin. Haent I? hesn't 
he ? pi. hev (T.H.R.). Lei. Is'nt he ? (C.E.) War." Haint I, thee, 
he ? harnt we ? &c. nw.War. Ain't, arn't I ? &c. (G.T.N.) 
m.Wor. 'An't I, thee? 'an't or 'aven't e? an't we? &c. (H.K.) 
w.Wor. 1 'Anna I ? 'astna thee ? 'an't 'e, us ? 'anna yQ, thaay ? 
In/rod. 26. Shr. 1 Hannad-I ? has'na thee ? hannad-a, 'e? hanna 
we, yo ? hannad-a or they? Gram. Outlines, 59. Hrf. 2 Hanna 
ye? Glo. Han't I, he, we? &c. ; hasn't thee? (H.S.H.) Oxf. 
Aint orent I, thou? &c. ; aint or ent we? &c. (G.O.) ; Aa'nt I? 
asn't ? asn't thee ? aa'nt ee ? aa'nt us ? &c. (A.P.) Cmb. 'Av'nt 
or ain't I? ain't 'e, we? &c. (W.W.S.) e.Nrf. Haint I? &c. 
(M.C.H.B.) Suf. Ha'nt I? &c. (C.G.B.) e.Suf. Haint he? haint 
it ? (F.H.) w.Sus. Aint I ? &c. (E.E.S.) Hmp. Haint you got it? 
(H.C.M.B) n.Hmp. 'aint 'oi ? 'asnt 'a? 'aint 'e? 'asnt I ut ? 'aint 
we? 'avn't 'e ? 'aint they ? (E H.R.) n.Wil. Han't I? hassn'tthee? 
han't he, we, they? hav'en ee ? (E.H.G.) s.Wil. Harnt thee got 
nare on? Monthly Mag, (1814) II. 114; Ha'n't oi ? hasn't thee? 
ha'n't her or ur, we? &c. (C.V.G.) Dor. Ha'nt I a got ? (H.J.M.) 
Som. Han't er? Monthly Mag. (1814) II. 127. w.Som. Aa'n aay? 
as-n ? aa-n ur? aa'n wee? ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 58. n.Dev. 
Han't or heb'm I ? hass'n ? hath'n a ? han't or heb'm us, ee' 'm, or 
nim ? (R.P.C.) [Amer. Haint they cut a thunderin' swarth ! 
LOWELL Biglow Papers (1848) 45.] 

2. Indicative Mood, Past Tense, i. Simple Affirmative. 
Sc. Haed. Contracted: Aa'd, yee'd, &c., MURRAY Dial. (1873) 
219. Sh.I. I telt my midder da draem I haed, SPENCE rib-Lore 
(1899) 241 ; Doo'd been helpin, Sh. News (Oct. 7, 1899) ; A body 
hed, ib.; Ye hed, ib. ; William's folk 'id been. ib. ; I wis noticed 
da shows, ib. (Dec. 16, 1899) ; They wis gotten a wab, ib. [For 
other uses of ' be ' for ' have ' see Be, VIII. 4.] Or.I. 3 mur hed 
fan, ELLIS ib. 792. Cai. 1 I hid, he hid or he'd ; we, &c. hid or'd. 
Bnff. 1 They hid a great aff-lat, 7. Abd. Ye hed me o' the steel, 
ALEXAXDERjohnnyGikb (i87i)iv; Ahid(A.WA Frf. I,he,we,&c. 
hid (J.B.). w.Frf., e.Per. 3, 'e, we, &c. hed (W.A.C.). n.Ayr. I, he, we, 
&c. hud (J.F.). Rxb. Id [you had], ELLIS ib. 714. Wgt. I haed, hid, 
hed ; thou'dst ; he, we, &c. haed, hid, hed. Haen occurs (A.W.). 
Nhb. Simple: Ha'd, thou'dst, he'd, it id, we'd, &c. Stressed ( rarely) : 
Ha hed, thou hedst ; he, it hed; we, &c. hed. In the stressed 
forms 'had,' 'hadst' are almost invariable, but 'hed' [pron. like 
head] is also heard (R.O.H.) ; The kinsman thit Booz hid spot" 
on, ROBSON Bk. Ruth (1860) iv. i. Cum. Sum thowt 'at ah'd 
chowkt mesel, Joe and Landlord, 7 ; Cum. 1 Hed ; Cum. 3 A queer 
hammer he hed wid him, 3; I'd tel't them me-sel, ib. 8. c.Cum. 
Ah, &c. hed (J.A.). n.Wm. I, Sec, hed. Freq. abbreviated as 
Ah'd, thoo'd, &c. (B.K.) s.Wm. I hed, thou hedst or hed ; he, 
we, &c. hed. Abbreviated forms also used, as ' I'd gitten ' (J.M.1. 
ne.Yks. 1 Ah ed or ad ; thoo ed, ad, edst, or adst; he, we, &c. ed 
or ad, 30. e.Yks. Ah 'ed, thco 'edst ; he, we, &c. 'ed. 'Ad is 
often used instead of 'ed iM.C.F.M,); I, thoo, &c. 'ad or 'ed. 
The 'a' is the usual broad Holderness 'aa' (R. S.). m.Yks. 1 Aa 
ed or aad' ; dhoo- ed, aad' or edst', adst' ; ey. we, &c. ed' or aad', 
Introd. 47. w.Yks. Ai, a, i ed or aid, ad, ed ; $, tS, ta ed or 83d, 
tSd, tad; ?, a ed or Id, ad; wf, wa ed or wfd, wad, WRIGHT 
Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 155 ; Ardly hed Ah darken'd t'doar, 
PRESTON Poems, &c. (1864) 4 ; It ud been on t'table fer sum meyt, 
Yksman. (1888) 223 ; w.Yks. 1 Eed [I had]. Lan. Shou hed fill'd 
her brat, HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 60 ; Yo hadden 
um, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) I. 61 ; Lan. 1 Wi'dd'n 
[we had!, yo'dd'n, yoad'n [you had]. ne.Lan. 1 Hed. se.Lan. 
Aw'd ; theawdst or theaw'd ; he, we, &c. 'd (F.E.T.). s.Lan. 
Aw'd or aw had, thea'd or then had ; we'd or we had, they'd or 
they had (S.W.) ; Hadn [we had], BAMFORD Dial. (1854) ; Idd'n 
[you had] money (J.A.P.). I.Ma. I, thou, &c. hed (E .G.). w.I.Ma. 
Oi, &c. 'd (G.K.). Chs. 1 Oi'd ; Chs. 23 Aw'd. s.Chs. 1 Ahy)d u 
bin dhge-flr [I had (have) been there], 79 ; Dhaa aad'st, ib. 76 ; 
Wi)d lost im, ib. 135. n.Stf. Oi ad, Sei adst; ei, we, &c. ad 
(T.C.W.). s.Stf. I'd, thee'st ; he, we, &c. 'd. They say ' used 
to ha" a house' instead of 'had a house* (G.T.L.). Der. We 
hadden to^brussen thee wee, Howirr Rur. Life (1838) I. 150. 
nw.Der. 1 Ee'd [he had], unemph. s.Not. I, he, &c. hed or 'd 
(J.P.K.X n.Lin. I, &c. hed or 'd (M.P.I; I, &c. ed (J.P.F.). 
s.Lin. Hed in each case, sing, and pi. (T.H.R.) Lei. 1 I hed; 
wiemph. I'd, 30. War. 3 I'd, thee'dst, he'd, it 'ud ; we, &c. 'd. 





nw.War. I,yo', &c. 'd, 'ad (G.T.N.). m.Wor. I 'ad ; thou 'adst, 'dst ; 
he, we, &c. 'ad (H.K.). w.Wor. 1 I 'ad, thee 'adst ; e, us, &c. 'ad, 
Introd. 26. s.Wal. She wass not marry [had not married] him, 
Longman's Mag. (Dec. 1899) 147. Shr. 1 I'd ; thee had'st ; A'd, 'e'd, 
or "er'd ; we, yo, a, or they hadden, Gram. Outlines, 58. GIo. I'd ; 
theeudst ; he, we, &c. 'd (H.S.H.). Oxf. I'd ; thou'dst ; he, we, &c. 
'd (G.O.) ; I 'ad ; thee adst, th' adst ; ee 'ad ; we, &c. 'ad (A.P.). 
Brks. 1 A'd tell I wher a'd a bin. Cmb. I'd, 'e'd, that 'ad, that 'd 
(W.W.S.). Ess. He h'd (H.H.M.). w.Sus. I hed, thee hedst ; he, 
we, &c. hed (E.E.S.). n.Hmp. Oi'ad, thou 'adst; we, &c. 'ad ; the 
man 'ad a 'ouse (E.H.R.). Wil. Haed, ELLIS ib. 48. n.Wll. I'd, thee 
had, he'd, we'd (E.H.G.). s.Wll. Oi'd, theed'st, her'd or ur'd ; us, 
&c.'d (C.V.G.). Dor. I'd, thou'dst ; he,&c. 'd, BARNES Gl. (1863) 25 ; 
Chad [I had\ HAYNES For. fc. 1730) in N. & Q. (1883) 6th S. vii. 
366. Som. 'Ch'ad [I had], W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. Aay-d or 
aay ad', dhee-ds or dhee ad'-s, dhai-d or dhai ad', ELWORTHY 
Gram. (1877) 58. n.Dev. Chad [I had] et in my meend, Exm. 
Scold. (1746) 1. 244 ; I, thee, he 'd ; t'ad [it had! ; us 'ad ; you, they 
'd ; the men 'ad a-got 'ouzes (R.P.C.). Cor. I'd ben killed, FORFAR 
Pentowan (1889) i ; Cor. 2 I haad, thee hand or theed, thay haad. 
w.Cor. Hid sld [he had seen] ; wi haed, ELLIS ib. 172. [Amer. 
All the mischief hed been done, LOWELL Biglow Papers (1848; 29.] 

ii. Simple Negative. 

Sc. She hadna ridden half thro' the town JAMIESON.PO/>. Ballads 
(1806) I. 70 ; Haedna, MURRAY Dial. (1873) 219. Cai. 1 I, he, &c. 
hidna. Bnff.'A'hidnahidsomerumgumshion^.v.Gulliegaw). Abd. 
I, &c. hadna or hidna (G.W.) ; She hedna a pig teem, ALEXANDER 
Johnny Gilb (1871) vi. Frf. I, &c. hidna (J.B.). w.Frf., e.Per. 3 
&c. hedna (W.A.C.). n.Ayr. I, &c. hudnae (J.F.). Wgt. I, he, 
&c. hidna, haedna, hedna; thou'dst not (A.W.). Ant. A, &c. 
hadnae (W.J.K.). Nhb. Simple : Thoo hadn't; stressed: Aa, thoo, 
&c. 'd not. Ah hadna tell'd (R.O.H.). Cum. 1 Hedn't ; Cum. 3 I 
hedn't woak't far, 4. c.Cum. Ah, &c. heddent (J.A.). s.Cum. I, 
&c. hed not (J.P.). n.Wm. I, &c. heddant ^B.K.). s.Wm. I, &c. 
hedn't (J.M.). n.Yks. Ah haddent patience wiv em, TWEDDELL 
Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 49 ; T'haddent been for her, ib. 24. e.Yks. 
I, &c. 'adnt or'cdnt (R.S.); Ah, c. 'ed nut (M.C.F.M.). w.Yks. 
Two ... hedn't t'chonce, BINNS Orig. (1889) No. i. 3 ; A ednt 
(J.W.) ; w.Yks. 5 Hen't owt to du. se.Lan. Aw hadno', theaw 
hadstno' or hadno' ; he, &c. hadno' (F.E.T.). s.Lan. Aw hadno ; 
he, we, &c. hadna or'd not (S.W.). I. Ma. I, &c. hed'n (E.G.). 
Chs. 1 Hadna. s.Chs. 1 Dhaa aad-s^nu [thou hadst not], 78. n.Stf. 
Oi adno, fiei adstna; ei, we, &c. adno (T.C.W.). s.Not. I, &c. 
hedn't (J.P.K.). n.Lin. I, &c. hedn't <M.P.) ; I, &c. edn't (J.P.F.). 
s.Lin. I, &c. hedn't (T.H.R.). War. 3 I, &c. haddunt. We hadna 
gone more than a mile. nw.War. I, &c. 'adn't ^G.T.N.). m.Wor. 
Aadn't, thee ndn'st ; Heorus,&c. adn't (H.K.). w.Wor. 1 1 'adna, 
thee 'adstna. 'e 'adna ; us, &c. 'adna or adn't, Introd. 26. Shr. 1 I 
hadna. thee hadsna, we hadna, Grant. Outlines, 58. Glo. Theesun't 
(H.S.H.). Oxf. I, &c. 'adn't ; th' men aan't got no ouzen (A. P.). 
Cmb. I, &c. 'adn't (W.W.S.). Ess. I hent (H.H.M.) ; Ess. 1 Hant. 
n.Ken. Shi aed'nt, ELLIS ib. 138. Snr. We hadna forgot it, BICKI.EY 
Sur. Hills (1890) I. iv. w.Sus. I hed'nt, thee had'nst ; he, we, 
&c. hed'nt (E.E S.). n.Hmp. Oi 'adnt, thou 'adnst; e, we, &c. 
'adnt (E.H.R.). n.Wll. I had'n (E.H.G.). s.Wil. Theeds't not 
(C.V.G.). Som. I hadden a-pearted vrom urn long, BAYNES Sag. 
Sol. (1860) iii. 4. w.Som. Aay ad-n, dhaiad-n, ELWORTHY Gram. 
(1877) 59. n.Dev. I, &c. had'n (R.P.C.). 

iii. Simple Interrogative. 

Cat.' Hid I ! &c. Frf. Hid 1 1 &c. (J.B.) w.Frf., e.Per. Hed a? 
&c. (W.A.C.) n.Ayr. Hud 1? &c. (J.F.) Wgt. Haed, hid,' hed 
I ? &c. (A.W.) Nhb. Hadsta? (R.O.H.) c.Cum. Hed ah? &c. 
(J.A.) n.Wm. Hed I ! &c. (B.K.) s.Wm. Hed I ? hedst 1 te orhed 
te? hed he ? &c. (J-M.) n.Yks. Hed he been fallin' oot wi' onny- 
body? TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 84, ed. 1892. e.Yks. 
'Ad ah? &c. (R.S.); 'Ed ah? &c. (M.C.F.M.) w.Yks. Edi ? 
edwa ? WRiGHr Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 155. Lan. What ud 
becomn o' thee ? BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) vi. se.Lan. Hadst or 
hadsto ? (F.E.T.) I.Ma. Hed I ? &c. (E.G.) n.Stf. Ad oi ? adst 
thei ? ad ei ? &c. (T.C.W.) s.Not. Hed a ? &c. (J.P.K.) n.Lin. 
Ed I? &c. (J.P.F.); Hed I? hed tha! hed ta? hed he? &c. 
(M.P.) s.Lin. Hedl?&c. (T.H.R.) nw.War. 'Ad I? &c. (G.T.N.) 
m.Wor. Ad 1 ? adst thee ? ad he ? &c. (H.K.) Shr. 1 Hadden we? 
Gram. Outlines, 59. Oxf. 'Ad I ? adst ? adst thee ? 'ad ee ? &c. 
(A. P.) Cinb. 'Ad I ? &c. (W.W.S.) w.Sus. Hed I ? hedst thee ? 
had un? &c. (E.E.S.) n.Hmp. 'ad 'oi? 'adst' a? 'ad *e? &c. 
(E.H.R.) I.W.' How many had'st got? s.Wil. H'd oi ? h'dst 
thee? h'd herorur? &c. (C.V.G.) w.Som. Ud aay? ud-s dhee? 
ud yiie! ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 59. Dev. Hadda [had he]? 
WHITE Cyman's Conductor (1701) 127. 

iv. Interrogative Negative. 

Sh.I. Wir ye haed na maet frae ye got your brakwist? Sfi. 
News (Dec. 9, 1899). [For other uses of 'be' for 'have* 
see Be, VIII. 4.] Cai. 1 Hid'nt 1 ? &c. Abd. Hedna I ? &c. 
(G.W.) Frf. Hid I no? &c. (J.B.) w.Frf., e.Per. Hed a no ? &c. 
(W.A.C.) n.Ayr. Hud Inot? &c. (J.F.) Wgt. Haed I no ? haed na 
I? &c. (A.W.) Nhb. Hadsta not? (R.O.H.) Cum. 1 Hedn't ? 
c.Cnm. Heddent ah? &c. (J.A.) s.Cnm. Hed I not! &c. (J.P.) 
n.Wm. Heddant I! &c. (B.K.) s.Wm. Hed I nut or hedn't I? 
&c. (J.M.) e.Yks. 'Edn't ah? &c. (M.C.F.M.); 'Adnt ah? &c. 
(R.S.) w.Yks. Ednt i? ednt ta ? ednt 'wa ? (J.W.) se.Lan. 
Hadno' aw? hadstno'? hadno' he? &c. (F.E.T.) w.I.Ma. Hed'n 
oi?&c. (G.K.) n.Stf. Adna oi ? adstna Sei ? adna ei ? &<:. (T.C.W.) 
sStf. Hadn't thee? (G.T.L.) B.Not. Hedn't a? &c. (J.P.K.) 
n.Lin. Hedn't I ? &c. (M.P.) ; Ed'nt I ? &c. (J.P.K.) s.Lin. 
Hedn't I to'd you how it 'ud be ? Hedn't they it back i' the'r ofin 
coin? (T.H.R.) War. 3 Haddunt I? &c. nw.War. 'Adn't I? 
&c. (G.T.N.) m.Wor. Adn't I ? &c. (H.K.) w.Wor. 1 'Adna I ? 
'adna or 'adstna thee ? 'adna 'e ? 'adna or 'adn't us ? 'adstna yfl ? 
'adna thay ? Introd. 26. Shr. 1 Hadnad I ? had'sna thee ? hadna 
we ? hadnad-a ? oi hadna they? Gram. Outlines, 59. Glo. Hadn'tst? 
(H.S.H.) Oxf. 'Adn't I? 'adnst thee ? 'adn'tee? &c. (A.P.) Cmb. 
'Adn't I? &c. (W.W.S.) w.Sus. Hed'nt I ? hed'nstthee? had'nt- 
un? hed we, ye not ? hed'nt they? (E.E.S.) n.Hmp. 'Adn't oi ? 
'adn'st'a? 'adn't 'e ? &c.(E.H.R.) n. Wil. Had'n I ? &c. (E.H.G.) 
s.Wil. H'dn't oi ? hadden th" man got nar a house ? (C.V.G.) Som. 
Had'n er? Monthly Mag. (18141 127. w.Som. Ad-n aay? ELWORTHY 
Gram. (1877) 59. n.Dev. Had'n I? &c. (R.P.C.) 

3. Imperative Mood, Affirmative and Negative. 

Sc. Has orhaev, MURRAY Dial. (1873) 219. Sh.I. Hae, Sh. News 
(Dec. 16. 1899). Abd. neg. Let na him ha'e, let's no hae, hinna 
ye (G.W.). Frf. Hae, neg. dinna hae, dinna lat 'm hae or lat 'm 
nohae(J.B.). w. Frf., e.Per. He, neg. danahe. The imperative 'he' 
is only used in handing a thing to a person. Otherwise' tak' would 
be employed. The negative (dana he) is used more freely, but 
here also ' dona tak' would often be substituted (W.A.C. ). n.Ayr. 
Hae or hiv (J.F.). Wgt. Hae, neg. dunna hae, hiv (A.W.). 
Ant. Hae you, neg. hae nae (W.J.K.). Nhb. He' or hev, neg. 
henna or hennot, let 'm not he' or hev, henna ye (R.O.H.). 
c.Cum. Hev, neg. dooant hev, dooant you hev J.A.). s.Cum. Hev 
(J.P.). n.Wm. Heve, neg. sg. hevvant,/>/. heve or hevvant (B.K.). 
s.Wm. Thoo hev, ye hev or hev ye ( J.M.). ne.Yks. 1 Ev or a'e. 
e.Yks. Ev, neg. dawn't ev (R.S.) ; 'Ev or a'e, neg. 'ev nut or a'e 
nut (M.C.F.M.) ; e.Yks. 1 He 't [have it]. m.Yks. 1 Ev. w.Yks. 
Ev am [have them], et [have it] (J.W.) ; w.Yks. 1 Hab at him, ii. 
305. Lan. 1 God a mercy ! I. se.Lan. Ha', tug. dunno' (or 
dunnot) ha 1 (F. E.T.). I.Ma. Hev, neg. dunt hev ; dunt lerr-us hev 
(E.G.). n.Stf. Av, neg. dona av, dona you av (T.C.W.). s.Stf. 
Han thee, ban yo, neg. do have, han't yo' (G.T.L.). s.Not. Hev 
or hae, neg. don't hev or hae (J.P.K.). n.Lin. Hev or ha', neg. 
doan't hev or ha' noa or hev noa (M.P.). n.Lin. 1 A', I. s.Lin. 
Hev (.T.H.R.). War. 3 Ha [hay], tug. harnt thee, harnt yu. 
nw.War. 'Ave, neg. 'a' no. Don't yO 'ave (G.T.N.). m.Wor. A, 
neg. don't a (H.K.). w.Wor. 1 A done, i. Glo. Ha, neg. don't ha 
(H.S.H.). Oxf. Ha' done (G.O.) ; Ast, as't thee, 'av ee, 'av you; 
neg. sg. asn't, asn't thee, pi. aan't ee (A.P.;. Brks. 1 Hev thee 
or do thee hev. e.Nrf. Do you have, neg. don't you have (M.C.H.B.). 
Sur. Ha'e some now, sir, BICKLEY Stir. Hills (1890) III. xvi. 
w.Sus. Hev, neg. hev nout or none (E.E.S.). Hmp. 1 U dun [have 
done], i. n.Hmp. Hast 'a, hav 'e (E.H.R.). I.W. 1 A done 
[u'dun-]! n.Wil. Ha', neg. dwont ee ha! (E.H.G.) s.Wil. 
Hant 'e (C.V.G.). w.Som. Aa'ii sairm aay tuul Ce [have some I 
tell thee], ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 60. n.Dev. Ha! neg. don't 
ee ha ! (R.P.C.) nw.Dev. 1 Hab. [The 3rd pers. sg. and ist and 
3rd pers. pi. are formed with ' Let ' and the inf. (q. v.) as in lit. 

4. Infinitive Mood. i. Present. 

Sc. Hae or hsev, MURRAY Dial. (1873) 219; Half, GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (C.) Sh.1. 1 could a haind my trouble, Sh. News (July a, 
1898) ; May he h^e, ib. (Dec. 7, 1899). Cai. 1 Hiv of hae. Bnff. 
He, ELLIS ib. 779 ; Bhff. 1 A 'wid like t'hae an attle at it, 8. Abd. 
Dher wad a bin, ELLIS ib. 771 ; Wha is to ha'e the lad, SHIRREFS 
Poems (1790) 32. Frf. Hae (J.B. ). w.Frf., e.Per. Ta he (W.A.C.). 
Ayr. Hev or hiv, he or hi, ELLIS ib. 742. n.Ayr. Hae or hiv (J.F.). 
Edb. What wad a sens'd your waefu' warblin's better, LEARMONT 
Poems (1791) 216. Rxb. Haev, ELLIS ib. 316. Wgt. Hae (A.W.). 
N.I. 1 Ha' (s.v. Haen). Ant. Hae (W.J.K.). n.Cy. Haigh I^HALL.). 
Nhb. Else how wad aw heh been heer, BEWICK Tyneside Talts 
(1850) 15 ; Ve should ha' keept him here to lade, CLARE Love of 
Lass (1890) I. 7 ; As a verb transitive there is a carefully marked 
distinction between ' he ' [heh] and ' hev ' ; the former being used 



only before a consonant or the semi-vowels y and w ; the latter 
most commonly before a vowel. ' Ye may he this or he what 
ye like ; but if ye hev ony gumption, or hev a care for yorsel, 
yell let them abee ' (R.O.H.) ; He'd [have it] ; he' ta [have to! 
sometimes hev taprhefta, ib.; Nhb. 1 He. heh, hae, hev. Asanauxili- 
ary verb, ' have ' is gen. shortened to a mere v sound : ' Aa've been 
there.' When emphasis is required the aspirated form is used. 
Hev, the emphatic form of the verb 'have.' Used also when the 
word following begins with an open vowel or h mute, ib. Dur. 1 
Hev. Cum. Tha mud ha thout reet, Borroudale Lett, in Lonsdale 
Mag. (Feb. 1867) 312; Cum. 1 Ha', hay, hev; Cum. 3 Does te 
think I'd ha'e thee, than ? 40. Wm. Ah'll hey the noo (F.P.T.) ; 
Van mud ha thought, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 13 ; T mistress . . . 
sed a mud hae mi poddish, Spec. Dial. (,1885) pt. iii. 5. n Wm 
Hev (B.K.). s.Wm. Hev (J.M.). n.Yks. What misery ya'll ha' 
te bahd, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 55 ; Will thah he' mah? 
ib. 35 : Our awd man 'ell be seeaf te hea t'kettle aboil, ib. 39 ; 
He'l etta [have to] du 't. He'levta [have to]gan (W.H.) ; n.Yks. 1 
Thou s' ha'e, Pref. 43 n.Yks. 2 Hev or hae. ne.Yks. 1 Ti s'e or ev. 
e.Yks. Gen. speaking 'ev is used before a vowel and a'e before a 
consonant. Thoo'll'ev it. Thoo'llae ti cum. Before y a'e is gen. 
used (M.C.F.M.) ; e.Yks. 1 He' is used before consonants; before 
vowels it becomes ' hev.' m.Yks. 1 Tu- ev. w.Yks. Ev, e, weak 
form av, a, WRIGHT Gram. WndlM. (.1892) 154 ; Very com. It 
was one of the very best things which could of happened (M.F.) ; 
I mun he' thah,HowsoN Cur. Craven (1850) 116; It 'ud ha' taen a 
duzzenonus, CUDWORTH Dial. Sketches (1684") 2; He'd hetta Lhave 
to] cum agecan, ib. 38; w.Yks. 1 Hab, hae, hay, hey, hev; hett or 
hay 't [have it] ; witto hett ? w.Yks. 5 Witta he't to morn ? 
Lan. Oi'll hae nae moor loives to anser for, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH 
Scarsdale (1860) II. 300; Haigh or hay, WILBRAHAM Gl. (1826); 
Let's hev a look, BANKS Manch. Man (1876) ii ; As luck wou'd 

Ha, used before consonants. se.Lan. Ha. The common form 
before a consonant, but before a vowel, especially 'a,' the word 
' have ' is frequently used, as : ' Aw'll ha' mi dinner,' ' Aw'll have 
a pint ov ale' (F.E.T.). I.Ma. It'd ha' puzzled him to do that, 
BROWN Yarns (1881) 206, ed. 1889. w.I.Ma. Hev (G.K.). Chs. 1 
Oi'd a gen im a clout, i ; Chs. 3 Hay or haigh. s.Chs. 1 Yu)n aa 
goou [Y6'n ha' gooa]. Chiefly used before consonants in pre- 
ference to aav. Tu aav dhur tooth drau-n, ib. 67. n.Stf. Av 
(T.C.W.). e.Stf. E, ELLIS ib. 444. s.Stf. Ha [have] has a broad 
' aa ' sound between 'eh' and 'her,' but no distinct equivalent 
(G.T.L.). Der. Av, ELLIS ib. 324; Der. 1 Wil-t ae' u dlass 1 u jin v ? 
[Wilt ha a glass o' gin ?] Der. 2 I'll ha' it (s.v. Rap-ring). nw.Der. 1 
Wil't he't orhe' it? Not. Har (L.CM.). s.Not. (H,a, hev, but ^hjei 
when emphatic (J.P.K.) ; Who'd ha' thought it ? PRIOR Rcnie 
(1895) 36. Rut. Ev, ELLIS ib. 256. Lin. 1 Hev. n.Lin. Ev 
(J.P.F.) ; n.Un. 1 Hev. s.Lin. Id a [he would have], ELLIS ib. 
298. Lei. E, e, ev, ELLIS ib. 489 ; Lei. 1 Han. Nhp. Ev, ELLIS ib. 
254; Nhp^Ha'torhet [have it] ; Nhp. 2 Har. War. 1 A unemphatic 
form ; War. 2 Ha ; War. 3 You shall hev it to play with. Let's ha 
[hay] it. nw.War. Ave (G.T.N.). m.Wor. A' or 'av (H.K.). 
Shr.i I shall a, Gram. Outlines, 58. Hrf. Ta av, ELLIS ib. 177. 
s.Wal. She'd a died, Longman's Mag. (Dec. 1899") 144. Glo. Ta 
a, ELLIS ib. 66; Abben or hab, Gl. (1851) ; Glo. 2 Hae, 10. Oxf. 
It must ha' bin layin' here all Ihe time (G.O.) ; Oxf. 1 H'at [have it], 
MS. _add. Brks. 1 Ha, or hev, or hey. Bck. Ev, ELLIS ib. 192. 
Bdf. A, ib. 209. Hrt. ^Ev or ev, ib. 199. Nrf. Hev, ib. 264 He 
shan't het [have it] any longer (W.W.S.) ; He'd a jabbed my eyes 
out, EMERSON Birds (ed. 1895) 205. Suf. The final v is often 
dropped. He mah'nt do as he he done. You shan't het [have it] 
(C.T.) ; Suf. 1 Yow mought as well 'a dunt, 3. e.Suf. Hev 
(F.H.). Ess.Hemay ha, orhev, wished to see 't (H.H.M.); Ess. 1 
Ha, hev, heve ; Ha' at [have it], ib. Sur. I shall ha' a pain, 
BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) I. i ; A regular passon at once loike we 
used to 'uu, ib. viii. w.Sus. Hev, unemph. 'a (E.E.S.). Hmp. 
Heav, ELLIS ib. 104. n.Hp. Ave (E.H.R.). I. W. Squire Rickman 
'11 hae a powerful weight of hay, GRAY Amiesley (1889 1 II. 122; 
I.W. I'll hey zum on't ; I.W. 2 Let's hay't. Wil. Ta he, ELLIS ib. 
49; Wil. 1 Hae. n.WH. Ye ... must haa a thousan', KITE Sng. 
Sol. (1860) viii. 12; Ha (E.H.G.). Dor. Hou se [How are you] 
going haven [have_it] cooked, John? Flk-Lore Rec. (1880) VIII. 
pt. i. nr. Som. Ev, ELLIS ib. 90. w.Som. 1 U ; ae-u, or hae'u, 
emph. ; aa or haa emph. before negative. The v is only sounded 
before a vowel and not always even then. I 'ont [ u] ha none o' 
this yer nonsense. Dev. Thee may 'av loved, SALMON Ballads 
(1899) 63; Dawnt 'a' nort tfl zay tQ thickee slammicking gert 
haggage ! HEWETT Peas. Sp, (1892). n.Dev. Ae'n [ha'] (R.P.C.) ; 

Ta se, ELLIS ib. 161. w.Cor. HSv, ib. 173 ; I c'd hav or ha', done 
et for ee (M.A.C.). 

ii. Past. See II. 1. 

Sc. It wad a tane thee or ony body to hane them greed again 
GRAHAM Writings (1883) II. 9. Bch. An' wad hae gien twice forty 
pennies to had the go wan ouer my feet again, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 
15. Slg. Katie's mither should haen meal, Yet fient a bag cam' 
near, TOWERS Poems (1885) 173. Ayr. The shop-hander wou'd 
haen her to tak' some new-fangled thing, AINSLIE Land of Burns 
(ed. 1892) 152. w.Yks. Ai out ta ed it dun bi na (J.W.). 
5. Participles. i. Present. 

Sc. Hasan , haevan', MURRAY Dial. (1873) 219. Sh.I. Folk is 
haem , Sh. News (Dec. 16, 1899). Cai. 1 Hivan. The frfi. is in 
'an and the vbl. sb. in ' in.' This distinction is clear in Cai. but 

(J.F.). Lnk. Ye're no worth the ha'en for't a', THOMSON Musings 
(1881) 45. Dmf. At haeing tae haud on by the Laird as weel 
rf /*?* "' K " owe ' l8 7 8> '* W S'- Hae-in (A.W.). Ant. Haeen 
(W.J.K.). Nhb. He'vin (R.O.H. ). Dur. My mother hevin' gi'en 
to Aucklan' Flooer Show, EGGLESTONE Betty Podkin's Visit (1877) 
3- c.Cum. Hevn (J.A.). s.Cum. Hevin (J.P.). n.Wm. Hevven 
(B.K.). s.Wm. Heven (J.M.). n.Yks. 2 Hewing. ne.Yks. 1 Evvin. 
e.Yks. Evvin (M.C.F.M.). m.Yks.' Evin. w.Yks. Ah intend 
heyvin' a reyt ride aht, BINNS Orig. (1889) 4; Hevin (S.K.C.); 
Evin, WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. ^1892) 155. se.Lan. Havvin 
(F.E.T.). s.Lan. Havin (S.W. 1. I.Ma. It's gud hevin' the pockat 
full. It's gud dhe be hevin' (E.G.). w.I.Ma. Hev'n (G.K.). Chs. 1 
Hebbon ; Chs. 3 He's not much worth hebbon. n.Stf. Avin 
(T.C.W.). s.Not. Hevin (J.P.K.). n.Lin. Evin (J.P.F.) ; Hevin 
(M.P.). s.Lin. Evin (T.H.H.). War. 3 He in. nw.War. Avin 
a-avin (G.T.N.). m.Wor. Avin (H.K.). Brks. 1 A hevin'. e.Suf. 
Hevin (F.H.). w.Sus. Heven (E.E.S.). n.Hmp. 'Aven lE H R ) 
n.Wil. Havin (E.H.G.). n.Dev. Ha'-in' (R.P.C.). 
ii. Past. 

Sc. Had, MURRAY Dial. (18731 219; Haen (JAM.). Sh.I. A'm 
bed, 5/i. News (Dec. 16, 1899); If I hed hedden da laer an' fine 

833) 87. 

w.Frf., e.Per. Hen (W.A.C.). Per. Gm Satan's haen the run o' a 
lad, Sandy Scott (1897) 18. Ayr. That fain wad a haen him, BURNS 
There's fl Youth, st. 2. n.Ayr. Haed (J F.). Lnk. That leg or this 
micht ha'e ha'en the gout, THOMSON Lcddy May (1883) 103. Dmf. 
I might a ha'en a wife, SHENNAN Talcs (1831) 62. Wgt. Haed 
and haen (A.W.). N.I. 1 I should ha' haen them things home in 
the cart. Nhb. Haven't Ah hed eneugh from her? CLARE Love 
of Lass (1890) I. 107; He'd hadden the same trouble. He'd a 
heven a litter o' six (R.O.H.). Cum. 1 Hed, Pref. 10. n.Wm. We 
hed hed oor tea (B.K.). s.Wm. Hed (J.M.). ne.Yks. 1 Ed o/-ad. 
e.Yks. Hed (M.C.F.M.). m.Yks. 1 Ed or aad. w.Yks. I wish we 
could 'a' hadden Mr. B. 'ere to-night (F.P.T.) ; The barn hasn't 
hed a door to it for the last twelve month, Flk-Lore Jrn. (1883) I. 
379; Ed, ad, d, WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 155. Lan. We'n 
hed a tidy time on't, HARLAND Lyrics (1866) 304. ne.Lan. 1 
Hedden. w.I.Ma. Hed (G.K.). n.Stf. Ad (T.C.W.). s.Not. Hed 
(J.P.K.). n.Liu. Ed (J.P.F.); Hed (M.P.). s.Lin. (T.H.H.) 
War. Hed (E.S.). m.Wor. 'Ad <H.K.). Shr. 1 Ad, Gram. Outlines, 
58. Brks. 1 A-had. w.Sus. Hed :E.E.S.). n.Dev. Ad (R.P.C.). 

II. Idiomatic uses. 1. Cases in which have is omitted. 
See I. 4. ii. 

Sh.I. Da sam' as hit been [as if it had been] gruul, Sh. Neivs 
(Dec. 16, 1899) ; If I'd kent you, I'd [I should have] slippid da 
eggs i' da tae-kettle, ib. (Oct. 7, 1899) ; Da clock been dumb 
"The clock has been dumb], ib. Edb. If herye'd gien a Hawick gill, 
She might been leal, LiDDLEPoems^ 1821) 29. e.Yks. 'The auxiliary 
' have ' is freq. omitted, as ' Ah fun ' for ' Ah've fun,' 7. w.Yks. A 
faiv on am [I have five of them] ; Se guan uam [they have gone 
home] ; wi or wa funt [we have found it], but wi or wa fant [we 
found it], WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 154. 

2. Have used redundantly. 

e.Yks. 1 If he'd he' geean. w.Yks. (J.W.) War. 2 Sometimes re- 
dundant, as ' If I'd ha* sin [seen] him, I'd ha' gin him a piece o' my 
mind.' Suf. If he hadn't ha' hit he harder than what he did (C.G.B.). 

3. Followed by a direct object and pp. : see below. 

Ir. ' I am sorry I have kept your book so long.' ' It is no 
matter: I had it read.' That woman has me annoyed. She has 
my heart broke (G.M.H.). 

N 2 




4. Have used for be. 

Rut 1 Has is often used where we should use 'is.' Lei. 1 Both 
as a substantive and auxiliary verb. Yo've a loyar [you are a 
liar], Whoy, oi hevn't. Well, an" ou hev .ye? Oi hevn't not 
quoite so well to-dee, 21. Snr. What ah'ee sent they hops over 
there fur, if it hanna to make good aak wi'1 BICKLEY Sur. Hills 
(1890) I. i. 

5. Had used instead of would. 

I. Ha. Nelly had ha' took and went over the mountains like a 
shot, BROWN Yarns (1881) 276, ed. 1889. 

III. Dial. uses. 1. v. In comb, with prep., adv., &c. (i) 
to have agean, to have objections to, be opposed to ; (2) 
at or hab-al, to attack, assail ; fig. to set to, to go at any- 
thing, to undertake vigorously ; (3) off, to have know- 
ledge of, be acquainted with, to learn ; (4) on, to make 
fun of, chaff, "tease, to deceive in order to make fun of; 
(5) over, (a) to. transmit, transfer ; (b) to discuss the 
character of, to talk over. 

(i) w.Yks. What hes tu agean drinking? SNOWDEN Web of 
Weaver (1896) iv. (a) Edb. As lang as I can wag my wing I will 
have at you wi' my sting, CRAWFORD Poems (1798) 57 ; Wi' ram- 
race we'll ha'e at them, GLASS Cal. Parnassus (i8iaj 42. Cum. 1 
A mower said to his grass, ' Tea and whay a feckless day ! An' 
will n't pay I'll bet a crown ; But beef and breid, hev at thy heid, 
An good strang yal, an' I'll swash thee down.' w.Yks. 1 Brks. 1 I 
me-ans to hcv at killin' down thaay rabbuts avoor long, 'urn be 
a-yettin all the young kern. Sur. 1 We'll have at that job next. 
(3) Cum. He hes mair off ner many an oaldcn, GWORDIE GREENUP 
Yance a Year (1873") 9 ; Wo' betide . . . yan 'at hedn't his tasks 
off, FARRALL Betty Wilson (1886) 35; He'd nobbet a single letter 
off, SILPHEO Billy Brannan (1885) 4. Wm. Willie . . . hed a gae 
bit off, fer he went tel skooal tel t'maester sed he cud laarn him 
neea fardther, Spec. Dial. (1880) pt. ii. 3. (4) w.Yks. Aw've 
known chaps 'at's tell'd ther wives things abaat thersen just to 
have 'em on a bit, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1896) 25 ; Don't believe 
'em, they're nobbut hevin' tha on (S.K.C.) ; w.Yks. 2 ; w.Yks. 3 
' They are nobbut having him on.' Sometimes they say, ' having 
him on for the mug,' the meaning of the last words of which is not 
quite clear, L^n. It looks as if somebuddy wur havin me on, 
STATON Loominary (c. 1861) 117. ne.Lan. I were nobbut hevin' 
her on a bit, MATHER Idylls (1895) 46. q.Not. I took no notice ; I 
saw he was only trying to have me on (J.P.K.). Colloq. (A.B.C.) 
(5, a) Abd. The rental was given up by virtue of ilk heritor's oath 
. . . and had over by Mr. Gordon ... to the Master of 
Forbes' lodging, SPALDING Hist. Sc. (1792) I. 254 (JAM.). (6) 
Oxf. They've been having you over finely at the meeting to-night 

2. Phr. (i) have a care of us, an exclamation of surprise ; 
(2) done or a-done, cease, stop, be quiet ; (3) to have 
a come, to go by, pass ; (4) as lief, to have as soon, as 
willingly ; (5) drink, to be slightly intoxicated but not 
drunk ; (6) fault to, to find fault with ; (7) for to, to be 
obliged to, to nave to ; (8) had something to do, to have 
been fated to do something ; (9) /'// doing something, to 
do something with difficulty ; (10) it, to allow, befieve 
anything; (n) it to say, to have been known to say; 
(12) I'efer, to have rather, sooner; (13) inind (of, to 
remember, call to mind ; (14) no hands with, to have no 
hand in, to have nothing to do with; (15) no nay, to 
take no denial ; (16) one on the stick, to ' take in,' deceive, 
chaff; (17) one's limbs, to have the use of one's limbs, 
to walk ; (if?) other oafs to thresh, to. other things 
to do, to have something else in ha.nd ; (19) ought, in 
p.t. ought ; freq. in neg. ; (20) share, to share, to partake 
of anything ; (21) speech, to talk ; (22) the heels of, to 
excel, surpass, have the best of; (23) the needle, to be 
in a disagreeable mood ; (24) to be well had, to be well oft'; 
(25) one must have to do something, one is obliged to, must 
do something ; (26) not to have need, not to need to, ought 
not to ; in p.t, ; (27) had I wist, addiwissen, or heddtwissen, 
had I known ; also in phr. to be sent about addiwissen, to 
be sent on a fool's errand. 

(i) Eidb. Have a care of us ! all the eggs in Smeaton dairy might 
have found resting places for their doups in a row, MOIR Mansie 
Wauch(iBaR)\\\. (a) n.Ltn.> A' dun wi' thee, i. w.Wor. 1 A done, 
601 ee! Oxf. (G.O.) Brks. 1 (s.v. Hand). Hmp. 1 i. I.W. 1 Adone, I 
tell 'ee. Dev. Have-a-done wi' that noise there, will ee? PULMAN 
Sketch (1842) 103, ed. 1871. (3) Ess. Here, good alive, jes let me 

hev a come, DOWNE Ballads (1895) 25. (4) Sc. (A.W.), n.Cy. (J.W.) 
Oxf. I'd as lief be hanged (G.O.). (5) Chs. 1 (6) Sc. I have no fault 
to him, Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 437 ; MITCHELL Scotticisms (1799) 
44. (7) w.Som. Aay sheo'd-n muuch luyk vur t-ae-Q vur t-ae-u-r [I 
should not much like to be obliged to have her], ELWORTHY Grant. 
(1877) 60. (8) Sc. ' He had ha'en that to do,' commonly used as 
a kind of apology for crime (JAM.). (9) Frf. Mother, you are 
lingering so long at the end, I have ill waiting for you, BARRIE 
M. Ogilvy (1896) x. (10) Brks. 1 I tawld 'un I zin't myzelf, but a 
oodn't ha't. (n) I.W. He've had it to say of me (J.D.R.) ; I.W. 1 
(12) n.Cy. (J.W.) Oxf. I had liever him than me (G.O.). (13) 
Sh.I. Ye shurely a' mind what a soss we wir in last year, Sh. 
News (Aug. 27, 1898). NX 1 I had no mind of it. Have you 
mind] of that, Sam? (14*) Glo. 'Ee did et yer see, and I didn't "a 
no 'ands wi' ut, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn (1890) iv. Wil. 1 I 
shan't hae no hands wi't. (15) s.Not. Followed by but, but what, 
but why. ' They'd have no pay but why ah moot stay a day 
longer' (J.P.K.). (16) w.Yk*. (J.W.) Lan. I began o' thinkin' 
hoo're havin' me on th' stick, Ab-o'-th'- Yale's Xmas Dinner (1886) 
7. (17) Nrf. Two or free had their limbs ; they was getting well, 
EMERSON Son of Fens (1892) 71. (18) w.Yks. Thah's other oats 
to thresh, PRESTON Poems (1881) 9 ; (J.W.) (19) w.Yks. 5 Hen't 
owt to du ! Not. 1 , Rut. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 He had'nt ought to ha' dun 
it. War. 13 , Hnt. (T.P.F.) Ken. You had ought to go. You 
hadn't ought to do that (D.W.L.) ; Ken. 1 He hadn't ought to go 
swishing along as that, no-how. (20) I. Ma. 'I'm going in to 
dinner, come and " have share." ' ' Not to-day, I have promised 
to "have share" at home' (S.M.); Before they went in the 
father kindly invited me to go in with them to breakfast and 
'have share,' RYDINGS Tales (1895) 12. (21) Suf. (C.G.B.) (22; 
Sc. The leddies had the heels of the beaux in the matter of dancing, 
Sc. Haggis, 157. Fif. For expressiveness I maun say I think 
'dam' has the heels o't, MELDRUM Margredel (1894) 151. (23) 
Oxf. He'll have the needle if he gets on that job (G.O.). (24) Ayr. 
We're weel had that's in aff the hight, At this bra' meikle ingle, 
FISHER Poems (1790) 78. (25) Nrf. He found the first bird's egg, 
so he must have to shew me that, EMERSON Son of Fens (1892) 4. 
(26) n.Yks. 2 ' You hadn't need try,' you certainly ought not to 
attempt it. e.Yks. 1 Used to denote the non-necessity of doing 
anything, esp. when attended with risk. ' He hadn't-need let him 
he" brass, for if he diz he'll nivversee it ni mare." w.Yks. (J.W.) 
(27", N.Cy. 1 Nearly obs., but still retained by some old persons. 
Nhb. 1 , n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. To be sent about addiwissen. Nearly 065., 
MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). w.Yks. Beware of 'had I wist,' 
Prov. in Brig/louse News (Aug. 10, 1889). ne.Lan. 1 

3. Comp. Have-been or Has-been, (i) a person, animal, 
or thing, formerly serviceable but now past its prime, worn 
out, or decrepit; (2) an ancient rite or custom, an antiquity. 

(i) Ayr. My han' afore's a gude auld has-been, BURNS Inventory 
(1786)1.8. n.Cy. (J.W.),Lakel. 2 n.Yks. An seah like all other gud 
oade hez-beens,it wer ram'd intav onny lumber hooal to git it ooto't 
rooad, Niifderdill Qlm. (1873) /. Bullitl. e.Yks. 1 Poor awd fella. 1 
a good awd^hes-been, bud he's deean for noo. w.Yks. 1 s.Chs. 1 
Of a cow : Ur)z u giid uwd aaz'bin [Her's a good owd has-binj. 
n.Lin. 1 It Stan's to reason at yung college-gentlemen like you 
kna ws a vast sight moore then a worn-oot hes-been like me. War. 2 
One of the has-beens. Shr. 1 ' 'Er's a good owd 'as bin ' was 
remarked of a sometime beauty who had lost all pretension to be 
considered such. (2) Sc. Gude auld hae-b,eens should aye be 
uphauden, Blackw. Mag. (Sept. 1820) 660 (JAM.). nXln. 1 'That's 
a fine ohd hes-been isn't it,' said of an old carved chair. 

4. Reflex. To have for oneself. 

Wor. I must 'ave me a bit o' bacca, corn't go on else (H.K.). 

5. To have enough, have sufficient. 

Lnk. Our bairns cam' thick . . . And somehow or ither, we aye 
had to gie them, RODGER Poems (1838) 7, ed. 1897. 

6. To understand, comprehend ; to have a knowledge of. 
Sc. 1 have no Gaelic, STEVENSON Catriona (1893) i. Abd. I hae 

ye now QAM.). Cum. 1 , w.Yks. 1 , Nhp. 1 

7. To take, bear, carry ; to lead. 

n.Sc. He had her on to gude greenwood Before that it was day, 
BUCHAN Ballads (1828) 1. 95, ed. 1875. Abd. I'm feared it's 
mony unco Lords Havin' my love to the clay, MAIDMENT n.Cy. 
Garl. (1824) 4, ed. 1868; He is had to Aberdeen and warded in 
the tolbooth, SPALDING Hist. Sc. '(1792) I- "6 UAM.). n.Cy. 
(J.W.). Nhp. 1 He had his things away. War. 23 , Hnt. (T.P.F. ), 
Oxf. (G.O.) Ken. 1 ; Ken. 2 Have the horse to the field. Sus. 1 I 
shall have him down to his grandmother while I go haying. 

8. To surpass, be superior to, to have the better of. 
Nhb. Bob hez thcc at lowpin and flingin, At the bool. football, 




clubby, and swingin, SELKIRK Bob Cranky (1843). Cum. 1 ' He 
hez thanow,' he is thy master. Yks. (J.W.) 

9. To give birth to. 

Nhb. Thaw dowtor-o'-law hes had 'im, ROBSON Bk. Ruth (1860) 
iv. 15. Yks. (J.W.) Nrf. She's the chice un o' her as had her, 
GILLETT Sng. Sol. (1860) vi. 9. 

10. To behave. 

w.Yks. Have yoursen, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) Gl. 
Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 

11. Used in itnper. as an exclamation when anything is 
held out towards another, meaning ' take this.' 

Sc. Hae, wear it for my sake, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) I. 
30. Sh.I, ' Lat's see.' ' Hae,' Sh. News (Oct. 7, 1899'. Cai. 1 Abd. 
Hae lassie, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) vii. w.Frf., e.Per. The 
imper. ' he ' is only used in handing a thing to a person (W.A.C.). 
w.Sc. Hae, puir body, . . there's a neivefu' out o" my ain pock, 
CARRICK Laird of Logan (1835) 35. Dmf. Hae ! there's airle- 
pennies twa or three, CROMEK Remains (1810) 80. Ayr. Hae, 
there's my haun', BURNS To Mr. J. Kennedy, st. 5 ; Hae, . . that 
will help a wee to put you right, HUNTER Studies (1870) 166. 

Hence (i) Hae boy, rin boy mak's a good lad, (2) lad 
and run lad, (3) will make a deaf man hear, or a deaf 
man hears hae, prov., see below. 

(i) Sh.I. Give a boy food and clothing and keep him from idle- 
ness, and he will grow up to be useful, SPENCE Flk-Lore (1899) 
315. (2) Sc. Give ready-money for your service and you will be 
sure to be ready served, KELLY Prov. (1721) 131. (3) Hae will 
make a deaf man hear, ib. 133. Cai. 1 A deaf man hears hae. 

12. sb. Property, possessions, wealth. Also in pi. 

Sc. Gl. Sibb. (1802) (JAM.). Abd. And pray the Lord may ever 
gie you Baith hae and heal, SKINNER Poems (ed. 1809) 37 ; (JAM.) 

HAVE, HA VEER, see Haw, sb. 1 , Heave, Haver, sb* 

HAVEING, sb. Chs. 13 Also written having Chs. 3 
Cleaning corn by throwing it against the wind. 

HAVEL, sb. 1 e.An. 1 The slough of a snake. 

[The same word as avel (the beard of barley).] 

HAVEL, sb. 2 e.An. [ae'vl.] In phr. have/and slaie or 
slea, part of the fittings of a weaver's loom. e.An. 1 , Nrf. 

[ON. hafald, the perpendicular thrums that hold the 
weft (VIGFUSSON).] 

HAVEL, see Avel, Haviler. 

HAVELESS, adj. Sc. Lin. Also written haiveless 
Abd. ; haivless Bnff. 1 Wasteful, incompetent ; slovenly, 
ill-mannered, unrefined. 

Bnff, 1 Abd. He's a haiveless man, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb 
(1871) xix ; A vigorous fellow . . . whose habits might be not 
incorrectly described by the word ' haiveless,' ib. Ain Flk. (1882) 
209. n.Lin. 1 A haveless chap that's run'd thrif three fo'tuns. 
She's as haaveless a bairn as lives. [Poor, having nothing (I?.)-] 

HAVER^A. 1 Obs. Sc.Lakel. 1. Anowner,apossessor. 

Or.I. Patrick Earl of Orkney, and all other havers, keepers, and 
detainers of the castles, PETERKIN Notes (1822) App. 62. Abd. 
Her at all hazards we intend to claim And on the havers fix the 
riesingfsi'c] blame, RossHelenore(irfS) 132, ed. 1812. Fif. Trueths 
for the Covenant dares not be printed, except the printer, haver, 
and reader, Row Ch.Hisi. (1650) 443, ed. 1842. Lnk.. The havers 
of the said book are ordained to bring in and deliver the same, 
WODROW Cfi. Hist. (1721) II. 4, ed. 1828. Wgt. They further 
ordain intimation to be made to all havers of geese in the place, 
FRASER Wigtown (1877) 42. 
2. A person of parsimonious habits. Lakel. 2 

HAVER, sb. 2 Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Lin. 
Also written havre Cum. ; havver Cum. 1 Wm. n.Yks. 24 
e.Yks. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 Lin. ; and in forms aver- w.Yks. ; 
haber- n.Cy. Nhb. 1 ; hauber- Sc. n.Cy. ; hauver- Sc. 
[h)a-va(r.] 1. Oats, Avena saiiva. Also used attrib. 

Slk. (JAM.) Dmf. We seldom hear o' guid Scotch kale Or 
Scottish haver brose, M c VrrriE ht Memoriam (1893) 191. n.Cy. 
(K.) Nhb. She beggars me with haver and hey, RITSON N. Carl. 
(1810) Ecky's Mare. Lakel. 12 Cum. Aw their lock of havver 
thresh't an' deetit, RICHARDSON Talk(i8-]6) and S. 154; If you gang 
to see your havver in May You'll come weepin away, But if you 
gang in June, You'll come back in a different tune, Prov. (E.W.P.); 
Cum. 1 The common name. Wm. We'd faer crops o havver, 
Spec. Dial. (1885) 3. Yks. RAY (1691). n.Yks. 12 * e.Yks. In 
mowing of haver; . . . unlesse your oates be exceedinge ranke 
and stronge, BEST Km: Ecott. (1641) 48 ; MARSHALL Km: Ecoit. 

(1788) ; e.Yks. 1 Obs., MS. add. (T.H.) m.Yks.l w.Yks. A pair 
o' gooid spurs to a borrowed horse Is better nor a peck o' haver, 
Prov. in Brig/iousePfews(} \i\ys3, 1887); Afield of havver(R.H.H )' 
w.Yks. 1 *, Lan. 1 

2. Comb.(i) Haver-bannock, a thick cake or bannock made 
of oatmeal ; (2) -bread, (3) -cake, oatcake or bread, esp. a 
large, round, thin cake made of oatmeal, baked on a griddle, 
and dried ; (4) -cake lads, name of a regiment of soldiers ; 
see below ; (5) -cake rack, the rack hung from the ceiling 
on which oatcake is put to dry ; (6) -cracknels, cracknels 
or biscuits made of oatmeal ; (7) -grust, oats that have 
gone through the first stage of preparation at the mill; (8) 
-jannock, see (3) ; (9) -kist, an oatmeal chest ; (10) -malt, 
malt formerly made from oats ; (n) -meal, oatmeal ; also 
used attrib. ; (12) -natel or -nettle, see (3) ; (13) -riddle, an 
oat-sieve ; (14) -sack, a bag hung at a horse's mouth con- 
taining his oats ; a bag for carrying oatmeal ; (15) -shaff, 
an oat-sheaf; (16) -stack, a stack of oats ; (17) -straw, the 
straw of oats ; (18) -stubble, the stubble of oats. 

__ (i) Slk. (JAM.) Cum. Hard havver bannock so thick, DICKINSON 
Cumbr. (1876) 238 ; Havver-bannock pleases Dick, ANDERSON 
Ballads (1805) 94; Cum. 1 Wm. Havver bannock, cald dumplin, 
WHEELER Dial. (1790) 114, ed. 1821. (2) n.Cy. GROSE (,1790); 
N.Cy. 1 Lakel. 2 It is of various names : thick, thin, riddle, clap, 
girdle, squares, snaps, or treacle parkin, according to its prepara- 
tion, which is various. Cum. A wooden trencher filled with fresh 
crisp ' havre bread,' LINTON Lizzie Lorton (1867) xii. Wm. Her 
mudder used ta ga oot ta day-wark sec as weshin an bakin haver- 
breead, TAYLOR Sketches (1882) 3 ; (A.T.) s.Wm. (J-A.B.) Yks. 
Browis is maade o' havver-bread an' drip ^F.P.T.). n.Yks. 2 
w.Yks. Reykka bitta havverbread off t'fleyk wilta ? Leeds Sat. Jrn. 
(1895) Xmas No. 3; WILLAN List Wds. (1851) ; w.Yks. 1 3 Lan. 
Stew weel thicken't wi' crisp haver-brade, WAUGH Heather (ed. 
Milner) II. 199 ; Lan. 1 , n.Lan. 1 (3) N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 , n.Yks. 3 *, 
ne.Yks.' w.Yks. Peggy hed hauf a stone a soft havver-cake lapt 
raand hur waist ta keep it moist, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla 
Ann. (1881) 42; w.Yks. 1 Th' girt fonlin didn't ken what havver- 
cake wor, ii. 300 ; w.Yks. 23 "*, Lan. 1 (4) w.Yks. The 33rd Regi- 
ment had its establishment completed in the neighbourhood of Leeds 
and Halifax. . . The regiment was known in the service as ' the 
Aver-cake Lads.' The origin of the name was in the fact that the 
recruiting sergeants were wont to carry a piece of aver-cake on 
the point of their swords as an offer to the ' lads' of good cheer 
in His Majesty's service, Yks. Wkly. Pos/(i883) ; w.Yks. 1 Recruits 
from the northern counties, where oat cakes are generally used, 
are denominated havver-cake lads. And the Serjeant of a re- 
cruiting party, in order to tempt men to enlist, hoisted an oat 
cake on the point of his svvo.rd, and with a stentoric voice 
exclaimed, ' Hey for't havver cake lads' ; w.Yks. 3 The yy& Reg. 
rejoices in the title ' Havercake Lads.' Lan. 1 The country people 
used to pride themselves on the name of the Havercake Lads. 
A regiment raised in Lancashire during the war bore this name, 
WAUGH Sketches (1865) 128. (5) w.Yks. Shoo mud as weel ha' 
tawked to a havercake rack, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1888) ai. (6) 
w.Yks. Putting haver cracknels in my pocket, SNOWDEN Web of 
Weaver (1896) 193. (7) Lakel. 2 (8) Sc., n.Cy. BLOUNT (1681). 
n.Cy. BAILEY (1721); (P.R.) w.Yks. BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). 
(9) Nhb. 1 (10) n.Yks. Thou's a-coming, thou braids of haver- 
maut, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 54. w.Yks. 1 (n) Sc. 
FHANCISQUE-MICHEL Lang. (1882) 424. s.Sc. (JAM.) Rxb. O 
whar got ye that haver-meal bannock ? Sng., Bonny Dundee (JAM.). 
n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 Lakel. 2 Havermeal- 
pooak, a wallet that a beggar carries wi' him to put his meal in 
when he gits eny gien. Cum. 1 Wm. A dubbler of haver-meal, 
HUTTON Bran New IVark (1785) 1. 403. n.Yks. 1234 . m.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. One or two meals a day . . . composed of ' Havermeil,' 
BINNS Vill. to Town (1882) 70; HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781) ; 
w.Yks. 15 n.Lin.' Obsol. (12) Nhb.' (13) Yks. (K.) (s.v. Riddle). 
n.Yks. Pegg, whores our haver-riddle? MERITON Praise Ale 
(1684) 1. 167. (14) Fif., Rub. GAM.) N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Lakel. A 
sack for the oatmeal that is for domestic use, and is therefore kept 
clean (B.K.). (15) n.Yks. 2 (16) n. Yks. It's him that brack down'th 
railes to'th haver-stacks, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 358. (17) 
Dmf. T ne y had to hurkle down on a heap o' haver straw, Blackw. 
Mag. (Nov. 1820) 146 (JAM.). Dur. 1 w.Yks. 1 Th' stee i' our 
heigh laithe, cleeam'd up againt' black havver-strea moo, ii. 286. 
(18) e.Yks. If the haver stubbles be allmost done, then wee give 
them [the sheepe] the barley stubbles, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 27. 

3. Wild,self-sownoats,^4wMrtyrt/Mand Bromussecalinus. 
n.Cy. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). e.Yks. (Miss A.) Lin. 




THOMPSON Hist. Boston (1856) 709. n.Lin. SUTTON Wds. (1881) ; 
n.Liii.', sw.Lin. 1 

4. Cotnp. Haver-grass, several kinds of oat-grass, esp. 
Avena elatior and Bromus mollis. Cum. 1 

[1. Norw. dial. havre,oats(AASEK), Sw./(q/r?(WiDEOREN); 
cp. EFris. Aafer(K.ooLMAti). 3. Aveneron, wild oats, haver, 
or oat-grass, COTGR.] 

.HAVER, sb* Shr. The lower part of a barn-door; a 
hurdle. BOUND Provinc. (1876) ; Shr. 2 

HAVER, sb* Dur. War. Wor. Som. Also in forms 
haveer War. ; havering Dur. ; havier Wor. ; hevior 
w.Som. 1 A castrated stag. 

Dur. (K.) ; (HALL.) War. Mr. Lucy used to feed a haveer, that 
is, a red deer stag, with his horns cut off, MORDAUNT & VERNEY 
Hunt (1896) I. 253. Wor. A stag that is to be chased by the 
Royal Buckhounds. ' The Royal Paddocks produced two fine 
haviers' (H.K.X w.Som. 1 Met at Cot Bridge at ten o'clock; tried 
the Arlington Coverts for the hevior [aev iur], Rec. N. D. Stag- 
hounds, 43. [Haviour bucks, YOUNG Annals Agric. (1784-1815) 
XXXIX. 553.] 

[Prob. the same word as aver, sb.] 

HAVER, v. and sb. s Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Also 
? Ken. Also written haiver Sc. Cai. 1 Bnff. 1 ; and in form 
Paver Gall, [hi'var.] 1. v. To talk in a foolish, incoherent 
manner ; to talk nonsense. 

Sc. He just havered on about it, SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xliv ; 
Toots, man, ye're haiverin' nonsense, FORD Thistledown (1891) 
144. Cai. 1 e.Sc. Donal' havers o' rain ower a plug o' baccy, 
SETOUN./?. Urquhart ( 1 896) iv. Abd. Ye're aye haverin aboot some- 
thing, ALEXANDER Ain Flk. (1882) 155 ; A man 'at in ane o' his 
gran'est verses cud haiver aboot the birth o' a yoong airthquack ! 
losh ! MACDONALD Sir Gibbie (1879) 4. Frf. Dinna haver, lassie, 
you're blethering, BARRIE Tommy (1896) 57. Per. Yammerin' and 
haverin' like a starling, IAN MACLARF.N Brier Bush (1895) 176. 
w.Sc. Hoot, toot ! gudeman, ye're haverin' noo, CARRICK Laird of 
Logan (1835) 234. Ayr. He continued to haver with him, till the 
ale was ready, GALT Gilhaize (1823) v. Lnk. They tell me he 
havered awfu' nonsense, FRASER Whaups (1895) xiv. Lth. Next 
morn I met her aunt . . . And soon we fell a-havering, MNEILL 
Preston (c. 1895) 82. Sik. When the doited auld body begins 
haverin about himsel, he's deaf to a' thing else, CHR. NORTH 
Nodes (ed. 1856) III. 54. Gall. They were self-respectin' men, 
an' nae ranters haiverin' oot o' their heids, CROCKETT Stickit Min. 
(1893) 102. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. When sitting cosy wi' his dearie, To 
joke and haver, STRANG Earth Fiend (1892) 3. Cum. FERGUSSON 
Northmen (1856) ; Hiding away o' neuks an' corners, an' whisper- 
ing an* havering, LINTON Silken Thread (1880) 277 ; Cum. 14 
[Sentimental persons have been havering this week about the 
execution of one of the Crewe murderers, Sat. Review (1890) 
428, col. i.] 

Hence (i) Havered, ppl. adj. spoken at random or 
desultorily; (2) Haverer, so. a foolish talker; (3) Havering, 
ppl. adj. chattering, nonsense-talking, nonsensical. 

(i) Edb. I tak' my station An' hears ilk haver'd hale oration, 
FORBES Poems (1813) 5. (2) Arg. Go in-bye, haverer, and oh, 
my heart ! MUNRO Lost Pibroch (1896) 185. (3) Sc. Gae 'wa, ye 
haverin cuddle, Jokes (1889) 2nd S. 57. Frf. Oh haud yer tongue, 
ye haiverin eediot, INCLIS Am Flk. (1895) 172. Ayr. Toddling 
home from the town-hall wi' goggling een and havering tongues, 
GALT Provost (1822) xliii. Edb. Ye're a pair of havering idiots, 
MOIR Mansie Waucft (1828) xxiii. Gall. ?Averin, MACTAGGART 
Encycl. (1824) 35, ed. 1876. 

2. To hesitate and make much ado about doing anything ; 
to be lazy at work. 

Bnff. 1 Ye needna be haiverin' that wye aboot gain' haim [escort- 
ing home] wee the lassie. The hail height o' the day, he did 
naething but haiver at "s wark. 

3. sb. pi. Foolish talk, chatter, nonsense. Rarely in sine. 
Sc. Dinna deave the gentleman wi' your havers, SCOTT Redg. 

(1824) Lett, x; A long palaver Is nothing but a blether or a haver, 
LEIGHTON Wds. (1869) 5. So.I. Ta tak up da half o' da time wi' 
my ain clash an' havers, STEWART Tales (1892) 37. CaL 1 Bnff. 
Ye're sure in jest, Gie o'er sic havers, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 64. 
Abd. They interrupt 'im wi' a' kin' o' haivers, ALEXANDER Johnny 
Gibb (1871) xviii. Frf. Tell us not to talk havers when we chide 
her, BARRIE M. Ogiivy (1896) 87. Per. Ye'll no mind the havers 
of an auld dominie, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 27. Fif. It's 
a' platform havers, M C LAREN Tibbie (1894) 84. Dmb. I've seen a 
gude deal in the 'Witness' and ither papers about Non-intrusion 

and sic like havers, CROSS Disruption (1844) ii. Ayr. Wi' claivers 
an' haivers Wearing the day awa, BURNS Answer to Verses (1787) 
St. i. Lnk. I haena the time for sic havers, NICHOLSON Idylls 
(1870) 65. Edb. To show his wares an' town-bred airs, An' haea 
haver wi' the lasses. MACLAGAN Poems (1851) 315. Slk. Hush 
your havers, CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) III. 47. Dmf. The 
turn o' nicht when havers fail, REID Poems (18941 30. Gall. The 
town's fouk wi' their havers About him raise sic lies and clavers, 
NICHOLSON Poet. Wks. (1814) 61, ed. 1897. Kcb. They never 
talked naething but haivers, ARMSTRONG Ingleside (1890) 149. 
Wgt. The haivers o' some Councillors dinna meet the approval o' 
decent fowk generally, FRASER Wigtown (1877) 186. Ant. 
(W.H.P. ), N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Hoots, man ; ye've come to t'wrang 
customer wi' havers like yon, S. Tynedale Stud. (1896) No. vi; 
A rambling or wandering story (R.O.H.) ; An auld wives' haver, 
DONALDSON Poems (1809) 134; Nhb. 1 , Cum. 4 ? Ken. You are 
talking havers, N. &> Q. (1852) ist S. v. 306. 

Hence Havers, int. nonsense, rubbish. 

Sc. Havers ! that is what no mortal man can do, STEEL Rotvans 
(1895". 201. Frf. Havers! I'm no' to be catched with chaff, BARRIE 
M. Ogiivy (1896) 78. Per. Havers, man, ye dinna mean tae say 
they pack beds and tables in boxes, IAN MACLAREN K. Carnegie 
(1896) 163. Gall. Hoots, haivers; I'll never believe that, CROCKETT 
Bog-Myrtle (1895) 200. Cum. Havers! The lass hasn't a full 
thousand, LINTON Silken Thread (.1880) 290. 

4. A piece of folly or nonsense ; a whim, piece of foolish- 

Abd. Fat haiver's this 't ye've ta'en i'yer heid noo? ALEXANDER 
JohnnyGibb (1871) xvi. Per. To ca' your crackit quaver Melodious 
noo is juist a haver, HALIBURTON Horace (1886) 53. Frf. Dinna 
fash yoursels. It's juist a haver o' the grieve's, BARRIE Lie/its 
(ifc88) x. Flf. What kind o' haver is this noo ? ROBERTSON Provost 
( 18941 124 ; A' men o' sense will ca't a haver Throughout a' Fife, 
DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 37. s Sc. Be na angry at this haver, T. 
SCOTT Poems (1793 ^ 362. Rnf. Whilk at the best is but a haiver 
O' rhymin' ware, CLARK Rhymes (1842) 26. Lnk. To splutter 
some disjointed haver, Deil's Hallowe'en (1856) 48. Lth. Fu' lang 
had he hirpled aboot her, And mony a haver had said, M'NEILL 
Preston (c. 1895) 85. 

5. A stupid, chattering person ; a lazy, idle fellow. Also 
in //. form. 

Bnff. 1 He's a mere haiver wee 's wark. Per. Puir Mr. Peattie 
o' Muirton is juist a holy haver He's a puir, bletherin body, FER- 
GUSSON Vill. Poet (1897) 25. Nhb. 1 A havers is an incoherent or 
garrulous person. 

6. Hesitation accompanied with a great fuss ; a person 
who hesitates. Also in pi. form. 

Bnff. 1 Nae mair o' yir haivers. Awa ye go an' deet at ance, an' 
hae deen wee't. He's a mere haiver o' a cheel. 

HAVER, HAVERDEPAZE, see Aver, sb., Haiver, 
Haviour, Avoirdupois. 

HAVERDRIL, sb. Chs. 1 The daffodil, Narcissus 

HAVEREL, sb., adj. and v. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. 
Also Nrf. Also written haiverel Cai. 1 N.I. 1 ; haiveril 
Nhb. 1 ; haivrel Lth. ; haveral(l Sc. ; haveril Sc. Ant. 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Yks. Nrf. ; haverill n.Yks. 2 ; havrel Sc. 
Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 ; hav'ril Cum. ; and in forms ? aivril Bnff. 1 ; 
hovrel Cum. 1 [h)e'varil, h)e'v-rl.] 1. sb. A stupid, 
half-witted person ; a talkative, garrulous person ; a fool. 
See Haver, v. 

Sc. It was only the New Inn, and the daft havrels, that they 
caa'd the Company, that she misliked, SCOTT St. Ronan (1824) xv. 
Cai. 1 , Bnff. 1 Abd. To screen wi' palaver some haverel's miscarriage, 
CADENHEAD Bon A ctord ( 1853) 213. Per. Ilka daft-like clash at 
ony donnart haverel nvay set rinnin', CLELAND Inchbracken (1883) 
186. w.Sc. Sit down, ye hungry haveral that ye are, CARRICK 
Laird of Logan (1835) 86. Fif. It's surely no canny for an auld, 
doited haverel to be the first the bairn should meet, ROBERTSON 
Provost (1894) 57. e.Flf. Spak' not only for hersel' but for anither 
half-score o' ordinary haverils, LATTO Tarn Bodkin (1864) xxix. 
Ayr. He ... will no fail to take the law o' [him] for a haveral, 
GALT Entail (1833) viii. Lth. Gley'd Sawnie, the haivrel, he met 
me yestreen, MACNEILL Poet. Wks. (1801) 207, ed. 1856. e.Lth. I 
thocht him little better nor an auld haveril, HUNTER J. Inwick 
('895) 40. Dmf. A lump of an old woman, half haveral, half 
genius, CARLYLE Lett. (Aug. 30, 1843). Gall. Though mony a 
haverall they hae bred, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 40, ed. 1876. 
Wgt. Whun there's nae gossipin' haverils tae hear us, FRASER 




Wigtown (1877) 348. n.Ir. (D.A.S.), H.I. 1 Ant. Ballymena Obs. 
(1892) ; (W.H.P.) n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) ; N.Cy.i Nhb. 
Loodly the haverils war tawkin, ALLAN Tyneside Sngs. (ed. 1891) 
488 ; Nhb. 1 Cum. A wutless bit hav'ril, RAYSON Misc. Poems 
(1858) 62 ; Cum. 1 Yks. This missis he's getten is nobbut a 
haveril, MACQUOID Doris Barugh (,1877) v ''i' n.Yks. 2 Nrf. Arch 
(1879) VIII. 170. 

Hence (i) Haveral-hash, sl>. a silly, nonsensical person ; 
a fool ; (a) Haverelism, sb. a habit of foolish, nonsensical 

(i) Lnk. A haveral-hash, wi' head as saft as a cahoutchie ba', 
NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) lai. (a) Ayr. Jenny had more of a 
thorough-going haverelism about her, GALT Lairds (1826) i. 

2. adj. Foolish, silly, nonsensical ; talking foolishly. 
Sh.I. Blinkin' her een wi' delicht whin some haveril chap wis 

makin' a full o' her, STEWART Tales (1892) 35. Per. You're wrang 
in your guessing, you haverel lout, STEWART Character (1857) 19. 
Dmb. It's no a right kind o' hive ye have for me ava, butt just a 
haveral notion, CROSS Disruption (1844) xxxii. Rnf. Ca'd me a 
hav'rel tyke, PICKEN Poems (1813) I. 194. Ayr. Poor hav'rel Will 
fell aff the drift, BURNS Halloween (1785) st. 4. Lnk. Gae wa. gae 
wa, ye hav'rel sheep ! WATSON Poems (1853) 15. Edb. Ye've 
lear'd to crack sae crouse, ye haveril Scot, FERGUSSON Poems 
(1773) 183, ed. 1785. Feb. Her haveral daughter . . . Stood near, 
Lintoun Green (1685) 61, ed. 1817. Slk. But haverel Meg, as they 
called her, HOGG Tales (1838) 73, ed. 1866. Gall. I. .. cursed my 
life Wi' tap o' a' things maist unchancy A haverel wife, NICHOL- 
SON Poet. Wks. (1814) 155, ed. 1897. N.I. 1 Nhb. A haveril tyke kept 
by the family ... as a fool, Denham Tracts (ed. 1892) I. 273. 

3. v. To talk nonsense ; to make a fool of; to chaff. 
Ayr. Some ne'er-do-weel clerks were seen gaffawing and 

haverelling with Jeanie, GALT Provost (1822) xxxviii. Nhb. Aw 
yence was hav'rel'd i' my day, ROBSON Bards of Tyne (1849) 151. 

HAVEREL, see Haiver. 

HAVEREN,s6. Sc. A sloven. HERD Coll. Sngs. (1776) Gl. 

HAVERING, HAVERON, see Haver, sb.*, Haiver. 

HAVERN, adj. Bdf. Same as Avern (q.v.). 

HAVEY-CAVEY, adv. and adj. Cum. Yks. Lan. Der. 
Not. Lin. Nhp. Also in forms eyvy-keyvy w.Yks.; havey- 
quavey sw.Lin. 1 ; havey-scavey Lakel. 2 Cum. ; havy- 
skavy Cum. 1 ; heavely-keavely Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; heavy 
ceavy Yks. ; heevy-skeevy Cum. ; heighvy-keighvy 
Lan.; heivy-keivy w.Yks. 1 Nhp. 1 ; heyvy-keyvy e.Lan. 1 ; 
hevy-skevy Cum. ; hivie-skivy Lin.; hivy-skivy e.Yks. 1 ; 
hivy-skyvy n.Lin. 1 [h)e'vi-ki'vi, ei'vi-kei'vi.] 1. adv. 
Unsteady, trembling in the balance ; uncertain, undeter- 
mined, doubtful, wavering, precarious. Also used attrib, 

Yks. It was heavy ceavy whether I came or not(M.NA w.Yks. 
Tweddin' question remained heivy-keivy in his mind fur sum 
months, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1874) 40 ; That miln chimli lewks 
rayther eyvy-keyvy (M.B.) ; w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 2 A young man 
who was very ill was said to be in a very havey-cavey state, 
tottering between life and death. Lan. Sich heighvy-keighvy 
pickhawms, CLEGG Sketches (1895) 397. e.Lan. 1 , Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 
Not. GROSE (17901. Nhp. 1 Confined to the n. part of the county. 

2. All in confusion, 'higgledy-piggledy' ; helter-skelter. 
Lakel. 2 Throw them in havey-scavey. Cum. All havey skavey 

and kelavey, ANDERSON Ballads 'ed. 1808") 14; Now heevyskeevy 
off they set to the kurk, STAGG Misc. Poems (ed. 1807) 7; Gl. 
(1851) ; Cum. 1 , e Yks. 1 w.Yks. Mi heead's all eyvy-keyvy this 
mornin' (IE. B.). Lin. The bull is turned out of the Alderman's 
house, and then hivie skivy. tag and rag, men, women, and 
children . . . running after him with their bull clubs. BUTCHER 
Survey (1717) 77, in BRAND Pop. Antiq. (ed. 1813) I. 483. n.Lin. 1 

3. Phr. to be on the havey-quavey, to be on the inquiry, 
questioning and doubting. Also used as- v. 

sw.Lin. 1 I've been rather on the havey-quavey after a little place 
at Eagle. We've been havey-quaveying after it some time. 

4. adj. Drunken. 

w.Yks. 1 Because a person in this state is on the equipoise. 

HAVIER, see Haver, sb* 

HAVIL, sb. Irel. A temporary structure made of 
wooden standards for a cart-shed, and covered with a 
stack of hay on the top. Ant. Ballymena Obs. (1892). 

HA VILER, sb. Lon. Ken. Sus. Also in forms havel 
Sus. ; havill Lon. A small kind of crab. Cf. heaver, sb. 1 

Lon. A small species [of crab] . . . known by the French as 
rEtrille, and called in some parts of our country grubbin, or 
crabbin, . . in London havill, lllus. Land. News (1857) 70. Ken. 

COOPER Gl. (1853). Sus. GROSE (1790); The male is a 'Jack 
Havel' and the female a 'Jenny Havel' (F.E.S.); Sus. 12 

HAVING, ppl. adj. and sb. Sc. Irel. Yks. Chs. Der. 
War. Also in form hewing n.Yks. 2 1. ppl. adj. 
Greedy, acquisitive ; miserly, penurious. 

w.Ir. A gosthering, spending, having brood they are and always 
have been, LAWLESS Crania (1892) I. pt. n. ii. s.Chs. 1 Der. A' 
talked o' his back-rent; . . he's a very having man, VERNEY Stone 
Edge (1868) xxi. nw.Der. 1 War. Mrs. Deane . . . was proud and 
having enough, GEO. ELIOT Floss (1860) I. 93. [An avaricious 
person is very ' having,' JEFFERIES Hdgrow. (1889) 188.] 

2. sb. pi. Possessions. 

Dmf. (JAM.), Yks. (C.C.R.) n.Yks. 2 I wad nowtber hev him 
nor his hevvings. 

3. pi. Dress, garments. 

Abd. Ye'll tak this angel sweet And dress with havins for your 
mistress meet, Ross Helenore 1,1768) 126, ed. 1812. 

HAVINGS, sb. pi. Obs. or obsol. Sc. Also written 
haivens, haivins, havens, havins. Manners, behaviour. 
Cf. havance. 

Sc. I think the Quaker has smitten me with his ill-bred 
havings, SCOTT Redg. (1824) xx. Abd. Ye've fairly tint a' sense 
o' shame; Ye're haivens, lad's, uncommon, COCK Strains (1810) 
II. 64. Frf. Excuse The havins of a namely muse, BEATTIE 
Arnha (c. 1820) 45, ed. 1882. Rnf. A rebuke from the mothers 
for our want of havens would calm us down, GILMOUR Pen Flk. 
(1873) 29. Ayr. To pit some havins in his breast, BURNS Death 
of Poor Mailie, 1. 46 ; (J.M.) Lnk. A rattle-skull, Wha's neither 
mcnse nor havens, WATT Poems (1827) 67. Lth. Wha wad gar 
the lasses wait, That had o' havins ony ? BRUCE Poems (1813) II. 
63. Edb. Forgie The little 'bavin's that ye see i' me, LEAKMONT 
Poems (1791) 312. Rxb. What! has the wretch nae havins better ? 
A. SCOTT Poems (ed. 1808) 45. 

[The merie speiche, fair hauingis, hie renoun Of thame, 
DOUGLAS Pal. Hon. (1501), ed. 1874, 44.] 

HAVIOUR, sb. Sc. Yks. Chs. Also in form haver 
w.Yks. 24 Chs. 123 [, h)i-va(r.] Behaviour; pi. 
manners, gen. used in a good sense. , 

Abd. SHIRREFS Poems (1790) Gl. Lnk. RAMSAY Gentle Sliefi. 
(1725) Gl., Scenary ed. w.Yks. THORESBY Lett, (1703); w.Yks. 2 
He's no havers at all ; w.Yks. 4 Chs. 1 2 ; Chs. 3 To be on one's 
haviours, is to be on one's good behaviour. s.Chs. 1 Naay, dhen, 
yi mun bey upon 1 yur ai'vyur wel dhu mes'tur)z iibuwt [Nat, 
then, ye mun bey upon yur haviour whel the mester's abowt]. 

[Her heavenly haveour, her princely grace, SPENSER 
S/i. Kal. (1579) iv. 66.] 

HAVLINS, see Halflins. 

HAVOC, sb. Sc. Also Som. 1. Waste. 

w.Som. 1 Very common. Zee what havoc you be makin way 
the hay ; there 'tis a-littered all the way in from the rick. 

2. Comp. Havoc-burds, large flocks of small birds which 
fly about the fields after harvest. 

Gall. They are of different sorts, though all of the linnet tribe. 
1 Whunlinties ' form the greatest number, MACTAGGART Encycl. 
(1824) 256, ed. 1876. 

HAVVER, see Haver, sb.*, However. 

HAW, sb. 1 Van dial, forms and uses in Sc. and Eng. 

I. Dial, forms : (i) Ah, (2) Ahzy, (3) Airsen, (4) 
Awsen, (5) Haa, (6) Haave, (7) Haaze, (8) Haiv, (9) 
Halve, (10) Harsy, (n) Harve, (12) Hav, (13) Have, 
(14) Hawse, (15) Hawsen, (16) Hawve, (17) Hay, (18) 
Howe. See Hag, sb. 2 

(i, 2) Oxf. (G.O.), Oxf. 1 (3) Glo. 1 Fat airsens. (4) Glo. 
(S.S.B.) (5) Nhb. Mony hips, mony haas, Mony blaas, mony 
snaas, Old prov. (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 , Cum. 1 , Ess. (W.W.S.) \6) 
Dev. Th' vish be za thick as haaves, PULMAN Sketches (1842) 101, 
ed. 1871. (7) Ken. (G.B.), Ken. 1 (8) w.Som. 1 We be gwain to 
have a hard winter, the haivs be so plenty. (9) Ken. (G.B.), Ken. 1 
Som. FRIEND Gl. (1882). Dev. 4 (io)Ess. (B. & H.) (n) n.Ess., 
Ken. 1 (12; Dor. 1 (13) Ken. (W.F.S.) Dor. w.Gazette ^Feb. 15, 
1889) 7, col. i. Dev. 4 (14) Suf. (15) Glo. (S.S.B:); BAYLIS 
lllus. Dial. (1870). (16) se.Wor. 1 (17) s.Not. Let's gether some 
hays from the hedge (J.P.K.). Nhp. 2 (18) Shr. 2 , Suf. 1 

II. Dial, meanings. 1. In comp. (i) Haw-berry, the 
fruit of the hawthorn, Crataegus Oxyacantha, a haw ; (2) 
buss, a hawthorn-tree ; (3) -gaw, see (i) ; (4) -stones, 
the hard ' stones ' or seeds contained in the haw ; (5) 
-tree, see (2). 




(i) Edb. Whar the red hips and hawberries hing In clusters, 
MACLAGAN Poems (1851) 20. Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 There is a legend that 
for several days before the Battle of Blore Heath, there arose 
each morning out of the foss, three mermaids, who announced 
' Ere yet the Hawberry assumes its deep red, Embued shall this 
heath be with blood nobly shed.' (a) Dmf. We had nae sutten lang 
aneath the haw-buss, till we heard the loud laugh of fowk riding, 
CROMEK Remains (1810) 298. (3) Sur. (4) Gall. Bluchtans . . . 
are hollowed [mugwort] tubes ; boys blow haw-stones and what 
not out of them : hence the name, MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) 76, 
ed. 1876 ; Well known. When I was a boy we used to blow 
stones from the hawthorn berries from the hedges ; the. tubes or 
blow-pipes we used were made of bore-tree (S.R.C.). (5) Ayr. 
Busking our bonny hawtree, AINSLIE Land of Burns (ed. 1892) 
175. Lnk. Yon bonnie haw tree That blossoms aye fairer, LEMON 
St. Mungo (1844) 43. Lth. Sweet bloom'd the bonny spray O' the 
haw-tree, BRUCE Poems (18131 II. 93. Dmf. 'Side the green haw- 
tree, CROMEK Remains (1810) 51. Nhb. 1 Glo. Those are the 
awsen-trees then (S.S.B.). 

2. Phr. a haw year, a year in which haws abound. 

Sc. A haw year A snaw year, CHEALES Prov. Fit-Lore, 22. Cum. 4 

3. The hawthorn-tree, Crataegus Oxyacantha. 

Slk. Sweetly blows the haw air the rowan tree, HOGG Poems 
(ed. 1865) 412. Dmf. Thocht cam' thick as drift at Yule Aneth 
that hoary haw, REID Poems (1894) 59. 

4. A hip, the fruit of the dog-rose, Rosa canina. 
Dor. w.Gaeetle (Feb. 15, 1889) 7, col. I. 

HAW.sA. 2 Shr.e.An. Ken.Hmp.Dor.Dev. Also in form 
hav Dor. 1 Dev. 4 n.Dev. (HALL.) [9.] The ear of oats. 
See Aw, sb. 

e.An. 1 Suf. Science Gossip (1883) 1 13. e.Suf. (F.H.), Ken., Hmp. 
(B. & H.) Dor. 1 The woats be out in hav. Dev. 4 , n.Dev. (HALL.) 

Hence Hawed, adj., see below. 

Shr. 2 When oats are well headed, having shot their heads from 
the stem and begun to swell and ripen, they are said to be hawed. 
The term is not applied to any other kind of grain. n.Dev. Oats 
when planted are said to be haved { HALL.). 

HAW,s6. 3 Obs.orobsol. Yks. Nhp. Brks. Suf. Ess. 
Ken. 1. A small piece of land adjoining a house, 
a close ; a small yard or enclosure. 

Yks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (July n, 1896). Ken. RAY (1691) ; A 
hemp haw, a bean-haw (K.) ; LEWIS /. Tenet (1736); By some 
the houses themselves are called haws (P.R.) ; Ken. 12 

2. A small wood or coppice ; a dwelling enclosed by 
woods ; a depression in a wood. 

Nhp. 1 ; Nhp. 2 Used in conjunction with some other word. Swine- 
haw, West-haw, &c. Brks. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.) 

[1. Ther was a polcat in his hawe, CHAUCER C. T. c. 
855. OE. haga, an enclosure (ARLE Charters, Gt.).] 

HAW, sb. 4 Lan. 1 [9.] In phr. ail of a haw, all on one 
side, out of the perpendicular. 

HAW, adj. Obs. or obsol. Sc. Also in form hawee Sh. I. 
Of a bluish-grey or pale-green colour ; livid, pale, wan. 

Sc. Wi' haggit ee, and haw as death, The auld spae-man did 
stand, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) 1.236; Like moonshine on 
the icy loch, Thin, cauld, and haw to see, ib. 242. Sh.1. He's 
wrate a sicht mair, an' apo' boonie hawee blue paper to, Sh. News 
(May 15, 1897). n.Sc. Thro' and thro' the bonny ship's side He 
saw the green haw sea, CHILD Ballads (1885) II. 28. Abd. Twa 
shepherds ... as haw as death, Ross Helenore (1768) 22, ed. 1812. 
Per. His eyes turn'd as a sullid glass, And like haw clay his 
hands and face, SMITH Poems (1714) 5, ed. 1853. 

[Crownit with garlandis all of haw see hewis, DOUGLAS 
Eneados (1513), ed. 1874, n. 122. OE. heewi, also hawi, 
azure (SWEET O.E.T. 596).] 

HAW, int. 1 Dur. Cum. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Lei. Nhp. 
War. Wor. Shr. Glo. Oxf. Som. Dev. Also in forms au 
Lei. 1 ; aw w.Yks. Chs. 1 nw.Der. 1 w.Wor. 1 se.Wor. 1 Glo. 1 
Dev. 8 ; awe Oxf. 1 ; ha e.Dur. 1 ne.Lan. 1 ; haa Cum. 1 ; hah 
w.Yks. ne.Lan. 1 ; haugh s.Lan. [h)g, h)a.] 1. A call to 
horses or cattle to turn to the left, towards the driver. 

Cum. 1 (s.v. Ho). w.Yks. (H.V.), w.Yks. 3 , ne.Lan. 1 , s.Lan. 
(W.H.T.) Chs. MOKTON Cyclo. (1863) (s.v. Horses) ; Chs. 1 , 
nw.Der. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 Used to all the horses in a team, except 
the fore-horse. War. 3 w.Wor. 1 Aw ! aw I a call to cows. se. Wor. 1 
Shr. 1 To the pin-horse and shafter, with a rise of pitch on the 
latter part of the vowel (s.v. Waggoners' Words) ; Shr. 2 , w.Som. 1 
Dev. Horae Siibsecivae (1777) 179. nw.Dev. 1 [Aw makes Dun 
draw, RAY Prov. (ed. 1678) 95.] 

2. Comb, (i) Haw-back, a call to horses or cattle to turn 
back ; (2) -come 'ere, a call to horses to turn completely 
round to the left ; (3) -waay, -wee, or -woy, a call to 
horses to turn to the left, towards the driver ; (4) -whoop 
or -woop, (a) see (3) ; (b) a call to horses to go on ; ($ ) 
woe, see (3) ; (6) -Wut or awitt, (a) see (3) ; (b) a call 
made to attract the attention of cows. 

(1) Oxf. 1 When a carter has a team and Waggon ill a road too 
narrow to turn, he shuts out all the horses but the thiller, and 
' backs ' him by taking hold of the ' mullin ' and pushing him 
backwards, and says to the horse 'Awe back,' MS. add. w.Som. 1 
(2) Chs. 1 (3) e.Dur. 1 w.Yks. The Wilsden form is ' Aw-wee ! ' 
Leeds Merc. Suppl. (June ao, 1891). (4, a) Shr. 1 (6) Glo. 1 (5) 
w.Yks. (H.V.) (6, a) Oxf. 1 (b) Dev. 3 

HAW, int. 2 Yks. Lin. Ken. [9.] An exclamation of 
surprise or contempt. 

w.Yks. Haw ! t'wife says tha'rt hungry, BINNS Orig. (1889) No. 
i. 2 ; w.Yks. 5 ' Can one du it ? ' ' Haw aye ' (s.v. How). n.Lin. 1 
Jaanie Smith hes gotten fine i' her talk ; . . when ony body says 
oht to her she duzn't saay ' haw ' as we do ; she says, ' Well, you 
'stonish me.' Ken. Look haw look (K.). 

HAW, see Hall, sb. 1 , Har(r, Haugh, Ho, v., Hovi,$b.\adv. 

HAWBAW, sb. Yks. Lin. Also in form hawby Yks. 
[9^9, -hi.] 1. A stupid, clumsy fellow, a lout ; a coarse, 
vulgar lad. Cf. hawbuck. 

w.Yks. 3 n.Lin. Never mind the shavings, you silly hawbaw, 
PEACOCK M. Heron (1872) II. 114 ; n.Lin. 1 
2. Impudence ; pert, saucy speaking. 

m. Lin. If ah've eny moore o' y'r haw baw ah s'll mek you laugh 
tothor side o' y'r imperdent young faace (T. H.R.). 

HAWBOY, sb. Yks, A wooden double-reed wind 
instrument of high pitch ; a hautboy. 

e.Yks. When they tooted the hawboy, an Billy ga mooth, 
NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 40. 

[Fr. hautbois, ' instrument a vent, qui donne des sons 
clairs d'une grande douceur' (HATZFELD).] 

HAWBUCK, sb. In gen. dial, and colloq. use in Eng. 
and Amer. Also in forms aubuck n.Yks. in. Yks. ; haa- 
buck Nhb. 1 ; hobuck Cum. 4 ; hoe-buck w.Yks. 1 [h)^-, 
hia'buk, -bak.] A clumsy fellow, lout ; a country bump- 
kin, a ' chaw-bacon ' ; a noisy, rough, turbulent young 
man. Cf. hawbaw. 

Nhb. 1 Cum. For fear some hawbuck tek't i' his head To brake 
us weel, STAGG Misc. Poems (ed. 1807) 146 ; Cum. 4 Wm. En' than, 
a girt hawbuck, away did he sneak, BLEZARD Sngs. (1848) 35. 
n.Yks. Onybody ma see 'at yon's a cuntry aubuck (W.H.) ; 
n.Yks, 12 , ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. He's a great haw-buck (Miss A.); 
e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. (W.P.), m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Lunnon fowks owt not 
to want tu mak country hawbucks on us, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE 
Baimsla Ann. (1852) 46; w.Yks. 1235 , Lan. 1 , n.Lan.', ne.Lan. 1 
n.Lin. SUTTON Wds. (1881) ; n.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 War. 3 A young 
man, who in dress or manners imitated in some degree the rank 
above him, or who affected some foppishness. I have only heard 
it applied to young farmers or yeomen, or the sons of rural 
tradesmen. Hmp. 1 , w.Som. 1 n.Dev. Sorrow is making a hawbuck 
of me, KINGSLEY Westward Ho (1855) 47, ed. 1889. [Amer. Dial. 
Notes (1896) I. 418.] 

HAWCH, v. Glo. Som. Dev. Also in forms hatch- 
Dev. 3 ; hoach Glo. [t/.] 1. To eat badly ; to make a 
loud noise with the lips or mouth in eating. 

w.Som. 1 Where's thee larn thy manners? Why's-n shut thy 
girt trap, not bide and hauchy, like a girt fat pig. n.Dev. When 
tha com'st to good tackling, thee unt poochee and hawchee, Exm. 
Scold. (1746) 1. 188; Horae Subsecivae (1777) 206. 

2. Phr. to hoach and haw, to hawk and spit. 

Glo. Horae Subsecivae (1777) ao6 ; GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) 

3. Comb, (i) Hawch-(a)-mouth, (a) one who 'hawks' 
and spits,^*: a foul-mouthed, blustering person, one who 
talks indecently ; also used attrib. ; (b) one who makes 
mu^h noise in eating ; (2) Hawch-mouthed, coarse, 
vulgar, or profane in speech, blustering, bullying. 

(1,0) Glo. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) w.Som. 1 Dev. 3 Not 
in present use, but in years gone by it was a word commonly 
used at and in the neighbourhood of Parracombe. It really 
meant a person who talked incessantly in a coarse, vulgar manner, 
using obscene and offensive language, mingled with foul epithets. 
n.Dev. A gottering hawchamouth theng, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 187 ; 
Horae Subsecivae (1777) 206; GROSE (1790). (b) w.Som. 1 (a) 




w.Som. 1 He ! you never did'n come 'cross a more rougher, 
hawchemoutheder, cussin, girt bully in all your born days. Dev. 
I 'opes our Anna Maria won't graw up sich a hatchmouthed maid 
as Amy Keslake is, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892); 'E weer that hatch- 
mouthed that volks shivered tu 'ear'im talk, PHILLPOTTS Dartmoor 
(,1895) 196, ed. 1896. 

HAWDOD, sb. Obs. Yks. The blue cornflower, 
Centaurea Cyanus. See Haw, adj. 

Yks. 8th May, 1730. He also told me that in the fields in 
summer, there grows a flower call'd hawdods, which with a touch 
will bend down as if they had broken, HoBSON/)iar)i(Surtees 9oc.) 
296 in (B. & H.). We know of no plant having this peculiarity 
(B. & H.). [Hawdod hath a blewe floure, and a fewe lytle leaves, 
and have fyve or syxe braunches floured on the top and groweth 
commonly in rye upon leane grounde, FITZHERBERT Husbandry 

HAWFER, HAWFISH, see Aver, sb.. Awvish. 

HAWFLE, HAWFLIN, see Haffle, v., Halflin(g. 

HAW-GAW, sb. Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Also written hau- 
gaw ; and in form hauka. [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] A rag or refuse gatherer, a midden-raker. 

HAWGH, see Haugh, Hawk, v. 1 

HA WICK GILL, phr. Sc. A measure of ale or spirits, 
containing half an English pint. See Gill, sb. 7 2. 

Sc. And weel she loo'd a Hawick gill, HERD Coll. Sngs. (1776) 
II. 18 ; A Hawick gill is a double gill, so named from the town of 
Hawick, ib. Gl. s.Sc. firing's a Hawick gill, An' here's to Hawick's 
bonnie lasses! WATSON Bards (1859) lai. Lth. Come hostess, 
bring 's a Hawick gill, An' to his health a glass I'll fill, BRUCE 
Poems (1813) II. 133. Edb. If her ye'd gien a Hawick gill, She 
might been leal, LIDDLE Poems (1821) 29. 

HAWING, ///. adj. ? Obs. Sc. Resounding, guiding, 

When they chance to mak a brick Loud sound their hawing 
cheers, A. SCOTT Poems (1805) 54 (JAM.). 

HAWK, sb. 1 Sh.I. Or.I. Irel. Wm. Der. Lin. e.An. 
Also in form halk- S. & Ork. 1 1. In comb, (i) Hawk's- 
bill bramble, the blackberry, Ritbus fruticosus ; (2) 
's cud, the cast of a hawk, a pellet of undigested food 
thrown up by a hawk ; (3) -hen, a hen formerly de- 
manded from each house for the support of the royal 
hawks ; (4) -spaun, a tall, ungainly woman ; (5) -studyin, 
the steady hovering of hawks over their prey before 
pouncing upon it. 

(i) e.An. (B. & H.) (a) Der. Cornh. Mag. (1665) XII. 41. (3) 
Sh.I. To feed these birds [hawks for the use of the King], a hen 
was demanded from every house ; or (as it is called) from every 
' reek,' under the name of hawk-hens, HIBBERT Desc. Sh.I. (1823) 
134, ed. 1891 ; I know the meaning of scat and wattle and hawk- 
hen, SCOTT Pirate (1822) ii. S. & Ork. 1 Hens falling to be 
contributed for support of royal hawks when falconers went to 
Orkney to procure hawks, payable and paid down to 1838 and 
1839. Or.I. With xxiiij cunningis tantum skynnis for Sandisend, 
and xxiiij halk hennis, PETERKIN Rentals (1820) n (JAM.J. (4) 
11. Lin. 1 ^5) Gall. MACTAGGART Encycl. (1824) (JAM.). 

2. Phr. (i) as hungry as a hawk, very hungry. Ant. 
Ballymena Obs. (1892) ; (2) between buzzard and hawk, 
neither good nor bad, nondescript. Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 

HAWK, sb. 2 Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Also in forms 
haak Nhb. 1 ; howk Nhb. 1 Lakel. 2 Cum. 4 Wm. [h)k, 
hak.J 1. Among animals : a disease of the eye ; 
gen. in pi. 

Nhb. Of the eye in horses. It is a film or cataract, which may 
be removed (R.O.H.) ; 'The howks,' on a pig's eye, is an 
inflammation of the front external covering of the eyeball, ib. ; 
Nhb. 1 Cum. 4 An inflammation of the membrana nictitans of pigs. 
Wm. Affecting the eyes of store pigs in which a formation comes 
overtheeyes. 'Can thoo tak t'howksof our pig?' (B.K.) n.Yks. 2 
' Oor pig's gitten hawks i' t'een,' a filminess on the eyes ; remo'ved 
with a sharp awl. [ARMITAGE Cattle (1882) 184.] 
2. A disease of the skin, urticaria. 

Lakel. 2 A disease amongst cattle and swine, followed in the 
former case by sudden death unless the animal is bled. Cum. A 
swelling of the ' chafts ' of cattle (J.W.O.) ; Cum. 4 In cattle, more 
commonly known here as blains, and seen about eyes, ears, neck 
and vulva, and other parts of thickened skin ; in the horse the 
attack comes on suddenly and appears as elastic patchy swellings 
all over the body (J.H.). 

Hence Hawk't, ppl. adj. suffering from the disease 
' hawks.' Cum. 4 

HAWK, sb? Cum. Wm. Nhp. Lon. Also in form 
hawky Cum. 4 Wm. [h)k.] 1. The board used by 
a mason or plasterer to hold mortar ; a bricklayer's hod. 
Cum. 4 , Wm. (B.K.), Nhp. 1 

2. A mason's labourer, the man or boy who carries the 
hod. Also in comp. Hawk-boy. 

Cum. 4 What was he onyway ? nobbut a hawky, settin hissel 

p! Wm. He|s gitten a job as hawky (B.K.). Nhp. 1 A boy 

A rail at the back of a wagon. 


engaged to furnish a hawk with mortar, and carry it to his maste'r 
for use. Lon. Was a ' hawk-boy,' he said, at the plasterer's trade, 
MAYHEW Prisons of Land. (1862) 424 

HAWK, sb* Sus. 1 
See Hack, sb. 2 18. 

The corresponding rail [to the fore-summer or top rail in front 
of a wagon] at the back (s.v. Fore-summer). 

HAWK, v. 1 and s6. 5 In gen. dial, and colloq. use in Sc. 
and Eng. Also written hauk n.Lin. 1 Wil. Dor. 1 ; hawck 
Elg. ; and in forms awk s.Pem. ; haack Cum. ; haak 
Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 ; hake m.Yks. 1 ; hauch Cai. 1 Bnff. 1 Cld. 
(JAM.) ; haugh Frf. ; hawgh Sc. (JAM.) ; hooak e.Yks. 1 ; 
ock-w.Yks. 3 ; howk Nhb. ; oke s.Pem. [h)k, h)ak, Sc. 
also hax-J 1. v. To clear the throat from phlegm ; to 
cough ; to spit. Cf. hawch. 

Sc. QAM.), Cai. 1 , Bnff. 1 s.Sc. The pipe it gars ye hawk and 
spit, ALLAN Poems (1887) 23. Cld. (JAM.) e.Lth. Pechin an' 
hawkin an' hoastin like an auld wife, HUNTER J.lnwick (1895) 27. 
N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. (W.G.), Nhb. 1 Cum. Cough't an haackt an neezt a 
few times, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 129 ; He starlit teh haak 
an cough as if he was makken ruddy fer anudder brust, ib. 240; 
Cum. 1 , e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Sheffield Indep. (1874). Lan. 
DAVIES Races (1856) 233. ne.Lan. 1 , n.Lin. 1 , War. (J.R.W.), Shr.z 
s.Pem. A's awking his throat tremendous (W.M.M.). Hnt. 
(T.P.F.), Snf. (C.T.), Suf. 1 Ken. (G.B.) ; Ken. 1 He was hawking 
and spelling for near an hour after he first got up. Sus. HOLLOWAY. 
Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892). Don 1 The men did hauk an' spet, 208. 
Som. SWEETMAN Winconton Gl. (1885). 

Hence Hauchan, sb< the mucus expelled in clearing 
the throat. Bnft'. 1 

2. Comb, (i) Hawk-a-mouth, (2) Hawk-a-mouthed, 
continually ' hawking ' and spitting ; fig. foul-mouthed, 
scolding ; cf. hawch-(a)-mouth, s.v. Hawch ; (3) Ock- 
slaver, one who foams at the mouth. Cf. hack-slaver, 
sb. 3. 

(i) Dev. Hawk-a-mouth-trub [a scoldl, BOWRING Lang. (1866) 
I. pt. v. 36. (2) Dev. 1 The very daps of her motlicr anolher such 
a haggagen, maundering, hawk-a-moulh'd trub, 7. (3) w.Yks. 3 

3. To expel anything from the throat by force of the 
breath ; gen. with up. 

Cai. 1 Bnff. 1 A bit beef stack in's craig ; but he seen haucht it 
up. Cld. (JAM.) 

4. To gargle. s.Pem. (W.M.M.) 6. To hesitate, to 
' hum and haw,' to make much ado before doing anything. 
Also with about. Cai; 1 , Bnff. 1 , Cld. (JAM.) Hence (i) 
Hawking and swappin, phr. failing in prosperity, in poor 
worldly circumstances. Kxb. (JAM.) ; (a) and swaupin, 
phr. (a) in a state of hesitation or irresolution ; (b) in an 
indifferent state of health or prosperity. Lth. (ib.) 

6. To seek or wish for in vain. 

s.Chs. 1 If a person asks another for something, which the latter 
is not disposed to give, he tells the former he mun hawk for it.' 

7. sb. An effort to clear the throat, the sound made in 
clearing the throat. 

Elg. I had not even given a hawck when I felt a little heat on 
my cheek, COUPER Tourifications (1803) I. 123. Frf. Ilk friend 
and crony prin their mou, Or gies a cough or sober haugh, For 
fear o' lattin out a laugh, SANDS Poems (1833) 98. m.Yks. 1 

HAWK, v. 2 Nhp. 1 To carry anything about un- 
necessarily and with labour. 

She hawked her things up all the way to London, and didn't 
want them when she'd done. ' How you hawk that child about,' 
when one child is trj-ing to carry another that is too heavy for its 

HAWK, see Hack, sb.\ Hock, sb. 1 

HAWKATHRAW, sb. Rxb. QAM.) [Not known to our 
correspondents.] A country wright or carpenter. 





HAWKERY-PAWKERY, sb. Yks. Deceit, unfair- 
ness, trickery, hocus-pocus. 

n. Yks. They take care to see that there be no hawkerypawkery 
about burning the house (I.W.). 

HAWKEY, sb. Sus. A boys' game resembling 
hockey ; see below. 

w.Sus. Played by several boys on each side with sticks. . . 
In a piece of ground with a fence at each end a line is drawn 
across the middle of the ground from one side to the other; one 
party stands on one side of the line, and the opposite party on the 
other; and neither must over-step this boundary; but they are 
allowed to reach over as far as their bats will permit to strike the 
ball. The object is to strike the ball to the further end, to touch 
the fence of the opposing party's side, when the party so striking 
the ball scores one, and supposing nine to be the game, the party 
obtaining that number first of course wins the game, HOLLOWAY. 

Hence Hawkey-bat, sb. the stick used in the game of 
' hawkey.' ib. 

HAWKEY, HAWKIE, see Hockey, sb. 1 

HAWKIE, sb. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Also written hauky 
Rnf. ; and in form hokey Cum. [h'ki, hfrki. ] 1. A 
white-faced cow ; freq. used as a general or pet name for 
a cow ; also used Jig. Cf. hawkit. 

Sc. Nae mair the hawkies thou shall milk, RAMSAY Tea-Table 
Misc. (1724! I. 213, ed. 1871 ; Pbroo, pbroo! my bonnie cow, 
Pbroo, hawkie! ho, hawkie ! CHAMBERS Sngs. (1829) II. 515. Elg. 
Hawky ahint the hallan main't, COUPER Poetry (1804) II. 57. 
Bnff. She gaed an' milkit Hawkie, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 65. Abd. 
Ca' hawkie throw the water : Hawkie was a wyllie beast, An' 
hawkie wad no wade the water, BEATTIE Parings (1801) 62, ed. 
1873. Frf. A scull, made 'up o' Hawkie's hair, MORISON Poems 
(1790) 22. Per. A mighty whang aff a cream kebbuck made frae 
the produce of her favourite Hawky, STEWART Character (1857) 
Introd. 73. Fif. Hawkey now, weel sair'd wi' food, TENNANT 
Papistry (1827) 112. Slg. Poor Hawkie's sisterhood That on the 
mountains chew'd their cud, MUIR Poems (1818) 18. Dmb. Hawkie 
and Brakie met a sudden death, TAYLOR Poems (1837) 56. Rnf. 
Hawkie no more the gate can leap, M C GILVRAY Poems (ed. 1862) 
301. Ayr. An' dawtit, twal-pint Hawkie's gaen As yell's the Bill, 
BURNS Add. to Deil (1785) st. 10. Lnk. Effie's love an' Hawkie's 
milk will Mak' thec soon a stout wee wean, NICHOLSON Idylls (1870) 
29. e.Lth. As a 'cow's keep' was a portion of nearly every 
ploughman's wage, there was always an abundance of the 'soupe 
that hawkie does afford,' MUCKLEBACKIT Rhymes (1885") 149. Edb. 
Her hireling damsels bids Glour thro' the byre, and see the hawkies 
bound, FERGUSSON Poems (1773) 164, ed. 1785. SIk. Our wee 
bit hawkie, twice had raised the hungry croon, HOGG Poems (ed. 
1865) 92. Dmf. Hawky will starve in the cauld winter day, 
SHENNANPof)s(i83i) 155. Gall. They ... blamed her wee Hawkie 
wi' things she ne'er saw, KERR Maggie o' the Moss (ed. 1891) 40. 
n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) Nhb. My hearty service to your 
dame, And likewise to your Hawkie ; She'll grease the bread to 
cram our wame, DONALDSON Poems ( 1809) 79 ; Nhb. 1 A gen. pet- 
name for the cow. Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 305 ; Cum." An 
Dick ran on before Wi' hawkie in a string, GILPIN Sngs. 15. 
2. A bull or cow having a white face ; also used a/Mb. 

Cum. Saul o't'Ho, wad talk aboot nowt bit Lampla' hokey bulls, 
DICKINSON Lamplugh (1856) 8 ; Cum. 4 Formerly they had an in- 
ferior breed of cattle in Swindale,near Shap, and the term 'Swin- 
dale hawkie ' continues to this day as applicable to a person of 
inferior mental capacity. The old long-horned breed had many 
of them white faces. 

3. The bald coot, Fulica atra. 

Per. The coot bears on his forehead a shield pure white in 
colour. . . We called it the Hawkie in my boyhood, SWORD Bird Coll. 
('894) 175- 

4. Fig. A stupid, clumsy fellow. 

Bnff. Be gane frae me, ye dozent hawkie, Gae hamc an' wooe 
some country gawkie, TAYLOR Poems (1787) 57. 

5. A slang name for a whore. 

Rnf. Haun for nieve the haukies staun, PICKEN Poems (1813) 1. 96. 

6. Comp. Hawkie-buis, a place of punishment for ill- 
behaving people. Cum. (M.P.) 

HAWKIT, adj. Sc. Also written haukit, hawket ; 
and in forms hackit, haiked, halkit, haulket, hawked. 
1. Of animals: having a white face. Cf. hawkie. 

Sc. And how runs the hackit greyhound bitch now? SCOTT 
Abbot (1820) xviii ; I'll sell my rokely and my tow, My gude grey 
mare and hawket cow, CHAMBERS Sngs. (1829) I. 157. Cai. 1 

Bnff., Abd. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). Abd. Upo' a' fours, Like 
ony haulkethummel doddy stirk, Guidman Inglismaill ( 1873) 30. FrC 
She likes him just as weel I'll swear, As I do our gray hawkit mare, 
MORISON Poems (1790) 112. Fif. Forby her cow an' hawkit stirk, 
DOUGLAS Poems (1806) 95. Rnf. Ane halkit cow, worth twentie 
punds Scots money, HECTOR Judic. Rec. (1876) 45. Lth. The 
hawkit Crummie chew'd her cude, SMITH Merry Bridal ( 1866) 187. 
Slk. To spare me a lamb for a hawked ewe, HOGG Tales 1,1838) 
404, ed. 1866. 
2. Fig. Stupid, foolish. 

Abd. We want Carnegie's councils now, that hawket, lucky 
chiel, ANDERSON Rhymes (1867) 189; Some rattle-scull, I wad, 
like Geordy Will, Or haukit Ned, . . twa, that I kenna whilk's the 
greatest fool, SHIRREFS Poems (1790) 87 ; (JAM.) 

HAWKY, adj. Hrt. Of the nature of a hawk, greedy, 

Gravel is of a hawky voracious nature, ELLIS Pract. Farmer 

HAWL, HAWLE, HAWLM, HAWLSE, see Hall, sb?, 
Hole, sb. 1 , Haulm, Halse, sb. 3 

HAWLSE, v. Obs. Wxf. 1 To lay a spirit. See 

HAWM, sb. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Also in forms ame 
Chs. 18 ; aiihu Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; awm Chs. 1 ; hame Chs. ; 
haulm Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; haum Lan. ; helm w.Yks. Der. 2 
[9m, o,->m. | A haft, the handle of an axe, hammer, spade, 
&c. ; a pick-shaft. 

w.Yks. Try if we cant drahve un inte t'helm, Spec. Dial. 24. 
Lan. Bat . . . shaped out of a pick-haum, BRIERLEY Cotters, xxv. 
e.Lan. 1 Chs. Not a'that'ns put the head of the axe hame jed 
down, S/ii/(i878) I. 82 ; Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 Th' axe ame's broke. Der. 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.); Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 

[Tirol, dial, halm, ' stiel ' (SCHOPF) ; MHG. halme, halm, 
' handhabe, stiel ' (LEXER).] 

HAWM, v. 1 Sc. Yks. Chs. Der. Not. Lin. Also written 
haum w.Yks. 5 nw.Der. 1 Lin. ; and in forms aum Not. ; 
awm w.Yks. 2 Chs. 13 Not. 123 Lin. sw.Lin. 1 [h)9m.] 1. To 
waste time, to be idle ; to move about aimlessly, to loiter, 
lounge ; to stand gaping and staring; to do work in a 
slovenly manner. 

Bnff. 1 w.Yks. 2 Look at him how he's hawming ; he wants 
nowt to do to-day ! Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 What are ye awming at? Not. 
(W. H.S.); Not. 1 ; Not. 2 That idle chap is awmin' about doing 
note. He's drunk and awmin' all ower d'rooad ; Not. 3 s.Not. 
'What's that chap awmin about that 'ow for? Is "e drunk?" 
'What are ycr doing awming about theer? Get on with yer work' 
(J.P.K.). Lin. He was awming about wi' the bairn, and let her 
fall of her elbow (R.E.C.) ; (J.C.W.) ; They hawmed and pawled 
just like cats, BROWN Lit. Laur. (1890) 49; MILLER & SKERTCHLY 
Foiland (i8-j8) iv ; Lin. 1 , n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 Dont stand awming there. 

Hence Haumgobbard, sb. a silly, clownish fellow. 
w.Yks. GROSE (1790) ; w.Yks. 5 

2. To set about a thing, to begin, move, attempt. w.Yks. 2 , 
nw.Der. 1 

HAWM, v. 2 Lin. To shackle, clog, hamper. 

Clear hawmed up wi' wattle guiders, i.e. by the collars pressing 
his checks, BROWN Lit. Laur. (1890) 50, footnote. 

HAWM(E, see Hame, sb. 1 , Haulm. 

HAWMEL(L, sb. Obs. Ken. A small close or paddock. 

LEWIS /. Tenet (,1736) ; GROSE (1790) ; Ken. 1 

[Haw, sb. 3 + mei, _OE. ma>l, a measure, freq. in comps., 
e. g. dcfgmcfl,fot-mcel.] 

sb. 1 , Hamble. 

HAWMUS, sb. Lin. 1 In phr. all of a hawmus, all of a 
heap. 'She stood all of a hawmus.' Cf. almous, 2. 

HAWN, sb. Cor. [Not known to our correspondents.] 
An oven. (J.W.) [A pron. of ME. oven, OE. ofen.} 

HAWN, see Hauen, Hean, sb. 1 

HAWNIE, sb. Sc. A milk-vessel, made of wood. 

Lth. The cooper had before him milk dishes of all kinds leglins, 
cogs, hawnies, &c., STRATHESK Afore Bits (ed. 1885) 109 ; The 
' hawnie ' had a handle, and is used largely in the feeding of 
calves (A.W.). 

HA WPS, sb. Yks. 15 ne.Lan. 1 Also written haups 
ne.Lan. 1 [ps.] A tall, awkward person. Cf. awp(s,s6. 2 2. 

HAWS(E, see Halse, sb. 1 




HAWSE, v. 1 Lan. Also written hause. To prepare ; 
to attempt, try ; to offer. See Oss. 

If he hauses t'be obstropilous, he shall smell at this timber, 
BRIERLEY Waverlow (1863) 216, ed. 1884 ; It wer th' furrestthaut 
e' maw yed us evvur aw shud hause fur to may onuther, ORMEROD 
Felley fro Rachde (1851) Pref. 7, ed. 1864 ; Dun jjoa think aw wur 
hawsin t'steight it ? STATON B. Shuttle, 61 ; As Pee wur hawsin 
t'bid Patty good neet, ib. Loominary (c. 1861) 95. 

HAWSE, v? Lan. With up: to raise, lift or poke up. 

Then come the opportunity to give her kitchen fire one of her 
favorite ' hawsins up,' DONALDSON Tooth Drawin', 7. 

[Bomilcar . , . having sea-roume, halsed up sailes, 
HOLLAND Livy (1600) 568. Fr. hausser, to raise (CoxoR.) ; 
OFr. haucier, hairier (HATZFELD).] 

HAWSE, v. 3 Pern. To gossip. s.Pem. LAWS Little 
Eng. (1888) 420. 

HAWSE, see Haw, sb. 1 

HAWSEMAN, sb. Nrf. One of the crew of a fishing- 

Used by wherry-men on the broads (E.G. P.); The master, mate, 
hawseman, wheelman, net-roper, and me, lived aft in the cabin 
(of the herring fishing-boat), EMERSON Son of Fens (1892) 58; 
One of the crew of a fishing boat, i.e. a boat engaged in catching 
herrings by drifting with nets. He is a superior member of the 
crew and stands forward when shooting the nets. When the 
nets are hauled the hawseman again goes forward and casts off 
the rope and lets go the ' tizzard ' (a rope from the ship to the 
warp). When the nets are pulled alongside he unbends the 
seizings and passes them to the net-roper. After that the hawse- 
man helps to salt the herrings in the wings (P.H.E.). 

HAWSEN, sb. Sh.I. The curved board near the bow 
or stern of a fishing-boat. 

'Ye see,' William answer'd, pointin' ta da hawsen, ' whaur yon 
rive is," Sh. News (Dec. 17, 1898); Second or third from the 
keel (J.I.). 

HAWSEN, HAWST, see Halsen, Haw, sb. 1 , Hazen, 
Hoast, sb. 1 

HAWTANE, W/ Obs. Sc. Haughty. GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (C.) 

[Swa hawtane and dispitous, BARBOUR Bruce (1375) i. 
196. Fr. hautain, haughty (CoxcR.).] 

HAWTH, sb. Sus. Also in form both Sus. 1 [}>.] 

1. Gorse or furze, Ulex europaeus. Also in comp. Hawth- 

(S.P.H.); LOWER S. Doivns (1854) 152; He would throw himself 
backwards into a hawth-bush, ib. Stray Leaves (1862) 92 ; Sus. 1 'Tis 
very poor ground, it wont grow naun but heath and hoth. 

2. A heath. 

Old people still call Hayward's Heath ' Reward's Hawth ' 

HAWTHERY, adj. N.I. 1 Untidy, tossed. Cf. huthery. 

HAWTHORN, sb. Obs. Dev. Also written haw- 
thern n.Dev. A kind of hook or pin cut out of an erect 
board and used to hang a coat, &c., upon. Home Subse- 
civae (1777) 206. n.Dev. GROSE (1790). 

HAWTHORN-DEAN, sb. Sc. Yks. Also written 
Hawthorn Dene w.Yks. 2 A species of apple. 

Edb. The Hawthorndean, or White Apple of Hawthorndean, de- 
rives its name from the romantic seat in Midlothian of the poet 
and historian Drummond, NEILL Hortic. Encycl. (1817) 109 (JAM.). 
w.Yks. 2 

HAWVE, see Half, Hauve, v. 12 , Haw, sb. 1 

HAWVISH, adj. Lan. ['vij.] Undecided, indefinite. 
See Awvish, adv. 2. 

Let's ha' no moore o' thi hawvish tawk, WOOD Hum. Sketches, 26. 

HAWY, adv. Sc. (JAM.) Heavily. 

HAWZE, HAWZEN, see Halse, sb. 1 , Hoze(e, Hazen. 

HAY, sb. 1 and v. 1 Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and 
Eng. Also written ha Som. ; hey Lan. 1. sb. In comp. 
(i) Hay-band, (a) a rope of twisted hay used to bind a 
truss, or to fasten thatch on a stack ; (b) a rope of hay 
twisted round the leg to keep it dry ; (2) -batik, a loose 
piece of wood placed above the stalls in a cow-house 
to hold hay; (3) -bay, a place on the ground-floor for 
keeping hay ; (4) -bird, a name given to var. birds 
which build their nests of hay : (a) the blackcap, 
Sylvia atricapilla; (b) the willow- warbler, Phylloscopus 

trochilus; (c) the wood-warbler, P. sibilatrix; (5) -bog, 
a damp hay-meadow ; (6) -bole, the right of cutting 
a specified quantity of hay from the property of another ; 
(7) -box, a hayloft ; (8) -brew, a decoction of hay ; (9) 
builder, the chiff-chaff, Phylloscopus rufus; also the 
willow- wren, P. trochilus ; (roj -carrying, the hay-harvest; 
(n) -chamber, a hayloft ; a room over a stable ; (12) -chat, 
(a) see (4, a) ; (b) the whinchat, Pratincola rubetra ; cf. hay, 
sb. 2 5 (2) ; (i3)-cock,a much larger heap of haythan a 'foot- 
cock ' ; (14) -crome, a hay-rake, obs. Jig. ' pot-hooks ' ; (15) 
-crook, a long rod with a barbed head used to draw 
samples of hay out of a stack ; fig. a long, lank, hungry- 
looking man; also 'pot-hooks'; (16) -fog, aftermath; 
(17) -folk, haymakers ; (18) -fow, a hay-fork; (19) -gang, 
the gangway leading from the barn or hayloft to the cow- 
stalls ; (20) -goaf or -goffe, a haystack ; (21) -goak, the 
haystack as it stands pared round in use ; (22) -grass, (a) 
see ( 16) ; (b) the grass of tilled land ; (23) -green, the rag- 
wort, Seneciojacobaea ; (24) -heck, a rack for holding hay ; 
(25) -home, the last day of the hay-harvest ; (26) -jack, () 
see (4, a); (b) the reed-sparrow, Emberisa schoeniclus ; 

(27) -knife, a knife used for cutting hay in the stack ; 

(28) -makers, the name given to a particular country 
dance; (29) -mow, (a) a haystack; hay stored up under 
cover; (b) the barn or loft in which hay is stored; (30) 
-net, a net hung on to the collar of a horse, in which hay 
is placed ; (31) -neuk, the stall or crib where the hay for 
immediate consumption is put when brought in from the 
outside stack ; (32) -pike, a circular pile of hay pointed at 
the top ; (33) -pines, hay-seeds ; (34) -plant, the sweet 
woodruff, Asperula odorata ; (35) -pook, (36) -quile, a hay- 
cock ; (37) -riff, a pernicious weed with very small seeds ; 
(38) -scent, the scented fern, Nephrodium Oreopteris ; (39) 
seed, the meadow soft-grass, Holms fanatics ; also in 
phr. not to have the hay-seed out of one's hair, not to have 
outgrown one's youthful ' greenness ' ; (40) -sel(e or 
Hasle, the season of making hay ; the hay-harvest ; (41) 
shakers, the quaking-grass, Brisa media ; (42) -silver, 
a tithe-charge of one shilling an acre upon mown land; 
(43) -sow, a large, oblong stack of hay ; (44) -spade, a sharp 
heart-shaped spade for cutting hay ; (45) -slang, a hay- 
pole ; (46) -sweep, a large sled used to carry the hay ; 
(47) -tallat, see (7) ; (48) -tea, a decoction made by 
pouring boiling water on hay, sometimes used for rearing 
calves ; (49) -tedder, a haymaking machine ; (50) 
tenter, a haymaker as distinguished from a mower; (51) 
tenting, haymaking ; (52) -tick, the whitethroat, Sylvia 
cimrea; cf. hay,s6. 2 5 (6); (53) -tier, one who cuts hay out of 
a rick and makes it up into trusses ; (54) -tit, (a) see (52) ; 
(b) see (4, b) ; (c) the sedge-warbler, Acrocephahis phrag- 
mites ; (55) -trusser, see (53) ; (56) -worker, a haymaker. 

(i, a} Lan. 1 Here, lass, tee this on for mo. It looks like a 
haybant, when aw tee it for mysel, WAUGH Oivd Blanket (1867) i. 
Chs. 1 n.Lin. 1 Sixty years ago it was almost universal, now it is 
rarely seen. (4) They became, however, to be considered as 
a mark of extreme poverty and consequently dropped out of use, 
ib. Som. Worn by shepherds in snowy weather. Still used 
(F.W.W.). Cor. 2 (2) n.Yks. (T.S.), n.Yks. 14 , ne.Yks. 1 Lan. 
Iz een streek foyar loik o wild cat's on o hey-bawk, SCHOLES Tim 
Gamwaltle (1857) vii. (3) w.Wor.i ( 4> ) Nhp. 1 (b) Sc. SWAIN- 
SON Birds (1885) 26. N.I. 1 (c) w.Yks. SWAINSON ib. 27. (5) 
Dmf. She left the hay-bog in a fit of despair, SHENNAN Talcs 
(1831)155. (6) Cum. 1 (7) Lan. Ther's a hay-hoax theere ut I've 
bin in afore, BRIERLEY Out of Work (1885) iii. (8) Ayr. That 
lassock has biled the tea till it's like hay-broo, SERVICE Dr. Duguid 
(ed. 1887) 228. (9) Sur. ' That's where we see them 'ere little 
hay-builders.' . . Chiff-chaffs and willowwrens theboy meant, Times 
(Dec. 7, 1894) 13, col. 5. (10) Som. Thic night at Squire Reeves's 
when we made an end o' Ha-corrin, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. 
(1825) 127. (n) n.Yks. Wid [we had] better ev a bit a he 
it fin the] hechemsr rodi fart [for the] hossiz [horses] wen ths 
kum in fra wak [work] (W.H.). e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) (12, a) 
Nhp. SWAINSON ib. 24; Nhp. 1 (b) Nhb. 1 (13) Wil. 1 114) 
e.An. 1 The characters scrawled by an awkward penman are 
likened to ' hay-cromes and pitchforks ' ; as they more gen. are to 
' pot-hooks.' e.Suf. (F.H.) (15) Cum. Like a laal scholar larncn 
teh mak strokes, an heucks an hay-creucks, SARGISSON Joe 

o 2 




Scoap (1881) loa ; We'd hay-cruiks and hen-tails and hanniels, 
And nattlers that fuddle for nought, ANDERSON Ballads (ed. 1808) 
170 ; Cum. 4 That's a cruikt un ! I think it is leyke a hay cruik, 
Sii.PHEoBil/yBrannan,5. Wm.&Cum. 1 , Wm.(B.K.) (i6)Sth.The 
paleys (young weak and stunted lambs') are . .. sent directly to the 
hay-fog, Farm Reports (1832) 80. (17) Kcb. The laverock that rises 
. . . Frae the mead an" the feet o' the hay-folk, ARMSTRONG 
Ingleside (1890) 177. (18) Gall. I'll learn ye to stick hay-fows 
into decent folk, CROCKETT Cleg Kelly (1896) 398. (19) Cum. 1 (20) 
e.An. 1 , Ess. (W.W.S.) (ai) n.Yks. 2 ' T'wind's whemml'd t'hay- 
gooak ower,' overturned it. (aa, a) Som. (W.F.R.) ; W. & J. 
Gl. (1873). (b) ib. (23") Cum. 4 (34) Yks. An put hur intul a 
hay-heck it far corner at laith, Dewsbre Olm. (1865) 8. (25) Oxf. 1 
MS. add. Wil. 1 It was the last day of the hay-harvest it was 
'hay-home' that night, JEFFERIES Wil. Labourer. (26,0} Nhp. 
SWAINSON ib. 24. Nhp. 1 (b) e.An. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.), Suf. 1 (37) 
Per. When a' thing gaed dune, Willie seized the hay-knife, FORD 
Harp (1893) 189. Wgt. Gen, part of the blade of an old scythe 
(A.W.). w.Yks. (W.H.) (a8) Sc. Neither the haymakers nor 
the soldier's joy formed part of the entertainment, Sc. Haggis, 
158. Edb. Nae stupid waltz or gallopad Frae Italy or France, But 
to the merry hay-makers, The roof an' rafters ring, M'DowALL 
Poems (1830) 317. (29, a) Nhb. (R.O.H.) w.Yks. He'd set th,' 
haymoo o' fire, HARTLEY Puddin (1876) 233. Lan. I'll goo into 
quarantine upon some hay-moof, BRIERLEY Out of Work (1885) i ; 
They climbed through the round hole on to the top of the hay- 
mough, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) II. 167 ; Lan. 1 , 
e.Lan. 1 Midi. Or frighten Giles from kissing Gillian behind the 
hay-mow, BARTRAM People of Clapton (1897) 8. War. 3 A distinc- 
tion is drawn nowadays by speaking of any crop stacked in 
barns or under cover as a mow, while any stacked out of doors is 
a rick. Som. AGRIKLER Rhymes (1872) 21. (b) Nhb. (R.O H.) 
Cum. If you would see the midday siesta of these birds, climb up 
into some hay-mow. There, in an angle of the beam, you will 
see their owlships, WATSON Nature Wdcraft. ( 1890) i. Yks. At 
six to the hay-mow hie ye all, HONE Table-bk. (1827) I. 73. 
w.Yks. 2 Lan. He's sprain't his anclif a bit, wi' jumpin' off th' 
hay-moo yesterday, WAUGH Ben an th' Bantam (1866) ii ; Lan. 1 
(30) War. 3 (31) Gall. I ... spoke to her as I used to do in. the 
hay-neuk at Parton, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) xxiii ; It is gen. the 
only clean place in the byre, and is often patronized by tramps, 
who enter without leave, as well as by lovers among the farm 
servants (S.R.C.). (32) n.Yks. 2 (33) Glo. Hay dust, such as the 
ails and beards of corn, Home Subsecivae (1777) 206. (34) Ldd. 
(B. & H.) (35~i w.Som. 1 The usual word hay-cock is seldom 
heard. Dev. Now tha rain's awver yd'd better draw they hay- 
pooks abroad, HEWETT Peas. Sf>. (1892). n.Dev. Why dedst thee, 
than, tell me o'the Zess, or it of theHay-pook? Exm. Scold. (1746) 
1. 88. nw.Dev. 1 (36) Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 (37) Shr. 2 (38) Cunv 
(B.&H.) (39)e.Ykg. MARSHALL 7?Kr. Emit. (.17961!!. 104. I. Ma. 
Ould ? He hasn't the hayseed out of his hair, CAINE Deemster 
(1887) 6, ed. 1889. (40) Com. 4 Yan o' t'measte important seasons 
o' t'year wid t'farmer was haysel or haytime, C. Pacq. (Aug. 17, 
1893) 6, col. i. e.An. N. V Q. (18791 sth S. xi. 174 ; e.An. 1 
Nrf. Wanted, a good thatcher for haysel and harvest, Norwich 
Merc. (July 6, 1889) i, col. 2. Suf. I always fare so busy in haysel 
(M.E.R.) ; Suf. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.) Ess. An' 'twas the time ov haysel, 
CLARK/. Noakes (1839) st. 43; (H.H.M.); When it is too dry for 
swedes or mangolds it is delightful weather for the haysel, 
HURNARD Setting Sun ; (W.W.S.) ; Ess. 1 Dey. There had been 
dry weather for the haysel, BARING GOULD Red Spider (1887) 
xxxv. Cor. A day of days for the haysel . . . The air was fragrant 
with hay, ib. Gaverocks (1887) xxxvii. (41) Chs. 13 (43) Der. 
ADDY Gl. (1891).- (43) Sc. GAM., s.v. Sow); Tak' a ride on your 
hay-soo ! HISLOP Anecdote (1874) 106. Frf. A thecker fell aff a 
hay-soo he was workin' at, an' crackit his pow, WILLOCK Rosetty 
Ends (1886) 67, ed. 1889. (44) Edb. Alexander Bailie of Ciilens 
. . . had borrowed a shearing hay spade from the Author, PEN- 
NECUIK Wks. (1715) 361, ed. 1815. n.Yks. A'l tel ya wat, this 
hfspiad iznt [is notj vara shap [sharp] (W.H.). e.Yks. A common 
hay-spade turned up at both sides, MARSHALL Review (1808) I. 
513. n.Lin.' (45) Lan. Armed with hay-forks and hay-stangs, 
Neddy's Courtship (1888) 8. (46) n.Yks. In several parts of the 
N. Riding a hay-sweep is used for readily collecting the hay 
together, when intended to be stacked in the field, TUKE Agric. 
(1800) 88. (47) Dev. Forced to dress in the hay-tallat, BLACKMORE 
LornaDoone (1869) xix. (48) Ken. 1 (49) w.Mid., Sur. Lot 70. A 
Howard's Hay-tedder (W.P.M.). (50) Chs. 13 (51) Lan. (S.W.) 
(52) Shr. They stopped and found a whitethroat's nest what 
the country lads call a ' hay-tick's,' DAVIES Rambles Sch. Field-club 
(iS8i) iv; Shr. 1 This bird, when alarmed, flics about the tall 

grass uttering a ' tick-ing ' sound, from which it gets its name. 
(53) Oxf. 1 JUS. add. (54, a) Shr., Oxf. SWAINSON ib. 23. (b) 
Lin. (HALL.), Lin. 1 (c) Oxf. SWAINSON ib. 33. (55) s.Wor. 1 , 
Glo. (A.B. ) Dor. The hay trusser, which he obviously was, 
nodded with some superciliousness, HARDY Mayor of Casterbridge 
(ed. 1895) 4. (56) Slk. Country maidens such as ewe-milkers, 
hay-workers, HOGG Tales (1838) 359, ed. 1866. 

2. Phr. (i) hay abouts, an order given in drill ; see 
below ; (2) to make sweet hay, see below. 

(i) Hit. The gen. acknowledged tradition respecting raw recruits 
training for the Hrt. Militia is that they were generally found to 
be ignorant concerning which was the right and left when 
marching, so that a hay-band was fastened to the right leg and 
a straw band to the left, that they should be able to distinguish 
the difference, and instead of the words, ' right," ' left ' being used 
during drilling the sergeant called out, ' Hay-band,' ' Straw-band.' 
Hence the term Hay-abouts, Hrt. Mere. (June 23, 1888). (2) Dev. 
The field rang with laughter, and occasional screams, as a man 
twisted a cord of hay, cast the loop round a girl's neck, drew her 
head towards him and kissed her face. That is called ' the making 
of sweet hay," BARING-GOVLD Red Spider (1887) xxii. 
8. The hay-harvest. 

Ayr. Some to fee for hay and hairst, Ballads and Sngs. (1846) 
I. 95 ; Thro' hay, an' thro' hairst, sair we toil it, AINSLIE Land of 
B,urns(ed. 1892) 246. Edb. It's wearin' on now to the tail o' May, 
An" just between the beer-seed and the hay, FERGUSSON Poems 
(1773) 109, ed. 1785. 
4. v. Of newly-cut grass : to become hay, to dry. 

s.Not. It don't hay a deal to-day. Them first swaths has 
hayed a deal sin mornin (J.P.K.). Nhp. 1 In the process of hay- 
making, when the weather is dull and heavy, ' the grass hays 
badly ' ; if fine and drying, ' it hays well.' Not applied to corn. 
According to Holloway Provinc. the term is current in Hmp. for 
both corn and grass. n.Lin. 1 Its haying nistly, if it nobbut hohds 
fine we can lead o' Tuesda'. Hnt. (T.P.F.) 

Hence Haying, sb. the hay-harvest. 

s.Oxf. Through the haying she stayed at home, for her mother 
was in the hay-field working all day, ROSEMARY Chiltcnts 1,1895) 
53. Ken. They're going to begin haying soon (D.W.L.). 

HAY, sb." In pen. dial, use in Irel. and Eng. Also 
written hey W*f? w.Yks. 3 Lan. e.An. 1 n.Dev.; and in 
form hye Wxf. 1 ; //. haies n.Yks. 2 ; hayes Wil. 1 ; haze 
Dor. 1- A hedge, fence ; a boundary. 

n.Yks. 1 Enclosure fences, often doing duty as boundaries, in 
which sense the word exists in several local names ; n.Yks. 2 
Ridges of land as district boundaries. ' Scalby haies,' the limits 
of Whitby Strand in that direction. w.Yks. 3 e.An. 1 More 
particularly a clipped quickset hedge. Commonly pron. as if it 
were in the pi. Nrf. A clipt hedge, MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1787). 
Suf. RAINBZRD Agric. (1819) 294, ed. 1849 ; Suf. 1 , e.Suf. (F.H.) 

2. A place fenced round, an enclosure ; freq. in pi. 
Wxf. 1 A garden, field, enclosure, e.g. ' Chourch hey,' a church- 
yard. ' Barach-hye,' a barley-field. Nhb. 1 Hays or inclosures, 
HODGSON Nhb. II. iii. 89. Lan. Cut the last of my wheat and the 
beans that grew in nry little hey, WALKDEN Diary (ed. 1866) 40. 
Gmg. A small plot of ground attached to a dwelling, COLLINS Gow. 
Dial, in Trans. Phil. Soc. (1848-50) IV. 222. Hnt. (T.P.F.) 
Wil. 1 Used as a termination, as Calf-Hayes. Dor. Ewe haze, cow 
haze, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). Som. HERVEY Wedmon 
Chron. (1887) I. 385. Cor. The churchyard was called the church- 
hay, N. 6" Q. (1854) ist S. x. 319. 

3. A sm,all wood, coppice, or plantation- 

Chs. 1 Freq. in place-names as Hall o' th' Hay, a farm at 
Kingsley. Nhp. 1 A small wood near the village of Sywell is called 
' Sywell Hay.' Shr. 1 We'n seventeen 'ays about 'ere, an' we 
cut'n [thin] one every 'ear. 

Hence Haystall, sb. a small portion of wood on the 
outskirts of a large wood. Hrf. (HALL.) Glo. florae Sub- 
secivae (1777) 207. 

4. pi. Flat plains, esp. those covered with ling. Stf. 
(K.), Stf. 1 

5. Cotnp. (i) Hay-boot or -bote, obs., the right of cutting 
as much wood within an enclosure as is necessary to re- 
pair the surrounding hedge ; (2) -chat, (3) -chick, the 
whitethroat, Sylvia cinerea ; (4) -gob, climbing buck- 
wheat, Polygonum convolvulus; (5) -hoa, the ground-ivy, 
Nepeta GlecKoma ; (6) -jack, see (3) ; (7) -maiden, (a) see 
(4) ; (b) a wild flower of the mint-tribe. 

(i)n.Hn. 1 [KENNETT Par. A.ntiq. (1695).] (2) n.Yks. 4 , ne.Lan. 1 , 




Nhp. 1 Oxf. APLIN Birds ( 1889) 214. (3) ne.Lan. 1 (4) War. B'ham 
Wkly. Post (June 10, 1893) ; War. 1 A name given . . . because it 
mats other herbs together by twisting round them ; War. 23 (5) 
Hmp. 1 (6) e.An. 1 Nrf. COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893") 45; 
The Greater Whitethroat, or ' Hay-jack,' as he is locally called, is 
by no means uncommon, EMERSON Birds (ed. 1895) 27. Nrf., Suf. 
SWAINSON Birds (1885^ 23. Suf. (G.E.D.) e.Suf. e.An. Dy. Times 
(1892). (7, a} Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 305. Glo. 1 Grass 
ivy. Dor. (C.W.) Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825); 
(W.F.R.) Dev. BOWRING Lang. (1866) I. pt. v. 17; Dev. 1 n.Dev. Us 
foun', In a heymaiden bush, These corniwillins, HOCK Jim an' Nell 
(1867) st. 123. Cor. THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895! Gl. (6) 
Dor. Used for making a medicinal liquor, ' hay-maiden tea,' BARNES 
Gl. (1863) ; Dor. l 

[1. Ther is neither busk nor hay In May, that it nil ... 
been . . . with new leves wreen, CHAUCER R. Roset 54 ; 
pou fordide his haies mare and lesse (=destruxisti omnes 
sepes ejus), Ps. (c. 1290) Ixxxviii. 41, ed. Surtees -Soc. 
OE. hege, 'sepes' (^ELFRIC) ; cp. OFr. haie, hedge (R. 
Rose, 50).] 

HAY, int. Cum._Yks. Lan. Der. Glo. Hmp. Also in form 
he Glo. Hmp. [h)e.] An exclamation, gen. interrogative. 

Cum. Will ta ivver dee it aggan ? hay ? CHRISTIAN Sailor Lad 
(1880) 3; Cum. 1 , Yks. (J.W.) Lan. Hay! dew have him dew, 
ACKWORTH Clog Shop Chron. (1896) 271. Der. 2 Hay! it wor 
grand, lads, that ale wor (s.v. Grand). Glo., Hmp. GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. 

HAY, see Haigh, v., Haw, sb. 1 

HAY -BAY, sb. Lakel. Cum. Yks. Also written hey- 
bey Wm. & Cum. 1 w.Yks. ; and in form heyba w.Yks. 1 
[h)e'-be.] A hubbub, uproar ; a commotion, disturbance. 

Lakel. 1 At times used to signify a 'discussion with sticks'; 
Lakel. 2 He kickt up a gurt hay-bay aboot his money. Cum. 
Fadder's been kickan up sec hay-bays, SARGissoN./o.Sro<r/>(i88i) 
7 ; Aa ! what a hay-bay I 'twas just like the battle of Watterlew, 
ANDERSON Ballads (1805) 124, ed. 1881 ; Cum. 4 Wm. & Cum. 1 
Tom hed sec a bruoly An' hey-bey wi' his weyfe, 179. n.Yks. He 
was in sike a haybay. They come [to the tailor] wiv a greeat 
haybay (I. W.) ; n.Yks. 34 w.Yks. They set up sich hey-beys as 
war nivver heerd afore ner sin, DIXON Craven Dales (1881) 178 ; 
w.Yks. 1 Mackin a feaful heyba, ii. 288. 

HAY-BREDE, sb. n.Yks. 2 The ledge on the fore- 
front of a wagon upon which the driver sits. 

HAYDIGEES, sb. pi. Som. Dev. Also in forms high- 
degrees, highdigees w.Som. 1 High spirits ; merriment, 

Som. From that they ' fell a-rompsing, and to pretty highdigees,' 
RAYMOND Men o' Mendip (1898) xvi ; JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. 
(1825!. w.Som. 1 When I come on by the house, there was pretty 
highdigees [aa'ydijee'z, aa'ydigree'z] gwain on, sure 'nough. Dev. 
MOORE Hist. Dev. (1829' I. 354. n.Dev. Tho' thee'rt in desperd 
haydigees, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) st. 62. 

[The same word as older E. hay-de-guy or hay-de-guise, 
the name of a particular kind of ' hay ' or dance. By 
wells and rills, in meadowes greene, We nightly dance 
our hey-day-guise, Robin Good^fellow (c. 1580) 102, in 
Percy's Reliques (ed. 1887) III. 204.] 

HAYEL, sb. Dev. Cor. [Not known to our other 
correspondents.] The windpipe. (Miss D.) 

HAYEL, see Haggle, sb. 1 

HAYLUNSH,s6. Bdf. A headlong fall. 

(HALL.); BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809) 135. 

HAYMENT, sb. Obs. Chs. Shr. Also written hey- 
merit Shr. 1 A fence or boundary. 

Chs. 1 Shr. 1 The parishioners of Myddle answeared that the 
brooke was whoaly in the parish of Baschurch, and was the hay- 
ment or fence of the men of Baschurch parish, betweene their 
lands, and the lands in Myddle parish, GOUGH Hist. Myddle (1770) 
10, ii ; Agreed at a vestry meeting held for the parish of Clun, 
the 24th day of May 1755, for the repairs of the church and the 
churchyard wall or hayments. 

HAYN(E, see Hain, v. ls 

HAYNESS, adj. Cum. Horrible, dreadful, terrible ; 
also used advb. Cf. hainish, adj. 1 1. 

Cum. 4 ' Hay ness fine'; ' hay ness dirty.' Ah was wokent up 
be a hayness ruck-shin gaan forret ower me heid, SARGISSON 
Joe Scoap (1881) 200. 

[The same word as lit. E. heinous.] 

HAY-NET, sb. Nhp. e.An. Ken. [e'-net] A net for 
catching animals, esp. rabbits. 

Nhp. 1 , e.An. 1 Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 294, ed. 1849 ; Suf. 1 
A long low net . . . placed upward by stakes along hedges ... to 
prevent the transit of rabbits from side to side, when hunted by 
dogs. e.Suf. (F.H.) Ken. 1 A long net, often an old fish net, used 
in cover shooting to keep the birds and flick from running out of 
the beat. 

[Haye a net for connes, bourcettes a chasser, PALSGR. 
(1530) ; Haye, net to catche conys wythe, Prompt.} 

HAYNISH, see Hainish, adj. 2 

HAY-REE, int. nw.Der. 1 Go on ! a carter's ad- 
dress to his horses. 

[Cp. Fr. (Bearnais) harri .' interjection pour exciter les 
betes, en avant ! (Catalan. Arri .' am'/) (LESPY). OFr. 
harry! RABELAIS Garg. i. 12.] 

HAYRIFF, HAYRISH, see Hairif, Arrish. 

HAYS, sb. pi. Obs. Sc. Also Cor. Also written 
hayes Kcb. Cor. ; heys Sc. The steps of a round country 

Sc. The beautiful time-piece . . . which . . . turns out, when it 
strikes the hour, a whole band of morrice-dancers to trip the hays 
to the measure, SCOTT Nigel (1822) xix; I have some part of the 
silver candlesticks still dancing the heys in my purse, ib. Leg. 
Man/rose (1818) viii. Kcb. Dance round the hayes like pipers at 
a wake, DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) ii. Cor. Mr. Noall's and other 
houses dancing hayes i 155. 6d., St. Ives Borough Accts. (1714). 

[He taught them rounds and winding heys to tread, 
DAVIES Orchestra (1596) (NARES). Fr. haye d 'allemaigne, 
the name of a dance in Marot; see LA CURNE.] 

HAY-SCALED, adj. Yks. [Not known to our corre- 
spondents.] Hare-lipped. (HALL.) Cf. hare, sb. 1 1 (12). 

HAYSING, vbl. sb. Cor. Also in form haizing. [e'zin.] 
Following hares by night. 

In many instances it would mean the same as poaching, if the 
latter word is divested of the idea of crime, N. & Q. (1854) ist S. 
x. 318; Car. 12 

HAYSTERS, n.Yks. 2 Haymakers. 

HAYSUCK, sb. Wor. Glo. Som. Dev. Also in forms 
aizac se.Wor. 1 ; hay-sucker Som. Dev. ; hayzick Glo. 1 ; 
hazeck, hazock, Isaac Wor. [e'-, es'-sak.] 1. The 
hedge-sparrow, Accentor modularis. Cf. aichee. 

Wor. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 29. se.Wor. 1 A small bird which 
builds its nest in the grass on the banks of hedges. Glo. Horae 
Subsecivae (1777) 207; Glo. 12 
2. The whitethroat, Sylvia cinerea. 

Wor. SWAINSON ib. 23. Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). Dev. SWAIN- 
SON ib. 23. 

[1. Thou mordrer of the heysugge (v. r. heysoke) on the 
braunche, CHAUCER Parl. Foules, 612. OE. hegesugge 

HAYTY, v. War. Som. Cor. To move up and down ; 
to flicker about. Som. (W.F.R.) Cf. height, 8. Hence 
Hayty-tayty,s6.asee-saw. War.M.R.W.) Som.(M.A.R.); 
W. & J. Gl. (1873). Cor. 1 


HAYWARD, sb. Chs. Lin. Won Glo. Oxf. Bdf. Sus. 
Hmp. Dor. Som. Amer. Also in forms hayud se.Wor. 1 ; 
howard Bdf. Hmp. 1 [e'wad.] A manorial officer whose 
duty it is to see that fences are kept in repair, to look 
after the stock, and to impound stray cattle. 

Chs. 1 The election of hayward takes place annually at the Court 
Leet of the township of Shocklach, Chs. Courant (June 27, 1883). 
Lin. At Wintringham, Lord Carrington has a man employed whose 
only business is to be constantly walkingover every part of the estate 
in succession in order to see if the fences are in order ; if a post 
or rail is wanted and the quick exposed, he gives notice to the 
farmer, and attends again to see if the neglect is remedied, 
MARSHALL Review (1811) III. 119. n.Lin. 1 Wor. So well had 
the stock been looked after by the hayward that not a single case 
of pounding had occurred. . . That [repairs of fencing] being work 
which the hayward could do when there was no stock on the hills 
to look after, Evesham Jrn. (Oct. 17, 1896). s.Wor. 1 , se.Wor. 1 , 
Glo. (A.B.), Glo. 12 Oxf. From 1810 to 1852, the time of the 
Cowley Inclosure, he had frequently tended the cattle as hayward 
in these grazings, Oxf. Chron. (Apr. 8, 1892) 23 ; N. & Q. (1866) 
3rd S. x. 74. Bdf. ib. 29. Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 Dor. He sometimes ' drives 
the common ' ; i.e. drives all the stock in it into a corner, and 




pounds such as is not owned by those who have a right of common, 
BARNES Gl. (1863) ; Dor. 1 When the hayward come wi' all his 
men To dreve the common, 258. Som. So long as I be the hay- 
ward, RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life (1894) 109. w.Som. 1 [Amer. 
A township officer, whose duty it is to impound stray cattle 

[Canstow . . . haue an home and be hay warde, and liggen 
oute a nyghtes, And kepe my corn in my croft fro pykers 
and theeves? P. Plowman (c.) vi. 16. Hay, sb.* + ward.] 

HAYZE, HAYZICK, see Haze, v. 3 , Heaze, Haysuck. 

HAZARD, sb. and v. Sc. Irel. Yks. Also in form 
haizart Sc. 1. sb. A cab-stand. 

Dub. Used occas. on Police Regulations (A.L. M.) ; Well in use 
in Dublin: 'Where is Jack?' 'He is in the hazard' (P.W.J.) ; 
What about providing a hazard at each arrival platform ? . . . the 
public would then know it was beyond the power of a ... cabman 
to refuse the first call, Freeman's Jm. (Dec. 5, 1884). 

2. pi. In phr. (i) to gan upon the hazards on a thing, (2) 
to run hazards, to run the risk. 

(i) n.Yka. 2 I shall hae te gan upon t'hazards on't. (2) n.Yks. 
Ah'll run hazzuts (I.W.). 

3. v. Obs. To venture to do something; to venture 
a conjecture. 

Sc. There is not a Scot's-man, but he'll haizart For to defend 
his countreyes right, MAIDMENT Pasquils (1868) 137; Give him 
a cuff, I'll hazard he'll be as ill as I am called, Sc. Presby. Eloq. 
(ed. 1847) 117. 

HAZARDABLE, adj. Yks. Suf. Also in form huzzu- 
dable Suf. Hazardous, risky, uncertain. 

e.Yks. (J.H.) Suf. Clover, for instance, is said to be ' a wonderful 
huzzudable crop,' (C.T.). e.Suf. Very common (F.H.). 

[(It) were an hazardable peece of art, T. BROWNE 
Hydriot (1658), in Wks., ed. Wilkin, III. 27.] 

HAZARDOUS, adj. Rut. Sur. [ae'zadas.] Depen- 
dent on chance, risky, uncertain. 

Rnt. 1 Pears is a hazardous thing, unless you gets 'em joost at 
the time. Sur. 1 A very hazardous crop. 

HAZE, v. 1 n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Lin. Wor. Suf. Also 
written base w.Yks. [h)ez.j 1. To drizzle ; to be foggy. 
N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy. 2 It hazes, it misles or rains small rain. Nhb. 1 
w.Yks. SCATCHERD Hist. Morley (1830) GL, ed. 1874; w.Yks. 1 
Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 236. n.Lin. 1 It haazed 
aboot five o'clock, bud noa waiter cum'd to mean noht. A man e' 
his she't sleeves wo'd n't hev gotten weet. 

Hence Hazy, adj. drizzling. ne.Lan. 1 , Wor. (J.R.W.) 
2. To cover with hoar-frost. 
e.Snf. The windows are all hazed up (F.H.X 
Hence (i) Hazer, (2) Haze-frost, sb. hoar-frost, ib. 
HAZE, v? n.Cy. Yks. Lin. Also written base n.Cy. 
(HALL.) [h;ez.] 1. To beat, thrash. 

n.Cy. (HALL.) e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 26; e.Yks.', 

m.Yks. 1 Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 236. n.Lin. 

He's been hazing my lad shameful, A', (f Q. (1889) 7th S. viii. 

256 ; n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 Haze hi,m well ; gie him a reietgood hiding. 

Hence Hazing, sb. a thrashing. 

e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 26; e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) 
Lin. STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 236. n.Lin. 1 
2. To scold. m.Yks. 1 Cf. hazen. 

Hence Hazy, sb. a scolding ; a quarrel ; abusive lan- 
guage. n.Yks. 12 

[2. To haze one, perterrefacio, COLES (1679). OFr. 
haser, ' irriter, piquer, facher, insulter ' (GODEFROI).] 

HAZE, v? Lin. Also written hayze Lin. 1 [ez.] To 
bail water ; also used Jig. 

Hazing the food into the mouth, i.e. eating greedily and raven- 
ously, STREATFEILD Lin. and Danes (1884) 336 ; Lin. 1 , n.Lin. 1 

HAZE, v.* Sc. Lin. e.An. Hmp. [h)ez.] To dry by 
exposure to the air, to half-dry, to dry on the surface. 

Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) ; To half-dry clothes in the open air (JAM.X 
Lin. MILLER & SKERTCHLY Fenland (1878) iv. e.An. 1 Anything 
is said to be hazed, as rows of corn or hay, when a brisk breeze 
follows a shower. Nrf. Used of corn, when, under the influence 
of sunshine or a breeze, it is drying after a shower of rain, COZENS- 
HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 12; MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863); 'Ar 
the linen dry ? ' ' No, but they are good tid'ly hazed ' (W.W.S.). 
Snf. Land after ploughing is left to haze befqre being harrowed, 
RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 299, ed. 1849; Suf - 1 Til1 't ave hazed a 
little. e.Suf. (F.H.) Hmp.i The corn be'ant hazed enough. 

[Cp. Norw. dial, hesja, frames on which hay or corn 
is put for drying (AASEN) ; Icel. dial, hisjuner, a soft air 
good for drying hay spread out on hesjar (VIGFUSSON).] 

HAZE, HAZECK, see Hay, sb.\ Heaze, Haysuck. 

HAZE-BAZE, sb. Dur. A fool, 'ninny,' a stupid person. 

Hoo he mi'ad a haze-baze o' ma. I, thoo may ca' ma green 
en silly ; b'd . . . Ah wez miad a bigger haze-baze on when thoo 
wedded ma, EGGLESTONE Betty Podkin's Visit (1877) 8. 

HAZE-GAZE, sb. n.Cy. Nhb. Yks. A show in the sense 
of an exhibition of oneself ; a wonder. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. [I] thought at their shippin aw'd myek a haze- 
gaze, MIDFORD Coll. Sngs. (1818) 68; Nhb. 1 A country cousin 
makes a ' haze-gaze' by staring about in the street. Yks. (HALL.) 

HAZEL, sb. 1 and v. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. 
Der. Lin. Nhp. Bck. Ess. Also written hazle n.Cy. n.Yks. 4 
nw.Der. 1 ; and in forms hasle w.Yks. 1 ; hazzel nw.Der. 1 
n.Lin. 1 ; heusel Ess. ; hezal n.Lan. 1 ; bezel w.Yks. 5 ; 
hezzel Cum. 1 n.Lan. sw.Lin. 1 ; hezzle Nhb. 1 n.Yks. 24 
e.Yks. 1 w.YksJ* ne.Lan. 1 ; hizzel Cum. 4 ; hizzle Der." 
nw.Der. 1 [h)e'zl, h)a - zl, h)e'zl.] 1. sb. In contp. (i) 
Hazel-broth, a flogging with a hazel stick ; (2) -crottles, 
the lungwort, Sticta pnlmonaria ; (3) oil, see (i) ; (4) 
rag, (5) -raw, see (2) ; (6) -rise, a small hazel stick ; (7) 
scowb, a hazel wand used in making traps for crabs ; 
(8) -shaw, an abrupt, flat piece of ground at the bottom 
of a hill, covered with hazels ; (9) -twizzle, a cluster of 
nuts grown together; (10) -wan, a shoot of hazel. 

(i) w.Yks. 3 (2) n.Ir. (B. & H.) (3) Sc. (JAM.) ; I'll present 
ye with a bottle o' hazel oil, if ye ken what that is, BLACK 
Daughter of Heth (1871) xvi. Nhb. Aa think some hezzle-oil '11 
de ye good, me young man (R.O.H^ ; Nhb. 1 , w.Yks. 1 , n.Lan. 1 , 
ne.Lan. 1 Nhp. 1 One of the common jokes, formerly prevailing on 
the first of April, was sending an inexperienced lad to a chymist 
for ' a penn'orth of hazel-oil.' (4) n.Ir. (B. & H.) (5) Sc. (JAM.) 
(6} n.Cy. (K.) (7") Nhb. 1 A strong hazel wand of some three or 
four years' growth for the purpose of making ' crab-crceves ' 
(traps for crabs). A 'creeve' has a lattice woodwork bottom, 
and into holes burnt along the sides the scowbs arc inserted, and 
bent over, arch-fashion, and then covered with a net. (8; Tev. 
(JAM.) (9 Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 (10) Nhb. 1 

2. Phr. (i) oil of hazel, a thrashing; (2) to give some 
hasel, to give a beating. 

(i) n.Lan. Oil o' hezzel's stuff to cure that complcnt, R. PIKETAH 
Fonicss Flk. (1870) 33. (a) n.Lin. 1 

3. v. To beat as with a hazel stick. 

Nhb. Aa'll hezzle ye (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 Cum. 14 I'll hezzel thec. 
n.Yks. Off Ah went, te hezzle 'em all out, TWEDDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (18751 4 8 ; n.Yks. 14 , ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. 
(.1889) 26; e.Yks. 1 Ah'll hezzle thi hide fo' tha. m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 5 . 
ne.Lan. 1 . nw.Der.'. nw.Lin. (B. & H.) Ess. I'll heusel your oad 
hide for you (W.W.S.). 

Hence Hazeling, sb. a beating, flogging. 

n.Yks. 124 , ne.Yks. 1 , e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. GRAINGE Nidder- 
dale (1863) 226; w.Yks. 5 To beat with a stick, not necessarily a 
' hazel' one. 'Tha'd du wi' a good hezeling, ah see thah wod ; 
thah's bin hinging on for't await' raornin' ! ' ne.Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 

HAZEL, sb. 2 and adj. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum.Wm.Yks. 
Lin. Nhp. Ess. Also written hazle Nhb. 1 Dur. Ess. 1 ; and in 
forms hezel w.Yks. 2 ; hezle Wm. ; hezzel Cum. 1 sw.Lin. 1 
[h)e - zl, h)a - zl, h)e'zl.] 1. sb. A hard sort of sandstone. 

Nhb. 1 Gen. of a kind too hard to work freely under the chisel, 
or a tough mixture of sandstone and shale in a pit. 'The sand- 
stones denominated hazles have a high crystalline and metamor- 
phic appearance,' HOWSE Nat. Hist. Trans. (1890) X. 275. Nhb., 
Dur. Underneath the hazle we find another slate bed, FORSTER 
Strata (1821) 97 ; Alternating beds of hazle and whetstone, Borings 
(1881) II. 12. Cum. HUTCHINSON Hist. Cum. (1794) I. App. 48. 

2. adj. Of soil: stiff, clayey, loamy; gen. in contp. 
Hazel-earth or -mould. 

Dnr. The soil is generally loamy, or what is called hazel mould, 
YOUNG Annals Agric. (1784-1815) V. 361. Nhp. 1 Hazel-earth, or 
hazel-mould, a loamy soil, which has a large portion of a rosin-like 
sand in it. In some places it is pretty full of small stones of the 
gravel kind. Ess. Gl. (1851) ; Ess. 1 

Hence Hazely, adj. loamy. 

Ess. 1 Hazely brick earth, a kind of loam. 

3. Of soil : light, friable, easily worked. Also in contp. 


[ I0 3l 


Cum. 1 Hezzel mowd, the fine powdery soil found about the 
roots of the hazel. Sick cattle are fond of this soil when recovering. 
Wra. (B.K.) w.Yks. 2 People speak of 'nice hazel land.' sw.Lin. 1 
' It's sort of hezzel land,' applied to land neither stiff nor light, from 
its usual colour. 

Hence Hazelly, adj. of soil : poor, light, loose. 

Buff. Hazely ground being naturally loose and light will not 
admit of clear ploughing twice for one crop. . . Our own soil is ... 
most part hazely and made up of sand and light earth, Agric. Surv. 
App. 37, 38 (JAM.X N.I. 1 Light hazelly land. 

HAZEL, sb. 3 Dev. Also written hazle Dev.* A 
haw, the fruit of the hawthorn, Crataegus Oxyacantha. 
(B. & H.), Dev. 4 

HAZEL, see Hessle. 

HAZEN, v. Glo. Wil. Also written hazon Wil. ; and 
in form hawzen Glo. 1 [e'zan.] To scold, to speak 
sharply; withal: to speak impudently to. Cf. haze, v. 2 2. 

Glo. 1 Doant thee 'awzen at I, or else I'll gi' thee the strap ; 
Glo. 2 To check a dog by the voice. Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825); 
Wil. 1 Now dwoan't 'ee hazon the child for't. n.Wil. What d'ye 
kip hazoning I far? (E.H.G.) 

[In older E. hazen meant to scare, terrify. Night . . . 
sent . . . fantasie for to hazan idle heads, Hist. Evordanns 
(1605) (N.E.D.).] 

HAZEN, see Halsen. 

HAZLE, v. Sc. Yks. Der. Not. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. 
Oxf. Bck. Bdf. Hit. Hnt. e.An. Also written haisle Ayr. 
QAM. Suppl.) ; hazel Hrt. Ess. ; and in forms aisle Abd. 
Ayr. (JAM. Suppl.) ; asol, assol Ayr. (JAM. Suppl.) ; azle 
War. 3 ; azzle Lei. 1 ; hazzle w.Yks. 2 s.Der. Lin. Lei. 1 
Nhp. 12 ; hezzle Not. 3 [h)e'zl, h)a'zl.] To dry, mellow, 
season in the sun ; to dry on the surface. Cf. haiser, 
haze, v* 

Abd. (G.W.), Ayr. JAM. Suppl.} w.Yks. 2 After the first har- 
rowing of a field of newly-sown corn it is better, if the ground is 
damp, to let the sun hazzle the surface of the land before the 
second harrowing. Lei. 1 If the clothes don't dry much, they'll 
hazzle. Oxf., Bck., Bdf. (J.W.B.) Hnt. The surface of the earth 
is said to hazle, when it gets dry soon after being dug (T.P.F.). 
e.An. 1 e.Suf. I shall let this pitle hazle before I plant it (F.H.). 
Ess. Thou, who by that happy wind of Thine didst hazle and dry 
up the forlorn dregs and slime of Noah's deluge, ROGERS Naaman 
(1642) 886; I hung the linen out, and it nicely hazellcd (S.P.H.). 

Hence (i) Hazel, adj. half-dry; (2) Hazle, sb. (a) 
drying by the sun ; the first process of drying linen ; (b) 
the dried appearance presented by the skin before it 
chaps ; (3) Hazled, ppl. adj. (a) half-dried ; (b) rough, 
chapped like the skin in frosty weather ; alsoy?-. crabbed, 
sour, churlish ; (4) Hazling, ppl. adj. drying. 

(i) Hrt. Hazel hay (H.G.). (2, ) Ayr. The claes Ml be getting 
a fine aisle the day. Run noo. an' set the claes to the asol QAM. 
Snp/>/.\ Ess. (W.W.S.) (l>) Nhp. 2 (3, a) s.Der. (Miss P.) 
Not. 3 ' Are the clothes (before the fire) dry now ?' ' No, but they 
are nicely "hezzled."' Lin. ' V M.D.H.) Hrt. That land is just nice 
hazelled for sowing (H.G.\ e.Suf. (F.H.) Ess. ' Have you all 
your linen dry?' 'No, but it is hazeiled ' (M.I.J.C.). (b) Lei. 1 , 
Nhp. 1 War. 3 Now your hands are hazled. The child's skin is 
quite hazled. (4) Ayr. It's a gran' aislin day : see an put out a' 
the asolin' things first (JAM. Suppl.}. 

HAZLEY, adj. Sc. Also written haslie ; and in form 
hazelly Ayr. Clothed or covered with hazels. 

Sc. Frae out the haslie holt the deer Sprang glancing thro" the 
schaw, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) I. 197. Ayr. Thy burnie... 
trots by hazelly shaws and braes, BURNS On Pastoral Poetry, St. 
8. Gall. Awa on the hazley brae, MACTAGCART Encycl. (1824) 257, 
ed. 1876. 

HAZOCK, see Haysuck. 

HAZY, adj. Sc. Also written haizie ; hazzie Rxb. 
(JAM.) 1. Dim, not seeing distinctly. 

Gall. Whan I grow auld wi' blinkers hazy, 
(1824) 353, ed. 1876. 


2. Muddled ; crazy, weak in understanding. 
Lth. (JAM.) Feb. Ye're doitit, dais'd, an' haizie : Oh how drink 
degrades the man! AFFLECK Poet. Wks. (1836) 132. Rxb. (JAM.) 
Hence Hazie, sb. a stupid, thick-headed person. Rxb. 


HAZY-GAZY, sb. Lin. Also in form asey-casey. A 

Es aw sat . . . lukking oot i' mi hazy-gazy, Aw sah a rueri run 
away. Es aw looked out i' my asey-casey, Lin. N. & Q. XI. 22. 

HAZZICK, see Hassock. 

HAZZLED, adj. Yks. Also written hazled n.Yks. 14 
[a - zld.] Speckled red and white. 

n.Yks. Hazzled coo, a roan-coloured cow (T.S.) ; n.Yks. 1 
Speckled red and white, or rather with the hairs of these colours 
intermixed, so that it is hard to say in some cases which pre- 
dominates. According to the preponderance of red or white the 
beast is ' dark-hazled ' or ' light-hazled ' ; n.Yks. 4 , ne.Yks. 1 

HAZZY-TREE, sb. Bck. Also written azzy-tree 
s.Bck. The hawthorn, Crataegus Oxyacantha. (B. H.) 

HE, pers. pron. and sb. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. 
and Amer. [Emph. h)i ; unemph. h)i, 3. In the midl. 
and s. counties the unemph. form is gen. a for all positions 
in the sentence ; but in the n. counties 3 is gen. only used 
in interrogative and subordinate sentences, and i in 
affirmative sentences. See WRIGHT Grant. Wndhll. (1892) 
116-21.] I. Dial, forms: (i) A, (2) Ai, (3) Aw, (4) E, 
(5) Ee, (6) Ei, (7) Ey, (8) 3, (9) Ha, (10) He, (n)_ Hea, (12) 
Hee, (13) Hei, (14) Hey, (15) HI, (16) Hi, (17) I, (i8)I, (19) 
Hu, (20) U. [For further instances see II. below.] 

(i) w.Yks. 1 Lin. 'A said, TENNYSON N. Farmer, Old Style 
(1864)51.7. Nhp. 12 War. 2 ; War. 3 A sez to me, sez a. m.Wor. 
(H.K.) w.Wor. 1 W'ahr bin a? Shr. 12 Hrf. A dunna not lose 
not no toime, a don't, N. & Q. (1874) 5 tn S. ii. 197. Brks. 1 6. 
Suf. 1 , I.W. 12 Wil. 1 How a hackers an bivers, 124. w.Som. 1 
Cor. A wudn't a gived in ef a 'adn't lost a lemb, Longman's Mag. 
(Feb. 1893) 388. [For further instances see A, V. 1.] (2) 
w.Som. Full ai', unemph. ai, ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 33. (3) 
Cor. ' Allow me,' says maestur, an" aw fooched out hes arm, 
FORFAR Jan's Crtshp. (1859) xx ; Aw fetched that boy a clout, 
THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) 4. (4") Frf. In interrogatives the 
'h' practically disappears (J.B.). w.Frf, e.Per. Unemph. 6 kent 
fein, bat 6 widna tel. This 6 is the short form of a close e 
(W.A.C.). e.Yks. Unemph. (R.S.) m.Wor. (H.K.) w.Wor. 1 'E 
'anna, Pref. 26. Shr. 1 Gram. Outlines, 47. (5) e.Yks. Emph. 
(R.S.) s.Chs. 1 66. Shr. 1 Emph., Gram. Outlines, 47. Sur. 
What ah 'ee sent they hops over there fur ? BICKLEY Sur. Hills 
(1890) I. i. Snf. (F.A.A.) w.Som. Full ee- [ = 1]; unemph. ee 
[ = i]; unconnected ee-, ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 33. e.Dev. Th' 
day ee was morried, PULMAN Sng. Sol. (1860) iii. n. (6) m